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Advances in Glass and Glass-Ceramic Materials

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Advanced and Functional Ceramics and Glasses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 September 2023) | Viewed by 24988

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, AGH University of Science and Technology, 30-059 Kraków, Poland
Interests: glass; glass-ceramics; thermal properties; Mössbauer spectroscopy; glass network; molecular dynamics; waste glass; waste immobilization; structural properties; Raman spectroscopy; ab initio simulations; bonding properties

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Amorphous materials play an important role in our everyday life. They are suitable for a broad variety of applications due to the possibility to control glass properties by an adequate choice of chemical composition and the ability to apply various processing methods. These advantages of the amorphous state allow us to obtain products of practically any shape with designed properties and applications.

Novel glass and glass-ceramic materials can be used in optical devices like high-power solid-state and fibre lasers, optical amplifiers, fluorescent devices, colour displays, scintillators, as well as optical and thermal sensors. Glasses of a high thermal expansion coefficient and low liquidus temperatures are attractive for hermetic sealing to metals. They can maintain proton carriers at intermediate temperatures that make them promising materials as solid electrolytes for fuel cells. Phosphate-based glasses can be exploited to obtain bioactive and bioresorbable implants or scaffolds to be applied in bone and soft tissue engineering. They can induce additional therapeutic properties (antibacterial activity, angiogenesis or cancer treatment). Control of ion release can be beneficial in bone formation or regeneration. Glasses can also be materials of controlled ion release in the production of glassy eco-fertilizer. Another environmental issue of glasses is waste immobilization in which glass and glass-ceramic materials are durable matrixes for storage of radioactive, toxic and hazardous waste.

This Special Issue aims to present the latest works and findings in the research and development of glass and glass-ceramic materials for a wide range of applications. Papers presenting theoretical studies are also welcome. It is my pleasure to invite you to submit a manuscript for this Special Issue. Full papers, communications, and reviews are all welcome.

Dr. Paweł Stoch
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Glass
  • Glass-ceramic
  • Processing
  • Electric properties
  • Optical properties
  • Waste immobilization
  • Bioactive glasses
  • Mechanical properties
  • Structural properties
  • Thermal properties
  • Glass crystallization

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 5007 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study of Amphibolite–Basalt (SiO2-AlO3-CaO-Fe2O3) Glasses for Glass-Ceramic Materials Production
by Malgorzata Lubas, Anna Zawada, Jaroslaw Jan Jasinski and Adrian Nowak
Materials 2023, 16(21), 6887; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16216887 - 27 Oct 2023
Viewed by 875
Abstract
The paper presents research on multicomponent glasses obtained from natural and secondary raw materials, i.e., basalt, amphibolite, and cullet. The raw materials were used as potential sets to produce mineral fibres or glass-ceramic materials. FTIR spectroscopy and XRD studies were carried out to [...] Read more.
The paper presents research on multicomponent glasses obtained from natural and secondary raw materials, i.e., basalt, amphibolite, and cullet. The raw materials were used as potential sets to produce mineral fibres or glass-ceramic materials. FTIR spectroscopy and XRD studies were carried out to identify the composition of the phase type in the glass sets. The results were supported by SEM-EDS microstructural studies of the obtained materials. The ability of the melts to crystallize and their basic properties required in producing mineral fibres, i.e., the hardness and the acidity modulus, were also determined. In the glass samples after the crystallization process, the spectroscopic studies revealed an increase in the half-width of the band at 1200–800 cm−1 and splitting at the values of about 870 cm−1 and 970 cm−1. These changes probably indicate the formation of pyroxene-type crystalline phases. Moreover, based on the XRD results, it was confirmed that the obtained materials were fully amorphous. After annealing at 800 °C for 2 h, the materials show a small proportion of crystalline phases. For the materials annealed at higher temperatures, clear peaks from the crystalline phases were represented mainly by pyroxenes. The proportion of crystalline phases in the samples was also found to rise with increasing temperature, and the hardness values for the basalt glasses and glasses after crystallization rose from 753 to 946 HV0.05. Such an effect positively affects the properties of the obtained glass-ceramic materials based on the proposed sets. However, in the case of mineral fibres, crystallization at early 2 h at 800 °C can be a disadvantageous feature from the point of view of their application because crystalline phases can lead to fibre damage after a short period of operation; this will be confirmed in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Glass and Glass-Ceramic Materials)
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6 pages, 1431 KiB  
Communication
The Origin of Anomalous Density Behavior of Silica Glass
by Shangcong Cheng
Materials 2023, 16(18), 6218; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16186218 - 15 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 851
Abstract
The anomalous density–temperature relationship of vitreous silica with low hydroxyl content is explained by the formation of medium-range ordering structure in the glass transition process. The ordered medium-range structure has the shape of a “nanoflake” and consists of two layers of SiO4 [...] Read more.
The anomalous density–temperature relationship of vitreous silica with low hydroxyl content is explained by the formation of medium-range ordering structure in the glass transition process. The ordered medium-range structure has the shape of a “nanoflake” and consists of two layers of SiO4 tetrahedra, bonded by O atoms located in the middle of the structure. The nanoflakes interact with their surrounding structures through both covalent chemical bonds and van der Waals bonds. In the formation of the van der Waals bonds, the orientation of SiO4 tetrahedra can change, which results in an increase in distance between the nanoflakes and their surrounding structures. Thus, there is a slight volume enlargement associated with the formation of nanoflakes. Since the nanoflakes’ formation starts at a temperature near 1480 °C, and the population of the nanoflakes grows continuously as temperature decreases until about 950 °C, the bulk volume of silica glass increases in the temperature range from about 1480 °C to 950 °C. Therefore, the density anomaly of silica glass can be explained as a byproduct of forming of medium-range ordering structure in the silica glass transition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Glass and Glass-Ceramic Materials)
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24 pages, 5807 KiB  
Article
A Simple Method for Estimation of the Scattering Exponent of Nanostructured Glasses
by Michael Shepilov, Olga Dymshits and Aleksandr Zhilin
Materials 2023, 16(7), 2630; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16072630 - 26 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1019
Abstract
For most of nanostructured glasses (NGs) (phase-separated glasses and glass-ceramics), the light scattering coefficient (turbidity) is described by a power function of the inverse wavelength with an exponent which differs appreciably from the Rayleigh value 4 and is called the scattering exponent. The [...] Read more.
For most of nanostructured glasses (NGs) (phase-separated glasses and glass-ceramics), the light scattering coefficient (turbidity) is described by a power function of the inverse wavelength with an exponent which differs appreciably from the Rayleigh value 4 and is called the scattering exponent. The knowledge of the scattering exponent of a material is important from both fundamental and practical points of view. Previously, we developed three rather complex methods to determine the scattering exponent. Here, we present a novel simple express method for its estimation. In the method, the measured optical density for only one sample is used, the refractive index of the material is not required, and the dispersion of refractive index is assumed to be insignificant. The method is based on the differentiation of the measured optical density with respect to the wavelength. The scattering exponent values obtained by the new method for NGs of different types are in good agreement with those found by the traditional methods. The new method is found to be applicable even to NGs with high dispersion of refractive index. Thus, the new method does not require the data on the refractive index dispersion and can be applied without restrictions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Glass and Glass-Ceramic Materials)
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13 pages, 4019 KiB  
Article
Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Effectiveness of Direct-Grown-Carbon Nanotubes/Carbon and Glass Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Matrix Composites
by Dong-Kyu Kim, Woong Han, Kwan-Woo Kim and Byung-Joo Kim
Materials 2023, 16(7), 2604; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16072604 - 24 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1928
Abstract
In this study, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were grown under the same conditions as those of carbon fibers and glass fibers, and a comparative analysis was performed to confirm the potential of glass fibers with grown CNTs as electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding materials. The [...] Read more.
In this study, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were grown under the same conditions as those of carbon fibers and glass fibers, and a comparative analysis was performed to confirm the potential of glass fibers with grown CNTs as electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding materials. The CNTs were grown directly on the two fiber surfaces by a chemical vapor deposition process, with the aid of Ni particles loaded on them via a Ni-P plating process followed by heat treatment. The morphology and structural characteristics of the carbon and glass fibers with grown CNTs were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy–energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM–EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), and the EMI shielding efficiency (EMI SE) of the directly grown CNT/carbon and glass fiber-reinforced epoxy matrix composites was determined using a vector-network analyzer. As the plating time increased, a plating layer serving as a catalyst formed on the fiber surface, confirming the growth of numerous nanowire-shaped CNTs. The average EMI SET values of the carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) and glass fiber-reinforced plastic (GFRP) with grown CNTs maximized at approximately 81 and 40 dB, respectively. Carbon fibers with grown CNTs exhibited a significantly higher EMI SET value than the glass fiber-based sample, but the latter showed a higher EMI SET increase rate. This indicates that low-cost, high-quality EMI-shielding materials can be developed through the growth of CNTs on the surface of glass fibers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Glass and Glass-Ceramic Materials)
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12 pages, 1822 KiB  
Article
Energy Transfer in Dy3+ and Tb3+ Double-Doped Barium Borate Glass
by Michelle Grüne and Stefan Schweizer
Materials 2023, 16(7), 2596; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16072596 - 24 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1313
Abstract
In this work, single- and double-doped Dy3+ and Tb3+ barium borate glasses are investigated for their potential as light converters. The density and the absorption coefficient show linearly increasing trends with an increasing lanthanide content. The external quantum efficiency [...] Read more.
In this work, single- and double-doped Dy3+ and Tb3+ barium borate glasses are investigated for their potential as light converters. The density and the absorption coefficient show linearly increasing trends with an increasing lanthanide content. The external quantum efficiency of the double-doped samples is a combination of the respective single-doped samples. The strong energy transfer from Dy3+ to Tb3+ results in an intense Tb3+-related emission, i.e., an intense green luminescence. Thus, excitation at a Dy3+-related wavelength of 452 nm enables a Tb3+-related emission, at which a single-doped Tb3+ sample barely shows any luminescence. Lifetime measurements show that there is not only an energy transfer from Dy3+ to Tb3+, but also vice versa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Glass and Glass-Ceramic Materials)
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21 pages, 16542 KiB  
Article
Probability Density Function Models for Float Glass under Mechanical Loading with Varying Parameters
by Evelien Symoens, Ruben Van Coile, Balša Jovanović and Jan Belis
Materials 2023, 16(5), 2067; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16052067 - 2 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1085
Abstract
Glass as a construction material has become indispensable and is still on the rise in the building industry. However, there is still a need for numerical models that can predict the strength of structural glass in different configurations. The complexity lies in the [...] Read more.
Glass as a construction material has become indispensable and is still on the rise in the building industry. However, there is still a need for numerical models that can predict the strength of structural glass in different configurations. The complexity lies in the failure of glass elements largely driven by pre-existing microscopic surface flaws. These flaws are present over the entire glass surface, and the properties of each flaw vary. Therefore, the fracture strength of glass is described by a probability function and will depend on the size of the panels, the loading conditions and the flaw size distribution. This paper extends the strength prediction model of Osnes et al. with the model selection by the Akaike information criterion. This allows us to determine the most appropriate probability density function describing the glass panel strength. The analyses indicate that the most appropriate model is mainly affected by the number of flaws subjected to the maximum tensile stresses. When many flaws are loaded, the strength is better described by a normal or Weibull distribution. When few flaws are loaded, the distribution tends more towards a Gumbel distribution. A parameter study is performed to examine the most important and influencing parameters in the strength prediction model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Glass and Glass-Ceramic Materials)
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11 pages, 5083 KiB  
Article
In-Situ TEM Investigation of Helium Implantation in Ni-SiOC Nanocomposites
by Bingqiang Wei, Wenqian Wu and Jian Wang
Materials 2023, 16(4), 1357; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16041357 - 6 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1336
Abstract
Ni-SiOC nanocomposites maintain crystal-amorphous dual-phase nanostructures after high-temperature annealing at different temperatures (600 °C, 800 °C and 1000 °C), while the feature sizes of crystal Ni and amorphous SiOC increase with the annealing temperature. Corresponding to the dual-phase nanostructures, Ni-SiOC nanocomposites exhibit a [...] Read more.
Ni-SiOC nanocomposites maintain crystal-amorphous dual-phase nanostructures after high-temperature annealing at different temperatures (600 °C, 800 °C and 1000 °C), while the feature sizes of crystal Ni and amorphous SiOC increase with the annealing temperature. Corresponding to the dual-phase nanostructures, Ni-SiOC nanocomposites exhibit a high strength and good plastic flow stability. In this study, we conducted a He implantation in Ni-SiOC nanocomposites at 300 °C by in-situ transmission electron microscope (TEM) irradiation test. In-situ TEM irradiation revealed that both crystal Ni and amorphous SiOC maintain stability under He irradiation. The 600 °C annealed sample presents a better He irradiation resistance, as manifested by a smaller He-bubble size and lower density. Both the grain boundary and crystal-amorphous phase boundary act as a sink to absorb He and irradiation-induced defects in the Ni matrix. More importantly, amorphous SiOC ceramic is immune to He irradiation damage, contributing to the He irradiation resistance of Ni alloy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Glass and Glass-Ceramic Materials)
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17 pages, 16717 KiB  
Article
Changes in the Structure of Amorphous Alloys under Deformation by High-Pressure Torsion and Multiple Rolling
by Galina Abrosimova, Dmitry Gunderov, Evgenia Postnova and Alexandr Aronin
Materials 2023, 16(3), 1321; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16031321 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1631
Abstract
X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to study changes in the structure of amorphous alloys under deformation by high-pressure torsion and multiple rolling. The change in mean nearest neighbor distance (the radius of the first coordination sphere) under deformation was determined. [...] Read more.
X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to study changes in the structure of amorphous alloys under deformation by high-pressure torsion and multiple rolling. The change in mean nearest neighbor distance (the radius of the first coordination sphere) under deformation was determined. During deformation, shear bands are formed in amorphous alloys, which are regions of lower density compared to the surrounding undeformed amorphous matrix. Shear bands are zones of increased free volume, in which crystallization processes are facilitated. The change in the proportion of free volume under deformation of various types was estimated. The formation of shear bands leads to the appearance of steps on the surface of the samples. The number of shear bands and the surface morphology of deformed amorphous alloys were determined by the type of deformation and the physical properties of the material. The results obtained are discussed within the concept of free volume in the amorphous phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Glass and Glass-Ceramic Materials)
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16 pages, 3941 KiB  
Article
Development of a New Sr-O Parameterization to Describe the Influence of SrO on Iron-Phosphate Glass Structural Properties Using Molecular Dynamics Simulations
by Pawel Goj, Aleksandra Wajda and Pawel Stoch
Materials 2021, 14(15), 4326; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14154326 - 3 Aug 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2263
Abstract
Iron-phosphate glasses, due to their properties, have many potential applications. One of the most promising seems to be nuclear waste immobilization. Radioactive 90Sr isotope is the main short-lived product of fission and, due to its high solubility, it can enter groundwater and [...] Read more.
Iron-phosphate glasses, due to their properties, have many potential applications. One of the most promising seems to be nuclear waste immobilization. Radioactive 90Sr isotope is the main short-lived product of fission and, due to its high solubility, it can enter groundwater and pose a threat to the environment. On the other hand, Sr is an important element in hard tissue metabolic processes, and phosphate glasses containing Sr are considered bioactive. This study investigated the effect of SrO addition on a glass structure of nominal 30Fe2O3-70P2O5 chemical composition using classical molecular dynamics simulations. To describe the interaction between Sr-O ion pairs, new interatomic potential parameters of the Buckingham-type were developed and tested for crystalline compounds. The short-range structure of the simulated glasses is presented and is in agreement with previous experimental and theoretical studies. The simulations showed that an increase in SrO content in the glass led to phosphate network depolymerization. Analysis demonstrated that the non-network oxygen did not take part in the phosphate network depolymerization. Furthermore, strontium aggregation in the glass structure was observed to lead to the non-homogeneity of the glass network. It was demonstrated that Sr ions prefer to locate near to Fe(II), which may induce crystallization of strontium phosphates with divalent iron. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Glass and Glass-Ceramic Materials)
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10 pages, 9265 KiB  
Communication
Broadband Near-Infrared Luminescence in Lead Germanate Glass Triply Doped with Yb3+/Er3+/Tm3+
by Wojciech A. Pisarski, Joanna Pisarska, Radosław Lisiecki and Witold Ryba-Romanowski
Materials 2021, 14(11), 2901; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14112901 - 28 May 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1760
Abstract
This paper deals with broadband near-infrared luminescence properties of lead germanate glass triply doped with Yb3+/Er3+/Tm3+. Samples were excited at 800 nm and 975 nm. Their emission intensities and lifetimes depend significantly on Er3+ and Tm [...] Read more.
This paper deals with broadband near-infrared luminescence properties of lead germanate glass triply doped with Yb3+/Er3+/Tm3+. Samples were excited at 800 nm and 975 nm. Their emission intensities and lifetimes depend significantly on Er3+ and Tm3+ concentrations. For samples excited at 800 nm, broadband emissions corresponding to the overlapped 3H43F4 (Tm3+) and 4I13/24I15/2 (Er3+) transitions centered at 1.45 µm and 1.5 µm was identified. Measurements of decay curves confirm reduction of 3H4 (Tm3+), 2F5/2 (Yb3+) and 4I13/2 (Er3+) luminescence lifetimes and the presence of energy-transfer processes. The maximal spectral bandwidth equal to 269 nm for the 3F43H6 transition of Tm3+ suggests that our glass co-doped with Yb3+/Er3+/Tm3+ is a good candidate for broadband near-infrared emission. The energy transfer from 4I13/2 (Er3+) to 3F4 (Tm3+) and cross-relaxation processes are responsible for the enhancement of broadband luminescence near 1.8 µm attributed to the 3F43H6 transition of thulium ions in lead germanate glass under excitation of Yb3+ ions at 975 nm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Glass and Glass-Ceramic Materials)
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16 pages, 3131 KiB  
Article
An Insight into the Correlation between Chemical Composition Changes of Aluminum-Iron-Polyphosphate Glasses and Thermal Properties
by Pawel Goj, Aleksandra Wajda, Agata Stoch, Ireneusz Krakowiak and Pawel Stoch
Materials 2021, 14(8), 2065; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14082065 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2050
Abstract
The present study aimed to investigate the influence of the gradual substitution of Fe2O3 by Al2O3 on the thermal properties of polyphosphate glasses. The conducted considerations based on differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and heating microscopy thermal analysis [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to investigate the influence of the gradual substitution of Fe2O3 by Al2O3 on the thermal properties of polyphosphate glasses. The conducted considerations based on differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and heating microscopy thermal analysis provided much essential information about the correlation between glass chemical composition and its characteristic parameters, such as transformation temperature, specific heat, crystallization temperature, crystallization enthalpy, the activation energy of crystal growth, melting temperature, and Angell glass thermal stability. The obtained estimation of viscosity changes as a function of temperature could be very helpful for researchers to correctly plan the vitrification process and thus radioactive waste immobilization. A precise analysis of DSC curves and X-ray diffraction patterns revealed the possibility of crystallization process design in order to create materials with different levels of crystallinity and phase composition. The drawn conclusions allow choosing the glass with the optimal concentration of Al2O3 and Fe2O3, which ensures the relatively low melting temperature, viscosity, and glass crystallization ability, with application potential in nuclear waste immobilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Glass and Glass-Ceramic Materials)
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10 pages, 12638 KiB  
Article
Production of Soda Lime Glass Having Antibacterial Property for Industrial Applications
by Barış Demirel and Melek Erol Taygun
Materials 2020, 13(21), 4827; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13214827 - 28 Oct 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3501
Abstract
This study was aimed to produce and characterize the first commercial glass materials with enhanced antibacterial property using conventional melting method. For this purpose, typical container glass composition that contains some specific metal ions, such as silver, strontium, and copper, was used to [...] Read more.
This study was aimed to produce and characterize the first commercial glass materials with enhanced antibacterial property using conventional melting method. For this purpose, typical container glass composition that contains some specific metal ions, such as silver, strontium, and copper, was used to obtain antibacterial glass samples using classical melting method. After the melting process, antibacterial tests and migration tests were applied to the glasses, and it was found that the glass doped with 2% Ag2O was the best composition. X-rays diffractometer (XRD), thermal expansion coefficient, density, refractive index, hardness, and elastic module results showed that the glass doped with 2% Ag2O was a suitable material as a container glass. High Temperature Melting Observation System studies were performed on the produced antibacterial glass composition, and it was found that the antibacterial glass can be produced in soda lime glass furnaces without changing any furnace design and production parameters. As a result of the characterization studies, it was concluded that the produced container glass doped with silver can be a good candidate for food and pharmaceutical products where bacterial growth is absolutely undesirable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Glass and Glass-Ceramic Materials)
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Review

Jump to: Research

23 pages, 8459 KiB  
Review
Structural Relaxation, Rejuvenation and Plasticity of Metallic Glasses: Microscopic Details from Anelastic Relaxation Spectra
by Michael Atzmon, Jong Doo Ju and Tianjiao Lei
Materials 2023, 16(23), 7444; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16237444 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 809
Abstract
The lack of periodicity and long-range order poses significant challenges in explaining and modeling the properties of metallic glasses. Conventional modeling of nonexponential relaxation with stretched exponents leads to inconsistencies and rarely offers information on microscopic properties. Instead, using quasi-static anelastic relaxation, we [...] Read more.
The lack of periodicity and long-range order poses significant challenges in explaining and modeling the properties of metallic glasses. Conventional modeling of nonexponential relaxation with stretched exponents leads to inconsistencies and rarely offers information on microscopic properties. Instead, using quasi-static anelastic relaxation, we have obtained relaxation-time spectra over >10 orders of magnitude of time for several metallic glasses. The spectra enable us to examine in microscopic detail the distribution of shear transformation zones and their properties. They reveal an atomically-quantized hierarchy of shear transformation zones, providing insights into the effect of structural relaxation and rejuvenation, the origin of plasticity and the mechanisms of the alpha and beta relaxation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Glass and Glass-Ceramic Materials)
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26 pages, 14322 KiB  
Review
Crystalline–Amorphous Nanostructures: Microstructure, Property and Modelling
by Bingqiang Wei, Lin Li, Lin Shao and Jian Wang
Materials 2023, 16(7), 2874; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16072874 - 4 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2011
Abstract
Crystalline metals generally exhibit good deformability but low strength and poor irradiation tolerance. Amorphous materials in general display poor deformability but high strength and good irradiation tolerance. Interestingly, refining characteristic size can enhance the flow strength of crystalline metals and the deformability of [...] Read more.
Crystalline metals generally exhibit good deformability but low strength and poor irradiation tolerance. Amorphous materials in general display poor deformability but high strength and good irradiation tolerance. Interestingly, refining characteristic size can enhance the flow strength of crystalline metals and the deformability of amorphous materials. Thus, crystalline–amorphous nanostructures can exhibit an enhanced strength and an improved plastic flow stability. In addition, high-density interfaces can trap radiation-induced defects and accommodate free volume fluctuation. In this article, we review crystalline–amorphous nanocomposites with characteristic microstructures including nanolaminates, core–shell microstructures, and crystalline/amorphous-based dual-phase nanocomposites. The focus is put on synthesis of characteristic microstructures, deformation behaviors, and multiscale materials modelling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Glass and Glass-Ceramic Materials)
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