Biodiversity and Ecology of Fungi in Terrestrial and Marine Ecosystems

A special issue of Life (ISSN 2075-1729). This special issue belongs to the section "Diversity and Ecology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (29 October 2021) | Viewed by 53238

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička cesta 54, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Interests: mycology (biodiversity, taxonomy, molecular phylogeny; ecology of fungal communities, and fungal biogeography); environmental microbiology (fungal and bacterial communities); nature conservation (conservation of fungi and their habitats)
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Ruđer Bošković Institute, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Interests: taxonomy, phylogeny; ecology of fungi
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Even the knowledge on fungi is rapidly evolving in the recent times, the real magnitude of its biodiversity is still unknown and the level of exploration globally very low. Today we still know less than 10% of total fungal diversity. Fungi are one of the most important organisms in the world and the sustainability of both terrestrial and marine ecosystems is strongly dependent on them. Great majority of plants is forming mutualistic relationships with fungi, while saprotrophic fungi play one of key roles in nutrients cycling. More and more useful bioactive compounds are discovered in various fungal species and their use is being tested in medicine, agriculture, food production, and other various aspects of biotechnology. Biodiversity is being revealed today much faster due to the modern molecular methods, like metabarcoding, which brings us to the point where we can start understanding the real role of fungi and their life cycles in the natural environments. But, to put all this information into a context, we still lack basic taxonomic knowledge on most of the fungal groups. Therefore, basic mycological research should be still strongly encouraged in the 21st century. This special issue will focus on all these aspects, accepting both the original scientific articles and reviews with the topics on taxonomy, biodiversity, ecology, phylogeny and evolutionary biology of fungi, as well as various fields of applied mycology.

Dr. Armin Mešić
Dr. Ivana Kušan
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Biodiversity
  • Taxonomy
  • Phylogeny
  • Systematics
  • Ecology
  • Evolutionary biology
  • Metabarcoding
  • eDNA

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Published Papers (17 papers)

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Research

24 pages, 4124 KiB  
Article
Characterization of New Small-Spored Alternaria Species Isolated from Solanaceae in Algeria
by Nabahat Bessadat, Bruno Hamon, Nelly Bataillé-Simoneau, Kihal Mabrouk and Philippe Simoneau
Life 2021, 11(12), 1291; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11121291 - 24 Nov 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4664
Abstract
Although large-spored Alternaria species of the section Porri are considered to be the major agents responsible for leaf spot and blight of Solanaceae, small-spored Alternaria species are also frequently isolated from symptomatic tissues. A survey of the north-western regions of Algeria during [...] Read more.
Although large-spored Alternaria species of the section Porri are considered to be the major agents responsible for leaf spot and blight of Solanaceae, small-spored Alternaria species are also frequently isolated from symptomatic tissues. A survey of the north-western regions of Algeria during the 2017–2018 growing seasons revealed that amongst the 623 Alternaria isolates from tomato, potato, pepper, eggplant and black nightshade, 8% could not be morphologically assigned to either section Porri or section Alternaria. In order to more precisely determine the taxonomic position of these isolates, detailed morphological characterizations and multi-locus phylogenetic analyses were performed. Based on these analyses, the isolates were grouped into four main clades: section Ulocladioides, section Infectoriae, including two new species, section Embellisioides, and section Eureka, including one new species. These isolates were also characterized for their virulence under green-house conditions. They were able to produce leaf spot symptoms on tomato plants but with variable levels. Full article
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12 pages, 3466 KiB  
Article
The Genus Chlorosplenium (Helotiales, Leotiomycetes) from China with Notes on C. chlora Complex
by Huan-Di Zheng and Wen-Ying Zhuang
Life 2021, 11(11), 1167; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11111167 - 1 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1890
Abstract
The small fruitbodies of Chlorosplenium are greenish yellow and mainly grow on woody substrates. The species diversity of the genus in China was investigated based on specimens formerly deposited in the Herbarium Mycologicum Academiae Sinicae as well as new collections gained in recent [...] Read more.
The small fruitbodies of Chlorosplenium are greenish yellow and mainly grow on woody substrates. The species diversity of the genus in China was investigated based on specimens formerly deposited in the Herbarium Mycologicum Academiae Sinicae as well as new collections gained in recent years. Our phylogenetic results revealed the species diversity of the genus is underestimated and the commonly known Chlorosplenium chlora is a species complex. Based on morphology studies and sequence analyses of three regions (ITS, LSU and RPB1), the Chinese collections represent two new species which are described and illustrated here as C. sinicum and C. sinochlora. Chlorosplenium fusisporum is quite possibly a species of the genus Chlorociboria, and C. hyperici-maculati should be excluded from the genus. Full article
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14 pages, 4316 KiB  
Article
Cryptic Diversity of Isaria-like Species in Guizhou, China
by Wanhao Chen, Jiandong Liang, Xiuxiu Ren, Jiehong Zhao, Yanfeng Han and Zongqi Liang
Life 2021, 11(10), 1093; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11101093 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2292
Abstract
Many Isaria-like species have recently been moved into more appropriate genera. However, more robust molecular phylogenetic analyses are still required for Isaria-like fungi to ensure accurate taxonomic identification. We analyzed these Isaria-like strains using multi-gene phylogenetics. Cryptic diversity was discovered [...] Read more.
Many Isaria-like species have recently been moved into more appropriate genera. However, more robust molecular phylogenetic analyses are still required for Isaria-like fungi to ensure accurate taxonomic identification. We analyzed these Isaria-like strains using multi-gene phylogenetics. Cryptic diversity was discovered in several Isaria farinosa strains, and two new species, Samsoniella pseudogunnii and S. pupicola, are proposed. Our results reveal that more attention needs to be paid to cryptic intraspecific diversity across different isolates and genotypes of the Isaria-like species, some of which will need to be transferred to Samsoniella. Interestingly, S. hepiali, with a very broad host distribution, has been widely used as a medicinal and edible cordycipitoid fungus. Full article
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11 pages, 2104 KiB  
Article
Foliar Fungal Endophytes in a Tree Diversity Experiment Are Driven by the Identity but Not the Diversity of Tree Species
by Stephan Kambach, Christopher Sadlowski, Derek Peršoh, Marco Alexandre Guerreiro, Harald Auge, Oliver Röhl and Helge Bruelheide
Life 2021, 11(10), 1081; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11101081 - 13 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1921
Abstract
Symbiotic foliar fungal endophytes can have beneficial effects on host trees and might alleviate climate-induced stressors. Whether and how the community of foliar endophytes is dependent on the tree neighborhood is still under debate with contradicting results from different tree diversity experiments. Here, [...] Read more.
Symbiotic foliar fungal endophytes can have beneficial effects on host trees and might alleviate climate-induced stressors. Whether and how the community of foliar endophytes is dependent on the tree neighborhood is still under debate with contradicting results from different tree diversity experiments. Here, we present our finding regarding the effect of the tree neighborhood from the temperate, densely planted and 12-years-old Kreinitz tree diversity experiment. We used linear models, redundancy analysis, Procrustes analysis and Holm-corrected multiple t-tests to quantify the effects of the plot-level tree neighborhood on the diversity and composition of foliar fungal endophytes in Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea and Picea abies. Against our expectations, we did not find an effect of tree diversity on endophyte diversity. Endophyte composition, however, was driven by the identity of the host species. Thirteen endophytes where overabundant in tree species mixtures, which might indicate frequent spillover or positive interactions between foliar endophytes. The independence of the diversity of endophytes from the diversity of tree species might be attributed to the small plot size and the high density of tree individuals. However, the mechanistic causes for these cryptic relationships still remain to be uncovered. Full article
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22 pages, 6913 KiB  
Article
One New Species and Two New Host Records of Apiospora from Bamboo and Maize in Northern Thailand with Thirteen New Combinations
by Xingguo Tian, Samantha C. Karunarathna, Ausana Mapook, Itthayakorn Promputtha, Jianchu Xu, Danfeng Bao and Saowaluck Tibpromma
Life 2021, 11(10), 1071; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11101071 - 11 Oct 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2841
Abstract
The genus Apiospora is known as a cosmopolitan genus, found across various substrates. In this study, four Apiospora taxa were obtained from the decaying stems of bamboo and maize in northern Thailand. Apiospora collections were compared with known species based on the morphological [...] Read more.
The genus Apiospora is known as a cosmopolitan genus, found across various substrates. In this study, four Apiospora taxa were obtained from the decaying stems of bamboo and maize in northern Thailand. Apiospora collections were compared with known species based on the morphological characteristics and the DNA sequence data of internal transcribed spacer (ITS), the partial large subunit nuclear rDNA (LSU), the translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene (TEF1-α) and beta-tubulins (TUB2). Apiospora chiangraiense sp. nov. and two new host records (Ap. intestini and Ap. rasikravindra) are introduced here based on the morphological characteristics and multi-locus analyses. Additionally, thirteen species previously identified as Arthrinium are introduced as new combinations in Apiospora, viz., Ap. acutiapica, Ap. bambusicola, Ap. biserialis, Ap. cordylines, Ap. cyclobalanopsidis, Ap. euphorbiae, Ap. gelatinosa, Ap. locuta-pollinis, Ap. minutispora, Ap. pseudorasikravindrae, Ap. septate, Ap. setariae and Ap. sorghi. Full article
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17 pages, 3011 KiB  
Article
Yuxiensis granularis gen. et sp. nov., a Novel Quellkörper-Bearing Fungal Taxon Added to Scortechiniaceae and Inclusion of Parasympodiellaceae in Coronophorales Based on Phylogenetic Evidence
by Digvijayini Bundhun, Dhanushka N. Wanasinghe, Sajeewa S. N. Maharachchikumbura, Darbhe J. Bhat, Shi-Ke Huang, Saisamorn Lumyong, Peter E. Mortimer and Kevin D. Hyde
Life 2021, 11(10), 1011; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11101011 - 25 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1772
Abstract
An undetermined saprobic fungal taxon from Yunnan (China) is revealed as a new genus in Scortechiniaceae (Coronophorales). The novel taxon, Yuxiensis, is characterized by immersed to erumpent, semi-globose ascomata, which are not surrounded by any tomentum or conspicuous subiculum, a [...] Read more.
An undetermined saprobic fungal taxon from Yunnan (China) is revealed as a new genus in Scortechiniaceae (Coronophorales). The novel taxon, Yuxiensis, is characterized by immersed to erumpent, semi-globose ascomata, which are not surrounded by any tomentum or conspicuous subiculum, a subcylindrical quellkörper in the centrum, clavate asci with long pedicels and allantoid hyaline ascospores with granular contents. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian posterior probability analyses based on LSU, ITS, tef1 and rpb2 sequence data depict a close phylogenetic relationship of the new genus to Pseudocatenomycopsis, hence, confirming its placement in Scortechiniaceae. Parasympodiellaceae, thus far belonging to Parasympodiellales, is transferred to Coronophorales based on multi-gene phylogenetic evidence. Additionally, the incertae sedis monotypic genus Arthrocristula is treated as a synonym of Parasympodiella, with Arthrocristula hyphenata recombined as Parasympodiella hyphenata comb. nov., as the type strain of Arthrocristula hyphenata clusters inside the Parasympodiellaceae clade along with other Parasympodiella taxa. Full article
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17 pages, 2114 KiB  
Article
A Taxonomic Appraisal of Bambusicolous Fungi in Occultibambusaceae (Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes) with New Collections from Yunnan Province, China
by Hong-Bo Jiang, Rungtiwa Phookamsak, Kevin D. Hyde, Peter E. Mortimer, Jian-Chu Xu, Pattana Kakumyan, Samantha C. Karunarathna and Jaturong Kumla
Life 2021, 11(9), 932; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11090932 - 7 Sep 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2292
Abstract
During our ongoing studies of bambusicolous fungi in southwest China and Thailand, three saprobic pleosporalean taxa were discovered on bamboos in Yunnan Province of China. Occultibambusa hongheensis and Seriascoma bambusae spp. nov. are introduced based on morphological characteristics coupled with multi-locus phylogenetic analyses [...] Read more.
During our ongoing studies of bambusicolous fungi in southwest China and Thailand, three saprobic pleosporalean taxa were discovered on bamboos in Yunnan Province of China. Occultibambusa hongheensis and Seriascoma bambusae spp. nov. are introduced based on morphological characteristics coupled with multi-locus phylogenetic analyses of combined LSU, SSU, TEF1-α, RPB2 and ITS sequence data. Occultibambusa kunmingensis is also reported from a terrestrial habitat for the first time. Comprehensive descriptions, color photo plates of micromorphology, and a phylogenetic tree showing the placements of these three taxa are provided. In addition, synopsis tables of Occultibambusa and Seriascoma with morphological features are also provided. Full article
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16 pages, 5103 KiB  
Article
Mitogenomics, Phylogeny and Morphology Reveal Ophiocordyceps pingbianensis Sp. Nov., an Entomopathogenic Fungus from China
by Siqi Chen, Yuanbing Wang, Kongfu Zhu and Hong Yu
Life 2021, 11(7), 686; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11070686 - 14 Jul 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2726
Abstract
The new entomopathogenic fungus Ophiocordyceps pingbianensis, collected from Southeast China, was described by mitogenomic, morphological, and phylogenetic evidence. The systematic position of O. pingbianensis was determined by phylogenetic analyses based on six nuclear gene (ITS, tef1-α, nrSSU, nrLSU, rpb1 [...] Read more.
The new entomopathogenic fungus Ophiocordyceps pingbianensis, collected from Southeast China, was described by mitogenomic, morphological, and phylogenetic evidence. The systematic position of O. pingbianensis was determined by phylogenetic analyses based on six nuclear gene (ITS, tef1-α, nrSSU, nrLSU, rpb1 and rpb2) and 14 mitochondrial protein-coding gene (PCGs) (cox1, cox2, cox3, atp6, atp8, atp9, cob, nad1, nad2, nad3, nad4, nad5, nad6 and nad4L) data. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that O. pingbianensis was belonged to the Hirsutella nodulosa clade in the genus Ophiocordyceps of Ophiocordycipiaceae. This fungus exhibits distinctive characteristics which differed from other related Ophiocordyceps species with slender and geminate stromata, monophialidic conidiogenous cells with an inflated awl-shaped base, a twisty and warty phialide neck and a fusiform or oval conidia, as well as being found on a tiger beetle of Coleoptera buried in moss at the cave. The complete mitochondrial genome of O. pingbianensis was a circular DNA molecule 80,359 bp in length, containing 15 PCGs, 24 open reading frames genes (ORFs), 25 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs) and 27 introns. Ophiocordyceps pingbianensis, containing 27 introns, has the second largest mitogenome in Ophiocordycipiaceae and was next to O. sinensis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the mitogenome from a new entomopathogenic fungus, and thus provides an important foundation for future studies on taxonomy, genetics and evolutionary biology of Ophiocordycipiaceae. Full article
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14 pages, 6133 KiB  
Article
Description of the Fifth New Species of Russula subsect. Maculatinae from Pakistan Indicates Local Diversity Hotspot of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi in Southwestern Himalayas
by Munazza Kiran, Miroslav Caboň, Dušan Senko, Abdul Nasir Khalid and Slavomír Adamčík
Life 2021, 11(7), 662; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11070662 - 6 Jul 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3010
Abstract
Russula subsect. Maculatinae is morphologically and phylogenetically well-defined lineage of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with arctic, boreal, temperate and Mediterranean habitats of Northern Hemisphere. Based on phylogenetic distance among species, it seems that this group diversified relatively recently. Russula ayubiana sp. nov., described in [...] Read more.
Russula subsect. Maculatinae is morphologically and phylogenetically well-defined lineage of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with arctic, boreal, temperate and Mediterranean habitats of Northern Hemisphere. Based on phylogenetic distance among species, it seems that this group diversified relatively recently. Russula ayubiana sp. nov., described in this study, is the fifth in the group known from relatively small area of northern Pakistan situated in southwestern Himalayas. This is the highest known number of agaric lineage members from a single area in the world. This study uses available data about phylogeny, ecology, and climate to trace phylogenetic origin and ecological preferences of Maculatinae in southwestern Himalayas. Our results suggest that the area has been recently colonised by Maculatinae members migrating from various geographical areas and adapting to local conditions. We also discuss the perspectives and obstacles in research of biogeography and ecology, and we propose improvements that would facilitate the integration of ecological and biogeographical metadata from the future taxonomic studies of fungi in the region. Full article
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16 pages, 47606 KiB  
Article
Multigene Phylogenetics and Morphology Reveal Five Novel Lasiodiplodia Species Associated with Blueberries
by Yu Wang, Ying Zhang, Vishwakalyan Bhoyroo, Sillma Rampadarath and Rajesh Jeewon
Life 2021, 11(7), 657; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11070657 - 5 Jul 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3626
Abstract
Botryosphaeriaceous fungi cause stem blight, canker and dieback in woody plants. During a survey on the fungal pathogens associated with blueberries in China, 135 blighted, cankered or dead blueberry branches were collected from Fujian and Shandong Provinces. Based on the morphological characterization and [...] Read more.
Botryosphaeriaceous fungi cause stem blight, canker and dieback in woody plants. During a survey on the fungal pathogens associated with blueberries in China, 135 blighted, cankered or dead blueberry branches were collected from Fujian and Shandong Provinces. Based on the morphological characterization and phylogenetic analyses of a concatenated ITS rDNA, tef1-α, TUB, and RPB2 loci, five new species of Lasiodiplodia, viz., L. clavispora, L. fujianensis, L. henanica, L. nanpingensis and L. paraphysoides were recognized. Detailed descriptions and illustrations, as well as multigene phylogenies, are provided in this paper. The diversity of plant pathogens on agriculturally and economically important plants is higher than anticipated. Full article
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10 pages, 10706 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Observations of the Interactions between Pholiota carbonaria and Polytrichum commune and Its Potential Environmental Relevance
by Daniel B. Raudabaugh, Daniel G. Wells, Patrick B. Matheny, Karen W. Hughes, Malcolm Sargent, Teresa Iturriaga and Andrew N. Miller
Life 2021, 11(6), 518; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11060518 - 3 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2087
Abstract
Wildfires play a critical role in maintaining biodiversity and shaping ecosystem structure in fire-prone regions, and successional patterns involving numerous plant and fungal species in post-fire events have been elucidated. Evidence is growing to support the idea that some post-fire fungi can form [...] Read more.
Wildfires play a critical role in maintaining biodiversity and shaping ecosystem structure in fire-prone regions, and successional patterns involving numerous plant and fungal species in post-fire events have been elucidated. Evidence is growing to support the idea that some post-fire fungi can form endophytic/endolichenic relationships with plants and lichens. However, no direct observations of fire-associated fungal–moss interactions have been visualized to date. Therefore, physical interactions between a post-fire fungus, Pholiota carbonaria, and a moss, Polytrichum commune, were visually examined under laboratory conditions. Fungal appressoria were visualized on germinating spores and living protonemata within two weeks of inoculation in most growth chambers. Appressoria were pigmented, reddish gold to braun, and with a penetration peg. Pigmented, reddish gold to braun fungal hyphae were associated with living tissue, and numerous mature rhizoids contained fungal hyphae at six months. Inter-rhizoidal hyphae were pigmented and reddish gold to braun, but no structures were visualized on mature gametophyte leaf or stem tissues. Based on our visual evidence and previous work, we provide additional support for P. carbonaria having multiple strategies in how it obtains nutrients from the environment, and provide the first visual documentation of these structures in vitro. Full article
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25 pages, 16117 KiB  
Article
Multigene Phylogeny Reveals Haploanthostomella elaeidis gen. et sp. nov. and Familial Replacement of Endocalyx (Xylariales, Sordariomycetes, Ascomycota)
by Sirinapa Konta, Kevin D. Hyde, Prapassorn D. Eungwanichayapant, Samantha C. Karunarathna, Milan C. Samarakoon, Jianchu Xu, Lucas A. P. Dauner, Sasith Tharanga Aluthwattha, Saisamorn Lumyong and Saowaluck Tibpromma
Life 2021, 11(6), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11060486 - 26 May 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3489
Abstract
During our investigation of palm fungi in Thailand, two interesting taxa from Elaeis guineensis and Metroxylon sagu (Arecaceae) were collected. Based on phylogenetic analyses of a combined dataset of ITS, LSU, rpb2, and tub2 nucleotide sequences as well as unique morphological characteristics, [...] Read more.
During our investigation of palm fungi in Thailand, two interesting taxa from Elaeis guineensis and Metroxylon sagu (Arecaceae) were collected. Based on phylogenetic analyses of a combined dataset of ITS, LSU, rpb2, and tub2 nucleotide sequences as well as unique morphological characteristics, we introduce the new genus Haploanthostomella within Xylariales, and a new species Endocalyx metroxyli. Additionally, in our study, the genus Endocalyx is transferred to the family Cainiaceae based on its brown conidia and molecular phylogenetic evidence. Full article
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53 pages, 3761 KiB  
Article
Multi-Gene Phylogeny and Morphology Reveal Haplohelminthosporium gen. nov. and Helminthosporiella gen. nov. Associated with Palms in Thailand and A Checklist for Helminthosporium Reported Worldwide
by Sirinapa Konta, Kevin D. Hyde, Samantha C. Karunarathna, Ausana Mapook, Chanokned Senwanna, Lucas A. P. Dauner, Chandrika M. Nanayakkara, Jianchu Xu, Saowaluck Tibpromma and Saisamorn Lumyong
Life 2021, 11(5), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11050454 - 19 May 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3689
Abstract
Palms (Arecaceae) are substrates for a highly diverse range of fungi. Many species are known as saprobes and many are important plant pathogens. Over the course of our studies of micro-fungi from palms in Thailand, two new taxa were discovered. Morphological characteristics and [...] Read more.
Palms (Arecaceae) are substrates for a highly diverse range of fungi. Many species are known as saprobes and many are important plant pathogens. Over the course of our studies of micro-fungi from palms in Thailand, two new taxa were discovered. Morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analyses of combined ITS, LSU, SSU, and tef1-α sequence data revealed their taxonomic positions within Massarinaceae. There are currently ten genera identified and accepted in Massarinaceae, with the addition of the two new genera of Haplohelminthosporium and Helminthosporiella, that are introduced in this paper. Each new genus is provided with a full description and notes, and each new taxon is provided with an illustration for the holotype. A list of identified and accepted species of Helminthosporium with morphology, host information, locality, sequence data, and related references of Helminthosporium reported worldwide is provided based on records in Species Fungorum 2021. This work provides a micro-fungi database of Haplohelminthosporium, Helminthosporiella, and Helminthosporium which can be modified and validated as new data come to light. Full article
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22 pages, 3353 KiB  
Article
Loose Ends in the Cortinarius Phylogeny: Five New Myxotelamonoid Species Indicate a High Diversity of These Ectomycorrhizal Fungi with South American Nothofagaceae
by María Eugenia Salgado Salomón, Carolina Barroetaveña, Tuula Niskanen, Kare Liimatainen, Matthew E. Smith and Ursula Peintner
Life 2021, 11(5), 420; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11050420 - 5 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2840
Abstract
This paper is a contribution to the current knowledge of taxonomy, ecology and distribution of South American Cortinarius (Pers.) Gray. Cortinarius is among the most widely distributed and species-rich basidiomycete genera occurring with South American Nothofagaceae and species are found in many distinct [...] Read more.
This paper is a contribution to the current knowledge of taxonomy, ecology and distribution of South American Cortinarius (Pers.) Gray. Cortinarius is among the most widely distributed and species-rich basidiomycete genera occurring with South American Nothofagaceae and species are found in many distinct habitats, including shrublands and forests. Due to their ectomycorrhizal role, Cortinarius species are critical for nutrient cycling in forests, especially at higher latitudes. Some species have also been reported as edible fungi with high nutritional quality. Our aim is to unravel the taxonomy of selected Cortinarius belonging to phlegmacioid and myxotelamonioid species based on morphological and molecular data. After widely sampling Cortinarius specimens in Patagonian Nothofagaceae forests and comparing them to reference collections (including holotypes), we propose five new species of Cortinarius in this work. Phylogenetic analyses of concatenated rDNA ITS-LSU and RPB1 sequences failed to place these new species into known Cortinarius sections or lineages. These findings highlight our knowledge gaps regarding the fungal diversity of South American Nothofagaceae forests. Due to the high diversity of endemic Patagonian taxa, it is clear that the South American Cortinarius diversity needs to be discovered and described in order to understand the evolutionary history of Cortinarius on a global scale. Full article
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14 pages, 15323 KiB  
Article
Volatile Constituents of Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Aquilaria sinensis with Descriptions of Two New Species of Nemania
by Saowaluck Tibpromma, Lu Zhang, Samantha C. Karunarathna, Tian-Ye Du, Chayanard Phukhamsakda, Munikishore Rachakunta, Nakarin Suwannarach, Jianchu Xu, Peter E. Mortimer and Yue-Hu Wang
Life 2021, 11(4), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11040363 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 5307
Abstract
Algae, bacteria, and fungi, as well as higher plants, produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites known as natural products. Natural products are well known as remarkable sources of many therapeutic agents. The genus Nemania is a wood-decaying fungus that belongs to family [...] Read more.
Algae, bacteria, and fungi, as well as higher plants, produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites known as natural products. Natural products are well known as remarkable sources of many therapeutic agents. The genus Nemania is a wood-decaying fungus that belongs to family Xylariaceae. Nemania is often found as an endophyte in diverse hosts and some species are known to produce useful secondary metabolites. In this study, two Nemania species were isolated as an endophytic fungus from Aquilaria sinensis. Multi-gene phylogenetic studies showed that the newly described strains of Nemania are new to science, and this is the first report of Nemania from the host Aquilaria. One of the fermented species, Nemania aquilariae (KUMCC 20-0268), resulted in five sesquiterpenoids, which were previously reported from agarwood, and their structures were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition, five different media were investigated in vitro to optimize conditions for growing the fungal biomass of Nemania aquilariae and N. yunnanensis. Full article
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17 pages, 2198 KiB  
Article
Stachybotrys musae sp. nov., S. microsporus, and Memnoniella levispora (Stachybotryaceae, Hypocreales) Found on Bananas in China and Thailand
by Binu C. Samarakoon, Dhanushka N. Wanasinghe, Rungtiwa Phookamsak, Jayarama Bhat, Putarak Chomnunti, Samantha C. Karunarathna and Saisamorn Lumyong
Life 2021, 11(4), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11040323 - 7 Apr 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3223
Abstract
A study was conducted to investigate saprobic fungal niches of Stachybotryaceae (Hypocreales) associated with leaves of Musa (banana) in China and Thailand. Three hyphomycetous taxa were collected during the dry season of 2018 and 2019. After a careful phenotypic characterization (both macro- and [...] Read more.
A study was conducted to investigate saprobic fungal niches of Stachybotryaceae (Hypocreales) associated with leaves of Musa (banana) in China and Thailand. Three hyphomycetous taxa were collected during the dry season of 2018 and 2019. After a careful phenotypic characterization (both macro- and microscopically) and a phylogenetic tree reconstruction using a concatenated sequence dataset of internal transcribed spacer (ITS), calmodulin (cmdA), RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2), β-tubulin (tub2), and the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1) gene regions, we report three species of Stachybotryaceae. Stachybotrys musae is introduced as a novel taxon from Yunnan, China, while S.microsporus is reported from Chiang Rai Province in Thailand on Musa. In addition, Memnoniella levispora is also reported from China for the first time. Full article
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18 pages, 4255 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Soil Fungal and Bacterial Communities in Tianchi Volcano Crater, Northeast China
by Xiao Wang and Lorenzo Pecoraro
Life 2021, 11(4), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11040280 - 26 Mar 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3022
Abstract
High-altitude volcanoes, typical examples of extreme environments, are considered of particular interest in biology as a possible source of novel and exclusive microorganisms. We analyzed the crater soil microbial diversity of Tianchi Volcano, northeast China, by combining molecular and morphological analyses of culturable [...] Read more.
High-altitude volcanoes, typical examples of extreme environments, are considered of particular interest in biology as a possible source of novel and exclusive microorganisms. We analyzed the crater soil microbial diversity of Tianchi Volcano, northeast China, by combining molecular and morphological analyses of culturable microbes, and metabarcoding based on Illumina sequencing, in order to increase our understanding of high-altitude volcanic microbial community structure. One-hundred and seventeen fungal strains belonging to 51 species and 31 genera of Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Mucoromycota were isolated. Penicillium, Trichoderma, Cladosporium, Didymella, Alternaria and Fusarium dominated the culturable fungal community. A considerable number of isolated microbes, including filamentous fungi, such as Aureobasidium pullulans and Epicoccum nigrum, yeasts (Leucosporidium creatinivorum), and bacteria (Chryseobacterium lactis and Rhodococcus spp.), typical of high-altitude, cold, and geothermal extreme environments, provided new insights in the ecological characterization of the investigated environment, and may represent a precious source for the isolation of new bioactive compounds. A total of 1254 fungal and 2988 bacterial operational taxonomic units were generated from metabarcoding. Data analyses suggested that the fungal community could be more sensitive to environmental and geographical change compared to the bacterial community, whose network was characterized by more complicated and closer associations. Full article
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