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Structural Strength, Corrosion and Failure Analysis of Pressure Vessel and Pipeline System

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Corrosion".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 May 2023) | Viewed by 15023

Special Issue Editors

Institute of Process Equipment, College of Energy Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
Interests: heat transfer; flow control; hydraulics; computational fluid dynamics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
School of Mechanical Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018, China
Interests: structural integrity assessment; corroded pipeline; submarine pipeline; residual strength; burst pressure
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Pipelines, which are regarded as blood vessels in the industrial field, are widely used to transport oil and natural gas, ammonia, alcohol fuels, coal and ore, hydrogen, water, carbon dioxide, etc. By far, pipelines are the most efficient and economical way to transport fluid media.  

However, due to the complex and hazardous transport environment, fracture, distortion, leakage, corrosion, etc., can easily occur in pipelines. Corrosion is one of the main causes of pipeline failure and has always been a bottleneck problem affecting the structural strength and failure analysis of pipelines.  

As mentioned above, failure of pipelines threatens people’s lives and property. Therefore, research on the structural integrity and failure mechanism of pipelines, especially of corroded ones, is a vital task to meet the design requirements of safer ones. 

For this Special Issue, we would like to welcome original research manuscripts as well as methodological and review articles on the structural strength and failure analysis of corroded pipelines. Contributions on the following topics will therefore be welcome:

  • Structural integrity assessment;
  • Straight and elbow pipes, and special pipelines;
  • Pipeline safety under extreme loads;
  • Failure of pipelines under complex loads;
  • Pipeline burst and buckling;
  • Pipeline vibration;
  • Pipeline connection;
  • Pipeline leaks;
  • Fatigue and fracture;
  • Life prediction;
  • Pipeline measurement and inspection;
  • Design and analysis;
  • Safety and reliability;
  • Finite and boundary element methods;
  • Fluid–structure interaction;
  • High temperature, high pressure.

This list is not restrictive, and studies on related topics are also welcome.

Prof. Dr. Zhijiang Jin
Dr. Zhanfeng Chen
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • pipeline integrity assessment
  • extreme load
  • failure pressure
  • corrosion defects
  • residual strength
  • buckling
  • reliability
  • high temperature high pressure

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

30 pages, 10106 KiB  
Article
Perspectives on Corrosion Inhibition Features of Novel Synthesized Gemini-Fluorinated Cationic Surfactants Bearing Varied Spacers for Acid Pickling of X60-Steel: Practical, and In Silico Calculations
Materials 2023, 16(14), 5192; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16145192 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 693
Abstract
Through our present study, three novel Gemini-fluorinated cationic surfactants bearing different spacers (FSG6-2, FSG6-4, and FSG6-6) were synthesized, and their structures were explained via different spectroscopic instruments such as 1H, 13C, and 19F NMR spectra. The surface activity of the [...] Read more.
Through our present study, three novel Gemini-fluorinated cationic surfactants bearing different spacers (FSG6-2, FSG6-4, and FSG6-6) were synthesized, and their structures were explained via different spectroscopic instruments such as 1H, 13C, and 19F NMR spectra. The surface activity of the as-prepared surfactants was examined. The inhibiting influence of FSG6 molecules on the X60 steel corrosion in the pickling solution (HCl) was examined by diverse methods comprising electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization (PDP), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) experimentations, and computational calculations. The inhibition effectiveness of FSG6 surfactants followed the order of 93.37% (FSG6-2) < 96.74% (FSG6-4) < 98.37% (FSG6-6) at 2.0 × 10−4 M. The FSG6 surfactants function as mixed-type inhibitors, according to PDP investigations. The H2O molecules that adsorbed on the steel interface were substituted with surfactant molecules, and the surfactant’s inhibitory activity is likely caused by the improvement in an adsorptive layer on the steel substrate, as specified by the EIS results. The Langmuir isotherm describes the absorption of FSG6 molecules on the metal surface. The XPS investigations validate the steel interface’s extremely protective nature. The mechanism of interaction between FSG6 molecules with an X60-steel employing the DFT calculations and MC simulations methods was also examined and discussed. Full article
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21 pages, 5246 KiB  
Article
Investigations on Fatigue Life of Tube Connections Based on International Codes of Pressure Vessel
Materials 2023, 16(1), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16010231 - 27 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1266
Abstract
The fatigue assessment of tube connections under cyclic pressure is discussed using four kinds of methods from ASME VIII-2 and EN 13445-3. FEA results are compared to the fatigue test, and some conclusions are obtained. Method 1 is the most widely used traditional [...] Read more.
The fatigue assessment of tube connections under cyclic pressure is discussed using four kinds of methods from ASME VIII-2 and EN 13445-3. FEA results are compared to the fatigue test, and some conclusions are obtained. Method 1 is the most widely used traditional method and can be used in both welded structures and unwelded structures. This method has simple operation, safety and reliability. Method 2 adopts the effective strain range to assess the fatigue for both the welded and the unwelded structure. This method is with high accuracy, good stability, safety and reliability, but the elastic–plastic analysis is very complicated. Method 3 adopts the equivalent structure stress to assess the fatigue of the welded, it is developed from fracture mechanics, and the procedure is also very complicated. Method 4 is a detailed assessment procedure for the welded and unwelded, and it is the most accurate, stable and reliable among the four methods. Full article
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21 pages, 5321 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation and Analytical Prediction of Residual Strength for Elbow Pipes with Erosion Defects
Materials 2022, 15(21), 7479; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15217479 - 25 Oct 2022
Viewed by 947
Abstract
It is well known that the safety and reliability of pipeline transportation are crucial. We are aiming at the problem that the residual life and residual strength of the defective elbow pipes are difficult to predict and usually need to be obtained through [...] Read more.
It is well known that the safety and reliability of pipeline transportation are crucial. We are aiming at the problem that the residual life and residual strength of the defective elbow pipes are difficult to predict and usually need to be obtained through experiments. Consequently, a combined method of numerical simulation technology combined with a genetic algorithm to optimize neural network extreme learning machine (GA-ELM) is proposed. Firstly, the erosion characteristics of elbow pipes with different defects under the conditions of different impurity particle flow rates, particle sizes, and mass flow rates are analyzed by numerical simulation. At the same time, the effects of erosion defects of different sizes on the equivalent stress and residual strength of elbow pipes are also studied. Based on numerical simulation data, the extreme learning machine prediction model optimized by a genetic algorithm is used to predict the erosion rate, residual life, and residual strength and compared with the traditional ELM network model. The results show that residual strength of the elbow pipes with the increase of the depth and length of the defect, and increases with the increase of the width of the defect; the GA-ELM model can not only effectively predict the erosion rate, residual life and residual strength of defective elbow pipes, moreover its prediction accuracy is better than the traditional ELM model. Full article
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15 pages, 6197 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation of Local Buckling of Submarine Pipelines under Combined Loading Conditions
Materials 2022, 15(18), 6387; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15186387 - 14 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1453
Abstract
Submarine pipelines are prone to developing flaws, such as ellipticity and depression during the manufacture, burying, and use processes. The local buckling characteristics of submarine pipelines with initial imperfection must be studied since the initial imperfection have an impact on local pipeline buckling. [...] Read more.
Submarine pipelines are prone to developing flaws, such as ellipticity and depression during the manufacture, burying, and use processes. The local buckling characteristics of submarine pipelines with initial imperfection must be studied since the initial imperfection have an impact on local pipeline buckling. In this study, the local buckling of submarine pipelines with varying depression depths and ellipticity is simulated using the finite element program ABAQUS, and defect sensitivity of submarine pipelines with varying shape ellipticity, varying depression depths, and varying pipe radius-thickness ratios is examined. Meanwhile, research is being conducted on the combined load buckling of a submarine pipeline with initial imperfection caused by bending, axial force, and external hydrostatic pressure. The results indicated that the critical external pressure of the pipeline is sensitive to the imperfection, although the buckling propagation pressure is not. The buckling morphology is influenced by the shape and size of the imperfection. Additionally, the ability to withstand external hydrostatic pressure of the pipeline reduces after it has been bent. Full article
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24 pages, 5327 KiB  
Article
Frost Heaving Damage Mechanism of a Buried Natural Gas Pipeline in a River and Creek Region
Materials 2022, 15(16), 5795; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15165795 - 22 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1629
Abstract
When the buried pipeline passes through the permafrost zone, the phenomenon of frost swelling occurs in the permafrost zone, which causes a certain degree of bending and deformation of the pipeline. As a result, the pipeline’s structural safety is compromised, and the pipeline [...] Read more.
When the buried pipeline passes through the permafrost zone, the phenomenon of frost swelling occurs in the permafrost zone, which causes a certain degree of bending and deformation of the pipeline. As a result, the pipeline’s structural safety is compromised, and the pipeline finally fails during operation, posing a serious hazard to the natural gas pipeline’s operation. Whereas the theoretical research on soil frost heave is relatively comprehensive, the applied research on engineering problems is not yet complete. Therefore, it is necessary to predict frost heaving through experiments and numerical simulation, and put forward reasonable control measures for existing or potential problems. For the problem of pipeline damage caused by frost swelling of soil in the natural gas high-pressure regulator station in a river and creek region, the Drucker–Prager elastic-ideal plastic model of soil was selected for finite element analysis, and a reasonable finite element model of pipe-soil was established in this paper. Through the temperature field analysis, it was found that the soil around the buried pipe is affected by the pipeline and is lower than its freezing temperature, which makes the soil freeze and swell. Furthermore, through the thermal–structural coupling analysis, it was found that the buried pipe is affected by the freezing and swelling of the soil and the structure is greatly likely to be damaged. In addition, by analyzing the temperature distribution and frost heave deformation of the soil around the pipeline, as well as the deformation and force of the pipeline at different pipe temperatures, this paper also determined the ideal temperature for preventing frost heave damage to natural gas at high-pressure regulator stations as −1 °C. Finally, based on the results of the abovementioned analysis, the heating method was determined to improve the frost damage phenomenon at the high-pressure regulator. The results of the anti-frost and swell study were used to conduct field trials at natural gas high-pressure regulator stations where frost and swell had occurred. By adding heating furnace to increase inlet temperature, frost heaving of gas transmission pipeline can be effectively prevented. The results of the research provide a reference for both existing and new natural gas pipelines, and also accumulate experience for winter maintenance design and construction of pipeline engineering in seasonally frozen soil areas. Full article
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20 pages, 10819 KiB  
Article
A Semi Empirical Regression Model for Critical Dent Depth of Externally Corroded X65 Gas Pipeline
Materials 2022, 15(16), 5492; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15165492 - 10 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1444
Abstract
External corrosion dent is a common type of compound dent. On the one hand, this type of compound dent reduces the bearing area and bearing capacity of the pipeline. On the other hand, it leads to an increase in the stress–strain concentration in [...] Read more.
External corrosion dent is a common type of compound dent. On the one hand, this type of compound dent reduces the bearing area and bearing capacity of the pipeline. On the other hand, it leads to an increase in the stress–strain concentration in the dent and reduces the anti-fatigue load capacity of the pipeline, which is more harmful to the service safety of the pipeline than the simple dent. In this study, the reliability of the modeling method was verified by the numerical inversion of the full-size dented pipe test. A three-dimensional finite element model for a pipe with a small corrosion dent was established by analyzing the internal detection data on corrosion defects of pipes with a diameter of 813 mm. The failure criterion of the corrosion dent pipe and the calculation method of the critical dent depth were determined. The influence of corrosion depth, length, width, internal pressure load, curvature radius of indenter, and diameter–thickness pipeline ratio on critical dent depth was investigated. Finally, a critical dent-depth prediction formula was developed based on the numerical results. This study provides a reference and significant guidance for the applicability evaluation of corroded sunken pipelines. Full article
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14 pages, 2113 KiB  
Article
An Innovative Failure Criterion for Metal Cylindrical Shells under Explosive Loads
Materials 2022, 15(13), 4376; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15134376 - 21 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1122
Abstract
Metal cylindrical shells are widely used to store and transport highly hazardous chemicals. The impact resistance of metal cylindrical shells under an explosive load is a concern for researchers. In this paper, an innovative failure criterion considering the time effect is proposed for [...] Read more.
Metal cylindrical shells are widely used to store and transport highly hazardous chemicals. The impact resistance of metal cylindrical shells under an explosive load is a concern for researchers. In this paper, an innovative failure criterion considering the time effect is proposed for metal cylindrical shells under explosive loads. Firstly, based on the maximum shear stress criterion, an innovative failure criterion containing the time effect is provided. Then, a metal cylindrical shell model is established. Next, a failure pressure equation for metal shells under an explosive load is proposed based on the innovative failure criterion. Lastly, the proposed equation is verified by numerical simulation. The results indicate the failure pressure equation for a metal cylindrical shell under an explosive load uses the finite element method. Our research is of significance for fully understanding the failure mechanism of piping and pressure vessels under impact load. Full article
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16 pages, 3657 KiB  
Article
Burst Pressure Prediction of Subsea Supercritical CO2 Pipelines
Materials 2022, 15(10), 3465; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15103465 - 11 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1550
Abstract
To improve transportation efficiency, a supercritical CO2 pipeline is the best choice for large-scale and long-distance transportation inshore and offshore. However, corrosion of the pipe wall will occur as a result of the presence of free water and other impurities present during [...] Read more.
To improve transportation efficiency, a supercritical CO2 pipeline is the best choice for large-scale and long-distance transportation inshore and offshore. However, corrosion of the pipe wall will occur as a result of the presence of free water and other impurities present during CO2 capture. Defects caused by corrosion can reduce pipe strength and result in pipe failure. In this paper, the burst pressure of subsea supercritical CO2 pipelines under high pressure is investigated. First, a mechanical model of corroded CO2 pipelines is established. Then, using the unified strength theory (UST), a new burst pressure equation for subsea supercritical CO2 pipelines is derived. Next, analysis of the material’s intermediate principal stress parameters is conducted. Lastly, the accuracy of the burst pressure equation of subsea supercritical CO2 pipelines is proven to meet the engineering requirement by experimental data. The results indicate that the parameter b of UST plays a significant role in determining burst pressure of pipelines. The study can provide a theoretical basis and reference for the design of subsea supercritical CO2 pipelines. Full article
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13 pages, 3668 KiB  
Article
Failure Analysis of a C-276 Alloy Pipe in a Controlled Decomposition Reactor
Materials 2022, 15(7), 2483; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15072483 - 28 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1573
Abstract
Failure analysis was carried out on a ruptured C-276 pipe heated externally at 1050 °C, which had been used for a few months in a controlled decomposition reactor (CDR) system. To catch the decomposed perfluorinated compounds (PFCs, e.g., CF4, SF6 [...] Read more.
Failure analysis was carried out on a ruptured C-276 pipe heated externally at 1050 °C, which had been used for a few months in a controlled decomposition reactor (CDR) system. To catch the decomposed perfluorinated compounds (PFCs, e.g., CF4, SF6, NF3, C3F8 and C4F8) present in the exhaust gas, the C-276 reactor was periodically purged with water mist, which caused a temperature gradient from the external to the inner surface of the pipe. The precipitation of large amounts of intermetallic compounds along the grain boundaries were found to be corroded preferentially. The internal surface of the used pipe was covered with many fine cracks. The corrosion and cracking of grain boundary precipitates accounted for the short service life of the C-276 pipe. Compositional measurements by electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) and phase identification by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) confirmed the presence of δ and μ phases in the ruptured pipe. The coarse intergranular precipitates were the δ phase (Mo7Ni7), which were enriched in Mo and Cr. Moreover, the fine precipitates dispersed intergranularly and intragranularly were the μ phase (Mo6Ni7), which were abundant in Mo and W. The numerous precipitates present in the matrix and along the grain boundaries were responsible for an obvious loss in the strength and ductility of the used C-276 pipe. Full article
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19 pages, 8672 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation of Damage Evolution and Electrode Deformation of X100 Pipeline Steel during Crevice Corrosion
Materials 2022, 15(6), 2329; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15062329 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1870
Abstract
In this paper, the spatial and temporal damage evolution was described during crevice corrosion through developing a two-dimensional (2-D) model. COMSOL code was used to simulate the crevice corrosion regulated by the I∙R voltage of nickel (Ni) metal in sulfuric acidic. The electrode [...] Read more.
In this paper, the spatial and temporal damage evolution was described during crevice corrosion through developing a two-dimensional (2-D) model. COMSOL code was used to simulate the crevice corrosion regulated by the I∙R voltage of nickel (Ni) metal in sulfuric acidic. The electrode deformation, potential and current curves, and other typical characteristics were predicted during crevice corrosion, where results were consistent with published experimental results. Then, based on the Ni model, the damage evolution of X100 crevice corrosion in CO2 solution was simulated, assuming uniform distribution of solution inside and outside the crevice. The results showed that over time, the surface damage of Ni electrode increased under a constant applied potential. As the gap increased, the critical point of corrosion (CPC) inside the crevice moved into a deeper location, and the corrosion damage area (CDA) gradually expanded, but the threshold value of corrosion damage remained almost unchanged. The CDA inside the crevice extended toward the opening and the tip of crevice. Since the potential drop in this region increases with increasing current, the passivation potential point moved towards the opening. As the gap increased and the electrolyte resistance decreased, the critical potential for reaching the maximum corrosion rate moved into a deeper location. It is significant for predicting the initial damage location and the occurrence time of surface damage of crevice corrosion through the 2-D model that is not available through the one-dimensional simplified model. Full article
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