Marine-Derived Compounds Applied in Cardiovascular Disease

A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397). This special issue belongs to the section "Marine Pharmacology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2024) | Viewed by 13881

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, School of Sciences, International Hellenic University, Kavala, Greece
Interests: CVD; atherosclerosis; endothelial dysfunction; inflammation; atherothrombosis; platelets; leukocytes; PAF; cytokines; chemokines; ADP; collagen; thrombin; anti-inflammatory; antithrombotic; anti-atherogenic; marine; fish; algae; marine plants; mollusks; shellfish; by-products; polar lipids; lipids; PUFA; MUFA; SFA; peptides; bioactives; compounds; vitamins; foods; nutraceuticals; food-supplements; pharmaceuticals; bio-pharmaceuticals; drugs
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,                

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death worldwide, in which modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors initiate unfavorable processes linked to chronic inflammation, atherosclerosis, atherothrombosis and CVD.

Marine sources and by-products of the marine industry are sources of bioactive compounds with strong cardio-protective properties, which are utilized for the development of nutraceutical supplements and drugs against inflammation-related chronic disorders, including atherosclerosis and CVD.

The evaluation of the preventative and/or therapeutic benefits of marine-derived compounds against cardiovascular diseases is of great importance. These compounds are particularly renowned for their preventative properties against the early stages of inflammation-related endothelial dysfunction; the recruitment and activation of platelets, monocytes and other leukocytes’ subtypes; the subsequent formation of atherosclerotic plaque; and their therapeutic effects during the final stages of the disease, including plaque rupture, atherothrombosis and major cardiac events.

The aim of this Special Issue is to promote research in the field and highlight the importance of bioactive compounds derived from several marine sources and their related by-products as inhibitors/modulators of these mechanisms with regard to cardio-protection and therapy.

Research describing the isolation, identification and structural elucidation of marine-derived bioactive compounds for the prevention and therapy of atherosclerosis and CVD will also be included. In addition, research on pharmacological characterization and nutriomics (proteomics, glycomics, lipidomics) related to bioactivities, drug discovery and development, and based on marine-derived bioactive compounds, including formulations and clinical trials, is also welcomed. Finally, relative reviews and meta-analysis articles in the field are also welcomed in this Special Issue.

Kind Regards,

Dr. Alexandros Tsoupras
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Marine Drugs is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • atherosclerosis
  • CVD
  • inflammation
  • thrombosis
  • marine compounds
  • algae
  • marine plants
  • fish
  • mollusks
  • shellfish
  • by-products

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 2983 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Hypocholesterolemic Potential of a Fucus vesiculosus Extract: Omic Insights into Molecular Mechanisms at the Intestinal Level
by Rebeca André, Rita Pacheco, Hugo M. Santos and Maria Luísa Serralheiro
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(4), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22040187 - 20 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1082
Abstract
High blood cholesterol levels are a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. A purified aqueous extract of Fucus vesiculosus, rich in phlorotannins and peptides, has been described for its potential to inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis and intestinal absorption. In this work, the effect [...] Read more.
High blood cholesterol levels are a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. A purified aqueous extract of Fucus vesiculosus, rich in phlorotannins and peptides, has been described for its potential to inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis and intestinal absorption. In this work, the effect of this extract on intestinal cells’ metabolites and proteins was analysed to gain a deeper understanding of its mode of action on lipids’ metabolism, particularly concerning the absorption and transport of exogenous cholesterol. Caco-2 cells, differentiated into enterocytes, were exposed to the extract, and analysed by untargeted metabolomics and proteomics. The results of the metabolomic analysis showed statistically significant differences in glutathione content of cells exposed to the extract compared to control cells, along with an increased expression of fatty acid amides in exposed cells. A proteomic analysis showed an increased expression in cells exposed to the extract compared to control cells of FAB1 and NPC1, proteins known to be involved in lipid metabolism and transport. To the extent of our knowledge, this study is the first use of untargeted metabolomics and a proteomic analysis to investigate the effects of F. vesiculosus on differentiated Caco-2 cells, offering insights into the molecular mechanism of the extract’s compounds on intestinal cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine-Derived Compounds Applied in Cardiovascular Disease)
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18 pages, 2608 KiB  
Article
Bioactive Oxylipins Profile in Marine Microalgae
by Amandyne Linares-Maurizi, Guillaume Reversat, Rana Awad, Valérie Bultel-Poncé, Camille Oger, Jean-Marie Galano, Laurence Balas, Anaelle Durbec, Justine Bertrand-Michel, Thierry Durand, Rémi Pradelles and Claire Vigor
Mar. Drugs 2023, 21(3), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/md21030136 - 22 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 5167
Abstract
Microalgae are photosynthetic microscopic organisms that serve as the primary food source in aquatic environments. Microalgae can synthesize a wide variety of molecules, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of the omega-3 and omega-6 series. Oxidative degradation of PUFA due to radical and/or [...] Read more.
Microalgae are photosynthetic microscopic organisms that serve as the primary food source in aquatic environments. Microalgae can synthesize a wide variety of molecules, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of the omega-3 and omega-6 series. Oxidative degradation of PUFA due to radical and/or enzymatic conversion leads to the formation of oxylipins, which are compounds known for their bioactive properties. In the present study, we aim to profile oxylipins from five microalgae species grown in 10-L photo-bioreactors under optimal conditions. During their exponential phase, microalgae were harvested, extracted and analyzed by LC-MS/MS to determine the qualitative and quantitative profile of oxylipins for each species. The five different selected microalgae revealed a high diversity of metabolites, up to 33 non-enzymatic and 24 enzymatic oxylipins present in different concentrations. Taken together, these findings highlight an interesting role of marine microalgae as a source of bioactive lipids mediators, which we hypothesize have an important function in preventive health measures such as amelioration of inflammation. The rich mixture of oxylipins may display advantages to biological organisms, especially by providing for human health benefits including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective or immunomodulator activities. Some oxylipins are also well known for their cardiovascular properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine-Derived Compounds Applied in Cardiovascular Disease)
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22 pages, 4793 KiB  
Article
Novel Labdane Diterpenes-Based Synthetic Derivatives: Identification of a Bifunctional Vasodilator That Inhibits CaV1.2 and Stimulates KCa1.1 Channels
by Gabriele Carullo, Simona Saponara, Amer Ahmed, Beatrice Gorelli, Sarah Mazzotta, Alfonso Trezza, Beatrice Gianibbi, Giuseppe Campiani, Fabio Fusi and Francesca Aiello
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(8), 515; https://doi.org/10.3390/md20080515 - 13 Aug 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1989
Abstract
Sesquiterpenes such as leucodin and the labdane-type diterpene manool are natural compounds endowed with remarkably in vitro vasorelaxant and in vivo hypotensive activities. Given their structural similarity with the sesquiterpene lactone (+)-sclareolide, this molecule was selected as a scaffold to develop novel vasoactive [...] Read more.
Sesquiterpenes such as leucodin and the labdane-type diterpene manool are natural compounds endowed with remarkably in vitro vasorelaxant and in vivo hypotensive activities. Given their structural similarity with the sesquiterpene lactone (+)-sclareolide, this molecule was selected as a scaffold to develop novel vasoactive agents. Functional, electrophysiology, and molecular dynamics studies were performed. The opening of the five-member lactone ring in the (+)-sclareolide provided a series of labdane-based small molecules, promoting a significant in vitro vasorelaxant effect. Electrophysiology data identified 7 as a CaV1.2 channel blocker and a KCa1.1 channel stimulator. These activities were also confirmed in the intact vascular tissue. The significant antagonism caused by the CaV1.2 channel agonist Bay K 8644 suggested that 7 might interact with the dihydropyridine binding site. Docking and molecular dynamic simulations provided the molecular basis of the CaV1.2 channel blockade and KCa1.1 channel stimulation produced by 7. Finally, 7 reduced coronary perfusion pressure and heart rate, while prolonging conduction and refractoriness of the atrioventricular node, likely because of its Ca2+ antagonism. Taken together, these data indicate that the labdane scaffold represents a valuable starting point for the development of new vasorelaxant agents endowed with negative chronotropic properties and targeting key pathways involved in the pathophysiology of hypertension and ischemic cardiomyopathy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine-Derived Compounds Applied in Cardiovascular Disease)
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Review

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19 pages, 485 KiB  
Review
Marine-Derived Peptides with Anti-Hypertensive Properties: Prospects for Pharmaceuticals, Supplements, and Functional Food
by Mari Johannessen Walquist, Karl-Erik Eilertsen, Edel Oddny Elvevoll and Ida-Johanne Jensen
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(4), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22040140 - 22 Mar 2024
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Abstract
Hypertension, a major health concern linked to heart disease and premature mortality, has prompted a search for alternative treatments due to side effects of existing medications. Sustainable harvesting of low-trophic marine organisms not only enhances food security but also provides a variety of [...] Read more.
Hypertension, a major health concern linked to heart disease and premature mortality, has prompted a search for alternative treatments due to side effects of existing medications. Sustainable harvesting of low-trophic marine organisms not only enhances food security but also provides a variety of bioactive molecules, including peptides. Despite comprising only a fraction of active natural compounds, peptides are ideal for drug development due to their size, stability, and resistance to degradation. Our review evaluates the anti-hypertensive properties of peptides and proteins derived from selected marine invertebrate phyla, examining the various methodologies used and their application in pharmaceuticals, supplements, and functional food. A considerable body of research exists on the anti-hypertensive effects of certain marine invertebrates, yet many species remain unexamined. The array of assessments methods, particularly for ACE inhibition, complicates the comparison of results. The dominance of in vitro and animal in vivo studies indicates a need for more clinical research in order to transition peptides into pharmaceuticals. Our findings lay the groundwork for further exploration of these promising marine invertebrates, emphasizing the need to balance scientific discovery and marine conservation for sustainable resource use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine-Derived Compounds Applied in Cardiovascular Disease)
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29 pages, 2909 KiB  
Review
Marine-Derived Compounds Applied in Cardiovascular Diseases: Submerged Medicinal Industry
by Wasim Akram, Mohd Rihan, Sakeel Ahmed, Swamita Arora, Sameer Ahmad and Rahul Vashishth
Mar. Drugs 2023, 21(3), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/md21030193 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3566
Abstract
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are among the most impactful illnesses globally. Currently, the available therapeutic option has several side effects, including hypotension, bradycardia, arrhythmia, and alteration in different ion concentrations. Recently, bioactive compounds from natural sources, including plants, microorganisms, and marine creatures, have gained [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are among the most impactful illnesses globally. Currently, the available therapeutic option has several side effects, including hypotension, bradycardia, arrhythmia, and alteration in different ion concentrations. Recently, bioactive compounds from natural sources, including plants, microorganisms, and marine creatures, have gained a lot of interest. Marine sources serve as reservoirs for new bioactive metabolites with various pharmacological activities. The marine-derived compound such as omega-3 acid ethyl esters, xyloketal B, asperlin, and saringosterol showed promising results in several CVDs. The present review focuses on marine-derived compounds’ cardioprotective potential for hypertension, ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, and atherosclerosis. In addition to therapeutic alternatives, the current use of marine-derived components, the future trajectory, and restrictions are also reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine-Derived Compounds Applied in Cardiovascular Disease)
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