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Intermetallic Compounds and Applications in Solder Joints, Photovoltaic Modules and Electronics Packaging

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Electronic Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 November 2023) | Viewed by 4416

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Tainan 701, Taiwan
Interests: metals; material analysis; secondary ion batteries; photovoltaic ribbon
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Institute of Microelectronics & Department of Electronic Engineering, Department of Photonics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City 70101, Taiwan
Interests: oxide thin-film transistors; advanced memory; biosensors; phototransistors; thin films; optical sensors; wide bandgap semiconductor; low-dimensional semiconductors; semiconductor devices; high-k dielectric materials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In response to COVID-19, people’s lifestyles have been rapidly transformed from physical mode to remote mode, which has created a great demand for high-performance microelectronic devices. The related advanced packaging technology is widely used in the production of high-performance chips. However, the packaging process still faces many challenges, such as solder jointing, heat dissipation and reliability.

Solder is currently the most mainstream material for joints. The miniaturization of solder makes it easier to form intermetallic compounds (IMCs), necking and holes during reflow process, resulting in a deterioration in the yield, conductivity and reliability of joints.

Silicon solar cells are usually connected in series with photovoltaic ribbon. The interfacial reaction plays a very important role in the reliability of solar cell modules under the influences of dynamic current and static heat. The interfacial reaction of various solar materials and the evolution of the reliability of solar cell modules are extremely important basic research for academic and industry.

Therefore, it is my pleasure to invite you to submit a manuscript focusing on intermetallic compounds in the following subjects:

  • The relationship between new solder materials and interfacial reaction.
  • Growth mechanism of intermetallic compounds in related optoelectronic devices.
  • The influences of intermetallic compounds on the reliability and performance of optoelectronic devices.

Dr. Kuan-Jen Chen
Dr. Sheng-Po Chang
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • solder alloys
  • intermetallic compounds
  • photovoltaic ribbon
  • electromigration
  • thermal diffusion
  • solar cell modules
  • electronics packaging
  • bonding reliability
  • series resistance
  • internal stress

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

11 pages, 6617 KiB  
Article
Jet-Printable, Low-Melting-Temperature Ga–xSn Eutectic Composites: Application in All-Solid-State Batteries
by Kuan-Jen Chen, Fei-Yi Hung and Hsien-Ching Liao
Materials 2024, 17(5), 995; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17050995 - 21 Feb 2024
Viewed by 708
Abstract
Low-melting-point Ga–xSn eutectic composites and natural silicate mineral powders were used as the electrode and solid-state electrolyte, respectively, in all-solid-state batteries for green energy storage systems. The influences of the Sn content in the Ga–xSn composite electrode on the electrochemical performance of the [...] Read more.
Low-melting-point Ga–xSn eutectic composites and natural silicate mineral powders were used as the electrode and solid-state electrolyte, respectively, in all-solid-state batteries for green energy storage systems. The influences of the Sn content in the Ga–xSn composite electrode on the electrochemical performance of the batteries were evaluated, and liquid composites with a Sn concentration of up to 30 wt.% demonstrated suitability for electrode fabrication through dip coating. Sodium-enriched silicate was synthesized to serve as the solid-state electrolyte membrane because of the abundance of water molecules in its interlayer structure, enabling ion exchange. The battery capacity increased with the Sn content of the Ga–xSn anode. The formation of intermetallic compounds and oxides (CuGa2, Ga2O3, Cu6Sn5, and SnO2) resulted in a high charge–discharge capacity and stability. The Ga–Sn composite electrode for all-solid-state batteries exhibits a satisfiable capacity and stability and shows potential for jet-printed electrode applications. Full article
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20 pages, 12495 KiB  
Article
Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the Cu3Sn/Cu Interfacial Diffusion Mechanism under Electrothermal Coupling
by Zhiwei He, Xin Lan, Lezhou Li and Yong Cheng
Materials 2023, 16(24), 7507; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16247507 - 5 Dec 2023
Viewed by 892
Abstract
With the increasing power density of electronic devices, solder joints are prone to electromigration under high currents, which results in a significant threat to reliability. In this study, the molecular dynamics method is used to study the diffusion mechanism of the Cu3 [...] Read more.
With the increasing power density of electronic devices, solder joints are prone to electromigration under high currents, which results in a significant threat to reliability. In this study, the molecular dynamics method is used to study the diffusion mechanism of the Cu3Sn/Cu interface under the action of electrothermal coupling. The results show that the diffusion activation energy decreases with an increase in electric field intensity, accelerating the diffusion of the Cu3Sn/Cu interface. Furthermore, it is noted that the abrupt change in the vacancy–time curve lags behind that of the mean square displacement curve, which depicts that the responses of the vacancies are driven by the electric field. The vacancy-responsive diffusion mechanism of the Cu3Sn/Cu interface is proposed. The atoms around the interface in the electric field get rid of the shackles of the neighboring atoms easily. The vacancy concentration increases as the atoms leave the equilibrium position, which accelerates the movement of vacancies and enhances the diffusion of the Cu3Sn/Cu interface. Full article
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19 pages, 6018 KiB  
Article
Influence of Lamination Conditions of EVA Encapsulation on Photovoltaic Module Durability
by Dan Wu, Patrick Wessel, Jiang Zhu, Daniel Montiel-Chicharro, Thomas R. Betts, Anton Mordvinkin and Ralph Gottschalg
Materials 2023, 16(21), 6945; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16216945 - 29 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1558
Abstract
Encapsulation is a well-known impact factor on the durability of Photovoltaics (PV) modules. Currently there is a lack of understanding on the relationship between lamination process and module durability. In this paper, the effects of different lamination parameters on the encapsulant stability due [...] Read more.
Encapsulation is a well-known impact factor on the durability of Photovoltaics (PV) modules. Currently there is a lack of understanding on the relationship between lamination process and module durability. In this paper, the effects of different lamination parameters on the encapsulant stability due to stress testing have been investigated from both on-site production quality and long-term stability viewpoints. Rather than focusing on single stability factors, this paper evaluates lamination stability using a number of indicators including EVA (ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer) curing level, voids generation, chemical stability, optical stability, and adhesion strength. The influences of EVA curing level on the stability of other properties are also discussed. It is shown that laminates stability increases with increasing curing level to an upper limit, beyond which leading to the formation of voids, reduced transmittance stability, discoloration, and unstable interfaces. A minimum gel content is identified but an upper limit should not be surpassed. The best range of gel content for the materials tested here is 84–90%. Samples with gel content below 70% show low chemical and optical stability, weak adhesion strength, and EVA flowing. Laminates with gel content over 92% are more likely to become yellow and are less stable in adhesion. Full article
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20 pages, 5588 KiB  
Article
Analysis of an Ultra-Wideband, Perfectly Absorptive Fractal Absorber with a Central Square Nanopillar in a Cylindrical Structure with a Square Hollow
by Shang-Te Tsai, Jo-Ling Huang, Pei-Xiu Ke, Cheng-Fu Yang and Hung-Cheng Chen
Materials 2023, 16(21), 6898; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16216898 - 27 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 770
Abstract
In this study, a fractal absorber was designed to enhance light absorptivity and improve the efficiency of converting solar energy into electricity for a range of solar energy technologies. The absorber consisted of multiple layers arranged from bottom to top, and the bottom [...] Read more.
In this study, a fractal absorber was designed to enhance light absorptivity and improve the efficiency of converting solar energy into electricity for a range of solar energy technologies. The absorber consisted of multiple layers arranged from bottom to top, and the bottom layer was made of Ti metal, followed by a thin layer of MgF2 atop it. Above the two layers, a structure comprising square pillars formed by three layers of Ti/MgF2/Ti was formed. This pillar was encompassed by a square hollow with cylindrical structures made of Ti material on the exterior. The software utilized for this study was COMSOL Multiphysics® (version 6.0). This study contains an absorption spectrum analysis of the various components of the designed absorber system, confirming the notion that achieving ultra-wideband and perfect absorption resulted from the combination of the various components. A comprehensive analysis was also conducted on the width of the central square pillar, and the analysis results demonstrate the presence of several remarkable optical phenomena within the investigated structure, including propagating surface plasmon resonance, localized surface plasmon resonance, Fabry–Perot cavity resonance, and symmetric coupling plasma modes. The optimal model determined through this software demonstrated that broadband absorption in the range of 276 to 2668 nm, which was in the range of UV-B to near-infrared, exceeded 90.0%. The average absorption rate in the range of 276~2668 nm reached 0.965, with the highest achieving a perfect absorptivity of 99.9%. A comparison between absorption with and without outer cylindrical structures revealed that the resonance effects significantly enhanced absorption efficiency, as evidenced by a comparison of electric field distributions. Full article
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