Monitoring and Simulation of Wetland Ecological Processes

A special issue of Land (ISSN 2073-445X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 25 June 2024 | Viewed by 24776

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Aerospace Information Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100094, China
Interests: wetland remote sensing; wetland biodiversity mapping; assessment of wetland protection
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
Interests: global change ecology; remote sensing in wetlands; big data and citizen science

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Guest Editor
College of Biology and the Environment, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, China
Interests: wetland ecohydrology; monitoring and modeling; ecological restoration of degraded wetland ecosystems; assessment of ecological services of the wetland ecosystem
The Institute for Advanced Study of Coastal Ecology, Ludong University, Yantai, China
Interests: coastal wetland ecology; greenhouse and field experiments; the coastal wetland ecosystem process under water and salt stress; effective restoration technology design from a biological aspect for degenerated wetland

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Wetlands are globally diverse ecosystems that occur between terrestrial and aquatic environments. Wetlands provide various ecological services, such as flood attenuation, coastline protection, water purification, and carbon regulation. Due to human disturbances and climate change, wetlands worldwide have been suffering from serious degradation. The monitoring and simulation of wetland ecological processes is helpful to better evaluate the evolution of ecosystems (positive or negative) and carry out corresponding protection and management countermeasures.

In this Special Issue, we encourage contributions that aim to build a better understanding of how wetlands respond to water level fluctuation, precipitation, eutrophication, land use changes, invasion of alien species, storms, and so on. Different kinds of research findings from field experiments (multiple sites), large-scale transect surveys and combined with remote sensing products are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Zhenguo Niu
Prof. Dr. Bin Zhao
Prof. Dr. Zhaoqing Luan
Dr. Bo Guan
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • wetland mapping
  • wetland landscape and functions
  • biodiversity monitoring
  • wetland connectivity assessment
  • carbon sink
  • land-use sustainability
  • simulation of wetland geochemical cycle models
  • monitoring of wetland restoration

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

31 pages, 25016 KiB  
Article
Natural Climate Protection through Peatland Rewetting: A Future for the Rathsbruch Peatland in Germany
by Petra Schneider, Tino Fauk, Florin-Constantin Mihai, Harald Junker, Bernd Ettmer and Volker Lüderitz
Land 2024, 13(5), 581; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13050581 - 27 Apr 2024
Viewed by 725
Abstract
Draining peatlands to create agricultural land has been the norm in Europe, but in the context of climate change and the loss of biodiversity, these rich ecosystems may reactivate their functions as greenhouse gas sinks and retreat spaces for animals and plants. Against [...] Read more.
Draining peatlands to create agricultural land has been the norm in Europe, but in the context of climate change and the loss of biodiversity, these rich ecosystems may reactivate their functions as greenhouse gas sinks and retreat spaces for animals and plants. Against this background, the National Moor Rewetting Strategy was put into effect in Germany in 2023, together with the Natural Climate Protection Action Plan. This article examines the methodology of peatland rewetting from scientific, administrative, social, and technical perspectives. The article focuses on an example of moor rewetting in central Germany: the Rathsbruch moor near the municipality of Zerbst, Saxony-Anhalt. To illustrate the importance of rewetting projects for degraded peatlands, five scenarios with different target soil water levels were considered, and the associated greenhouse gas emissions were calculated for a period of five years. For the planning solution, an estimate of the medium-to-long-term development of the habitat types was made based on current use and the dynamics typical of the habitat. The results for the Rathsbruch moor area showed that increasing the water level in steps of 1, 0.8, or 0.5 m has no significant influence on reducing the CO2 emissions situation, while a depth of 0.3 m has a slight influence. When the water was raised to 0.1 m below the surface (Scenario 5), a significant CO2 reduction was observed. The calculated avoided CO2 costs due to environmental damage show that the environmental benefits multiply with every decimeter of water level increase. The rising groundwater levels and extensification favor the establishment of local biotopes. This means that two of the biggest man-made problems (extinction of species and climate change) can be reduced. Therefore, this research is applicable to the development and planning of recultivation work at municipal and regional levels in Germany and beyond within the framework of EU restoration policy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Simulation of Wetland Ecological Processes)
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18 pages, 8690 KiB  
Article
Tracking the Effects of Mangrove Changes and Spartina alterniflora Invasion on Soil Carbon Storage: A Case Study of the Beibu Gulf of Guangxi, China
by Zengshiqi Huang, Huanmei Yao, Mengsi Wang, Yin Liu, Meijun Chen, Maoyuan Zhong and Junchao Qiao
Land 2024, 13(3), 392; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13030392 - 20 Mar 2024
Viewed by 913
Abstract
In order to clarify the long-term changes in mangroves in the Beibu Gulf of Guangxi and the carbon storage changes after the invasion of Spartina alterniflora (S. alterniflora) in the Dandou Sea area, the Continuous Change Detection and Classification (CCDC) algorithm [...] Read more.
In order to clarify the long-term changes in mangroves in the Beibu Gulf of Guangxi and the carbon storage changes after the invasion of Spartina alterniflora (S. alterniflora) in the Dandou Sea area, the Continuous Change Detection and Classification (CCDC) algorithm combined with feature indices was first used to track the changes. Subsequently, the random forest algorithm was applied to classify each change segment, and then sampling was conducted based on the distribution of S. alterniflora in different invasion years. The results showed that the Kappa coefficient of the classification result of the latest change segment was 0.78. The rapid expansion of S. alterniflora, aquaculture pond construction, and land reclamation activities have led to changes in mangroves, causing a decrease in the area of the mangrove region. A total of 814.57 hectares of mangroves has been converted into other land-cover types, with most pixels undergoing one to two changes, and many of these changes were expected to continue until 2022. An analysis of the distribution characteristics and influencing factors of soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil organic carbon storage (SOCS) at different invasion stages revealed that SOC and SOCS were mainly influenced by soil bulk density, soil moisture content, and electrical conductivity. It was found that S. alterniflora had higher SOC content compared to the mudflats. With the increase in invasion years, S. alterniflora continuously increased the SOC and SOCS content in coastal wetlands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Simulation of Wetland Ecological Processes)
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19 pages, 3287 KiB  
Article
Comparative Assessment of the Spatiotemporal Dynamics and Driving Forces of Natural and Constructed Wetlands in Arid and Semiarid Areas of Northern China
by Jian Zhang, Yao Qin, Yuxuan Zhang, Xin Lu and Jianjun Cao
Land 2023, 12(11), 1980; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12111980 - 26 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 905
Abstract
Arid and semiarid wetlands, the core geographical unit of desert oases, significantly benefit and improve the ecological environment. In this study, we systematically compared the spatiotemporal dynamics and driving forces of natural and constructed wetlands in arid and semiarid regions of northern China [...] Read more.
Arid and semiarid wetlands, the core geographical unit of desert oases, significantly benefit and improve the ecological environment. In this study, we systematically compared the spatiotemporal dynamics and driving forces of natural and constructed wetlands in arid and semiarid regions of northern China from 1995 to 2019. For these comparisons, we utilized a land-use transition matrix, partial least-squares–structural equation model (PLS-SEM), and geographically weighted regression (GWR) model. The results showed that (1) the area of wetlands as a whole showed an upward trend, with natural and constructed wetlands increasing by 4.16% and 11.86%, respectively. The increases mainly resulted from conversions of grassland and other lands (shrub, sparse vegetation, and bare land). (2) The direct dominant factors that drove natural wetland changes were soil and terrain, while those that drove constructed wetlands were human disturbances. Human disturbance, by affecting soil, had a higher significant indirect effect on natural wetlands. Heat, by affecting moisture, had the greatest indirect effect on constructed wetlands. (3) The sensitivity of natural and constructed wetlands to the responses of different drivers showed significant spatial heterogeneity. This study explores the interaction and driving mechanisms of human and natural attributes on natural and constructed wetlands and provides a scientific foundation for the restoration and sustainable development of wetlands in arid and semiarid areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Simulation of Wetland Ecological Processes)
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17 pages, 7345 KiB  
Article
Effects of Temporal and Spatial Changes in Wetlands on Regional Carbon Storage in the Naoli River Basin, Sanjiang Plain, China
by Xilong Dai, Yue Wang, Xinhang Li, Kang Wang, Jia Zhou and Hongwei Ni
Land 2023, 12(7), 1300; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12071300 - 28 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1122
Abstract
The Naoli River (NLR) Basin is a crucial distribution area for wetlands in China. Investigating the link between land use changes and carbon storage in this basin is of significant importance for protecting regional ecosystems and promoting the sustainable development of the social [...] Read more.
The Naoli River (NLR) Basin is a crucial distribution area for wetlands in China. Investigating the link between land use changes and carbon storage in this basin is of significant importance for protecting regional ecosystems and promoting the sustainable development of the social economy. This paper uses long-term Landsat satellite images provided on the GEE (Google Earth Engine) platform and the random forest classification algorithm to create spatial distribution maps of land use in the NLR Basin from 1993 to 2022. The study analyzes the dynamic changes in wetlands in the basin over the past 30 years and employs the InVEST (Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs) model to explore the temporal and spatial evolution characteristics of carbon storage. The results reveal that the wetland area of the NLR Basin showed a downward trend from 1993 to 2022, with a total decrease of 1507.18 hm2 over 30 years. During this period, the carbon storage in the NLR Basin decreased, with a cumulative loss of 1.98 × 107 t, mainly due to the continuous reductions in wetland and forest land. Additionally, the change in carbon storage in the basin has a strong spatial and temporal relationship with the changes in land use/cover area. The total carbon storage is positively associated with the areas of wetland, forest land, and water bodies. The conversion of wetlands into any other land type results in the reduction in carbon storage. These findings can improve our understanding of the spatial and temporal dynamics of wetlands in the NLR Basin over the past 30 years and enable us to analyze the relationship between land use changes and regional carbon storage. The results of this study have great significance for protecting the wetland ecology and regional carbon balance in the NLR Basin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Simulation of Wetland Ecological Processes)
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20 pages, 4894 KiB  
Article
Coupling Biodiversity and Human Pressures to Indicate Conservation Priorities for Threatened Waterfowl Species: A Case in the Henan Yellow River Wetland National Nature Reserve
by Yang Cao, Siyu Wang, Guohang Tian, Nalin Dong and Yakai Lei
Land 2023, 12(6), 1250; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12061250 - 19 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1321
Abstract
Following severe anthropogenic pressure from rapid economic development, wetland biodiversity is now decreasing alarmingly, thus leading to adverse effects. Protected areas (PAs) can be crucial conservation tools to secure wetland biodiversity. However, whether these PAs exhibit high conservation efficiency in buffering wildlife and [...] Read more.
Following severe anthropogenic pressure from rapid economic development, wetland biodiversity is now decreasing alarmingly, thus leading to adverse effects. Protected areas (PAs) can be crucial conservation tools to secure wetland biodiversity. However, whether these PAs exhibit high conservation efficiency in buffering wildlife and habitats from human pressures needs to be understood. Given their sensitivity to habitat quality and regional resource changes, threatened waterfowl could be suitable wetland ecosystem indicators. This study examined the conservation effectiveness of Henan Yellow River Wetland National Nature Reserve (HYRWNNR), which is a crucial region on the East Asia–Australia route for global bird migration. We performed Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling based on field survey data of the 19 threatened waterfowl species, and Human Impact Index (HII) was further mapped with waterfowls distribution to identify the conservation gap and priorities of the HYRWNNR. The results indicated that threatened waterfowl distribution were affected by both environmental factors and human pressure, and a conservation gap existed in the HYRWNNR. Two conservation scenarios were generated based on the spatial pattern of conservation priorities, and their corresponding management strategies were suggested. This study identifies conservation priorities from a novel perspective by synthesizing habitat suitability and human pressure, which can present basic information regarding the HYRWNNR management while supporting waterfowl conservation planning, ultimately promoting wetland habitats sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Simulation of Wetland Ecological Processes)
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15 pages, 4460 KiB  
Article
Effects of Spartina alterniflora Invasion on Soil Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Yancheng Coastal Wetlands
by Yufeng Sheng, Zhaoqing Luan, Dandan Yan, Jingtai Li, Siying Xie, Yao Liu, Li Chen, Min Li and Cuiling Wu
Land 2022, 11(12), 2218; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11122218 - 6 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1842
Abstract
The rapid invasion of Spartina alterniflora threatens the ability of soils to store carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in coastal wetlands. This study analyzed the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of soil C, N and P in Spartina alterniflora wetland in [...] Read more.
The rapid invasion of Spartina alterniflora threatens the ability of soils to store carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in coastal wetlands. This study analyzed the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of soil C, N and P in Spartina alterniflora wetland in the Dafeng Elk Nature Reserve of Yancheng, China, in different invasion stages from 1995 to 2020. The results suggest that: (1) the invasion of Spartina alterniflora increased the content and storage of soil C and N, and decreased the content and storage of soil P; (2) altered soil properties caused by Spartina alterniflora invasion also indirectly affected the accumulation of soil C, N and P in wetland ecosystem. Organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were positively correlated with soil moisture content (SMC) and electrical conductivity (SEC), and negatively correlated with bulk density (SBD) and pH; (3) Spartina alterniflora invasion increased soil C/P and N/P, and decreased soil C/N. In conclusion, Spartina alterniflora invasion has changed the ecosystem, increased the storage capacity of soil C and N in the invasive ecosystem, but reduced the storage capacity of soil P to a certain extent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Simulation of Wetland Ecological Processes)
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19 pages, 6900 KiB  
Article
Landsat-Satellite-Based Analysis of Long-Term Temporal Spatial Dynamics of Cyanobacterial Blooms: A Case Study in Taihu Lake
by Jingtai Li, Yao Liu, Siying Xie, Min Li, Li Chen, Cuiling Wu, Dandan Yan and Zhaoqing Luan
Land 2022, 11(12), 2197; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11122197 - 4 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1453
Abstract
Cyanobacterial blooms in large and shallow freshwater lakes have become one of the most severe ecological problems threatening the environment and public health. Although great progress has been made in Taihu Lake in cyanobacterial bloom monitoring, most previous studies have used MODIS images [...] Read more.
Cyanobacterial blooms in large and shallow freshwater lakes have become one of the most severe ecological problems threatening the environment and public health. Although great progress has been made in Taihu Lake in cyanobacterial bloom monitoring, most previous studies have used MODIS images with a resolution greater than 250 m, available after 2000, while the fine-scale studies on its long-term spatio-temporal dynamics to date are insufficient. This study monitored the spatiotemporal distribution of cyanobacterial blooms in Taihu Lake between 1984 and 2021 using Landsat images of 30 m resolution on the cloud computation platform Google Earth Engine and calculated the cyanobacterial blooms’ area percentage and the cyanobacterial bloom frequency index. Then, we investigated the influence of water quality and meteorological factors on area and frequency using Spearman correlation and principal component analysis. The results show that cyanobacterial blooms spread from the northern to the central, western, and eastern parts of Taihu Lake from 1984 to 2021. With the exception of East Lake, the area and frequency of cyanobacterial blooms increased significantly. Hypereutrophic water conditions, high temperatures, abundant sunshine hours, and low wind velocities all favor cyanobacteria blooms in Taihu Lake, and the key influencing factors of dynamics in cyanobacterial blooms are the comprehensive trophic level index, annual sunshine hours, and annual maximum wind speed. This study can serve as a reference for lake eutrophication monitoring and water resource management and protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Simulation of Wetland Ecological Processes)
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22 pages, 8013 KiB  
Article
Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Wetlands in Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area from 1976 to 2019
by Kai Liu, Jingjing Cao, Minying Lu, Qian Li and Haojian Deng
Land 2022, 11(12), 2158; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11122158 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1920
Abstract
Wetland ecosystems contain rich natural resources and vital ecological functions, and the investigation of spatial and temporal evolution characteristics of wetlands and their driving factors is critical for the management and conservation of wetlands. This study aimed to explore the spatial and temporal [...] Read more.
Wetland ecosystems contain rich natural resources and vital ecological functions, and the investigation of spatial and temporal evolution characteristics of wetlands and their driving factors is critical for the management and conservation of wetlands. This study aimed to explore the spatial and temporal dynamics of wetlands in the Guangdong–Hong Kong–Macao Greater Bay Area (GBA) from 1976 to 2019 using multi-source remote sensing data (DISP KH-9, Landsat, and GaoFen-1), combing with the object-based classification method and landscape invasion index, and further analyze the driving forces affecting the spatial and temporal evolution of wetlands. The results showed that: (1) The total area of wetlands in the GBA showed a trend to first increase and then stabilize from 1976 to 2019. (2) The rapid development of aquaculture led to a continuous increase in aquaculture ponds and offshore aquaculture and a flat change in the middle and late stages, the area of mangroves declined substantially before 2000 and has gradually recovered since then, the invasion of various types of wetlands by built-up land is increasing, and wetlands are becoming increasingly fragmented. (3) The wetland changes in the GBA are the result of a combination of natural factors and human activities. Environmental conditions represent the basis for wetland dynamics, while the population, socio-economics, and policies are important drivers of wetland evolution. The findings will be beneficial to the understanding of wetland dynamic changes in the GBA over the past 40 years, and helpful to the scientific management and sustainable development of wetlands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Simulation of Wetland Ecological Processes)
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28 pages, 7441 KiB  
Article
GEE-Based Spatial-Temporal Dynamics in a Ramsar Wetland, Honghe National Nature Reserve, Northeast China from 1985 to 2021
by Siying Xie, Dandan Yan, Jingtai Li, Yao Liu, Yufeng Sheng and Zhaoqing Luan
Land 2022, 11(12), 2137; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11122137 - 27 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1418
Abstract
Wetlands are vital to the human living environment, and with the degradation of wetland ecosystems, it is crucial to protect and restore them. Therefore, based on the long time-series Landsat images provided by Google Earth Engine (GEE), this study obtained the landscape spatial [...] Read more.
Wetlands are vital to the human living environment, and with the degradation of wetland ecosystems, it is crucial to protect and restore them. Therefore, based on the long time-series Landsat images provided by Google Earth Engine (GEE), this study obtained the landscape spatial distribution maps of the Honghe National Nature Reserve (HNNR) from 1985 to 2021, analysed the spatial and temporal dynamics of the landscape patterns of the HNNR in the past 40 years, and explored the driving factors of the evolution of the HNNR wetland. The results show that from 1985 to 2008, the HNNR wetlands continued to degrade. The area of the wetland landscape declines and converts mainly into the meadow landscape, and the meadow landscape trends upwards and then downwards and converts mainly into woodland and arable land, with increased fragmentation of wetland and meadow. From 2008 to 2021, with the recovery in hydrological conditions, the area of the wetland landscape increased and fragmentation decreased. However, the meadow landscape continued to decline and fragmentation increased, with meadow converting mainly into wetland; changes in hydrological conditions were the main drivers of the evolution of the HNNR wetlands. The results of this study enable us to better understand the dynamics of the HNNR wetland landscape over the last 40 years and provide assistance for the management of the HNNR wetland ecosystems and the ecological restoration of degraded wetlands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Simulation of Wetland Ecological Processes)
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22 pages, 5150 KiB  
Article
Coastal Wetland Vegetation Classification Using Pixel-Based, Object-Based and Deep Learning Methods Based on RGB-UAV
by Jun-Yi Zheng, Ying-Ying Hao, Yuan-Chen Wang, Si-Qi Zhou, Wan-Ben Wu, Qi Yuan, Yu Gao, Hai-Qiang Guo, Xing-Xing Cai and Bin Zhao
Land 2022, 11(11), 2039; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11112039 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2668
Abstract
The advancement of deep learning (DL) technology and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) remote sensing has made it feasible to monitor coastal wetlands efficiently and precisely. However, studies have rarely compared the performance of DL with traditional machine learning (Pixel-Based (PB) and Object-Based Image [...] Read more.
The advancement of deep learning (DL) technology and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) remote sensing has made it feasible to monitor coastal wetlands efficiently and precisely. However, studies have rarely compared the performance of DL with traditional machine learning (Pixel-Based (PB) and Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA) methods) in UAV-based coastal wetland monitoring. We constructed a dataset based on RGB-based UAV data and compared the performance of PB, OBIA, and DL methods in the classification of vegetation communities in coastal wetlands. In addition, to our knowledge, the OBIA method was used for the UAV data for the first time in this paper based on Google Earth Engine (GEE), and the ability of GEE to process UAV data was confirmed. The results showed that in comparison with the PB and OBIA methods, the DL method achieved the most promising classification results, which was capable of reflecting the realistic distribution of the vegetation. Furthermore, the paradigm shifts from PB and OBIA to the DL method in terms of feature engineering, training methods, and reference data explained the considerable results achieved by the DL method. The results suggested that a combination of UAV, DL, and cloud computing platforms can facilitate long-term, accurate monitoring of coastal wetland vegetation at the local scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Simulation of Wetland Ecological Processes)
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17 pages, 4486 KiB  
Article
Morphological Characteristics and Hydrological Connectivity Evaluation of Tidal Creeks in Coastal Wetlands
by Xu Chen, Mingliang Zhang and Hengzhi Jiang
Land 2022, 11(10), 1707; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11101707 - 1 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1759
Abstract
Tidal creeks play a critical role in delivering water, suspended sediments, and nutrients to coastal wetlands, so it is important to understand the characteristics of the tidal creek system to guide the development and sustainable utilization of coastal wetlands. Using the coastal wetlands [...] Read more.
Tidal creeks play a critical role in delivering water, suspended sediments, and nutrients to coastal wetlands, so it is important to understand the characteristics of the tidal creek system to guide the development and sustainable utilization of coastal wetlands. Using the coastal wetlands of the Liao River Estuary (LRE) as a study area, this study accurately divided the tidal flat based on the principle of tidal correction, extracted the linear features of tidal creeks using high-resolution remote sensing (RS) data, and then classified the tidal creeks on a tidal flat using the tidal creek ordering algorithm. Our study aimed to quantify the morphological characteristics of tidal creeks and qualitatively evaluate the parameters of the tidal creek network in the study area. The study results show obvious spatial heterogeneity in the order and the average length of tidal creeks in the coastal wetlands of the LRE. With the increase in the order of tidal creeks, the average length of tidal creeks increased exponentially and the number of tidal creeks decreased exponentially in the study area. The total density of tidal creeks was related to the beach surface elevation gradient, and the density and frequency of tidal creeks reduced substantially with an increase in the order of tidal creeks. The sinuosity ratio of tidal creeks declined sharply with a fall in the beach surface elevation gradient. The average bifurcation ratio of tidal creeks in the upper intertidal zone was higher than that in other zones, indicating that the tidal creeks in the upper intertidal zone were erratic. In addition, the hydrological connectivity of the tidal creek network in the upper intertidal zone and the development of the tidal creek system in the supratidal zone were the highest in the LRE. The study results help understand the spatial variations in tidal creek morphology under the influence of tidal hydrodynamics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Simulation of Wetland Ecological Processes)
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14 pages, 4036 KiB  
Article
Changes of Inundation Frequency in the Yellow River Delta and Its Response to Wetland Vegetation
by Yaoshen Fan, Shoubing Yu, Jinghao Wang, Peng Li, Shenliang Chen, Hongyu Ji, Ping Li and Shentang Dou
Land 2022, 11(10), 1647; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11101647 - 23 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1803
Abstract
The spatiotemporal changes of inundation frequency in the Yellow River Delta (YRD) have profound influences on sustainable ecological protection and are also closely relevant to economic development scarcity on the coast of China. However, long-term changes of inundation frequency have remained poorly characterized. [...] Read more.
The spatiotemporal changes of inundation frequency in the Yellow River Delta (YRD) have profound influences on sustainable ecological protection and are also closely relevant to economic development scarcity on the coast of China. However, long-term changes of inundation frequency have remained poorly characterized. Using the Google Earth Engine (GEE) cloud platform, this study processed Landsat images to explore inundation frequency changes from 1990 to 2020 in the YRD. The results indicated that (1) The existing water index combining the classification results based on the MLM (Maximum Likelihood Method) is suitable for the mapping of the long-term water bodies, especially in the coastal regions; (2) The inundation frequency showed a clearly uneven temporal–spatial distribution. The low inundation area (LIA) is mainly intertidal natural wetlands with a declining trend, while the high inundation area (HIA) is dominated by constructed wetlands with a rising trend; (3) The use frequency of artificial ponds determines the inundation frequency of the constructed wetland. The industry development has gradually matured, causing the inundation frequency from dispersion to concentration in the constructed wetland; and (4) In the natural wetland, the LIA have increased since 2010 and have accounted for 30% in 2020. The large-scale appearance of LIA occurs with the emergence of high vegetation abundance. Spartina alterniflora salt marshes with strong reproductive ability and high abundance lead to the difficulty of wetland flooding and reduce the inundation frequency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Simulation of Wetland Ecological Processes)
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16 pages, 6572 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Spatiotemporal Variation of Landscape Patterns and Their Driving Factors in Inner Mongolia from 2000 to 2015
by Mengyuan Li, Xiaobing Li, Siyu Liu, Xin Lyu, Dongliang Dang, Huashun Dou and Kai Wang
Land 2022, 11(9), 1410; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11091410 - 27 Aug 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1986
Abstract
Understanding the spatiotemporal changes in landscape patterns and their driving factors in Inner Mongolia can benefit land use and ecological environment management in this region. This study used the county landscape index and multiple regression analysis to reveal the temporal and spatial evolutions [...] Read more.
Understanding the spatiotemporal changes in landscape patterns and their driving factors in Inner Mongolia can benefit land use and ecological environment management in this region. This study used the county landscape index and multiple regression analysis to reveal the temporal and spatial evolutions of landscape patterns and their driving factors in Inner Mongolia from 2000 to 2015 with multitemporal land use data. The results showed that (1) grassland was the main landscape type in Inner Mongolia. Grassland and unused land decreased, and cropland expanded from 2000 to 2015. Grassland degradation has slowed since 2005. (2) At the class level, the dominance of grassland decreased, and the degree of landscape fragmentation of cropland, forestland, and grassland increased gradually. At the landscape level, the landscape shape was more complex, the landscape connectivity was worse, and the landscape diversity gradually enhanced. (3) This study revealed that climatic factors influenced the evolution of landscape patterns, and human activities were the key driving factors of landscape-level metrics. The results of this study provide scientific bases for land management strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Simulation of Wetland Ecological Processes)
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17 pages, 3410 KiB  
Article
Distribution and Influencing Factors of Metals in Surface Soil from the Yellow River Delta, China
by Yang Yu, Yue Ling, Yunzhao Li, Zhenbo Lv, Zhaohong Du, Bo Guan, Zhikang Wang, Xuehong Wang, Jisong Yang and Junbao Yu
Land 2022, 11(4), 523; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11040523 - 4 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1759
Abstract
To study metal enrichment and identify the influencing factors, 106 surface soils were collected in the Yellow River delta, including ten vegetation types. Concentrations of 10 different metals, including As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, Al, Fe, and physicochemical properties pH, [...] Read more.
To study metal enrichment and identify the influencing factors, 106 surface soils were collected in the Yellow River delta, including ten vegetation types. Concentrations of 10 different metals, including As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, Al, Fe, and physicochemical properties pH, salinity, particle size were detected. The pH value was 7.35~9.17, and the salinity was in the range of 0.01~2.00%. The average value of silt was 76.18%, which was the main particle size for 99% of the samples. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, and Ni were higher than the background value of Shandong Province or the background value of yellow soil in China. A higher concentration of Fe occurred in Phragmites australis (mean concentration 2.50%) and paddy field. The concentrations of Cd, Cr, Ni, Cu, Pb and Zn were lower in the Suaeda salsa soil. The Nemerow pollution index indicated that 79% of all samples showed low-level metal pollution, and 7% of all samples showed moderate-level metal pollution. In the areas with higher salinity, the concentrations of As were higher, while the concentrations of Cd and Ni were lower. The correlation analysis showed that with increasing pH, the concentrations of As and Zn decreased significantly. The metal concentrations had a significant positive correlation with clay, except for As. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Simulation of Wetland Ecological Processes)
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