Personalized Medicine in the Field of Inflammatory Skin Disorders

A special issue of Journal of Personalized Medicine (ISSN 2075-4426). This special issue belongs to the section "Mechanisms of Diseases".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2022) | Viewed by 58040

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Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Department of Dermatology, “Victor Babes” Clinical Hospital for Infectious Diseases, 030303 Bucharest, Romania
2. Department of Dermatology, “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 37 Dionisie Lupu Street, 020021 Bucharest, Romania
Interests: dermatology; inflammation; carcinogenesis; oxidative stress
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Guest Editor
1. Head of Dermatology Department, “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania
2. Department of Dermatology, “Victor Babes” Clinical Hospital for Infectious Diseases, 283 Mihai Bravu Street, 030303 Bucharest, Romania
Interests: dermatology; psoriasis; skin infections; skin cancers; viral infections; autoimmune disorders

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Skin inflammation is involved in a wide range of conditions that represent a major health issue worldwide. Skin and mucosal surfaces represent the primary interface between the human body and the environment, susceptible to numerous factors whose action results in diseases produced by chemical substances, mechanical trauma, microbial agents, radiation, etc. Inflammation, a complex network of interactions between soluble molecules and cells, represents the main modality of response of the skin to injuries. Numerous studies have revealed close links between chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and carcinogenesis. Chronic inflammation induces the activation of various cell types and an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species promoting the initiation of a malignant process. Identifying specific biomarkers is essential for understanding molecular mechanisms and developing therapies appropriate to the patient’s characteristics.

Personalized medicine is an emerging field of medicine that has the potential to predict which therapy will be safe and efficacious for individual patients using an individual’s genetic profile to guide decisions regarding the diagnosis, treatment, as well as prevention of disease. Personalized medicine stratifies patients based on molecular markers and allows the identification of the best possible solution for the patient. In this respect, inflammatory skin disorders are complex afflictions with a variable course, treatment response, and unpredictable outcome and represent important candidates for a personalized approach.

The aim of this Special issue is to gather articles that present recent advancements in research involving the mechanisms that underlie the development of inflammatory skin disorders, skin and mucosal inflammation in general, as well as potential biomarkers for personalized treatment and prevention. Both clinical and basic science studies are to be considered, as we warmly invite researchers to submit original research manuscripts as well as reviews, in order to offer the readers a wider and fresher perspective of the field, updated to state-of-the-art advancements in the challenging and continuously developing area of personalized medicine in conjunction with inflammation in skin disorders.

Dr. Mircea Tampa
Dr. Monica Neagu
Prof. Dr. Constantin Caruntu
Prof. Dr. Simona Roxana Georgescu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Personalized Medicine is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Biomarkers of inflammation
  • Viral triggers of inflammation and cancer
  • Oxidative stress alterations
  • Immune response profiles
  • Intracellular signaling pathways in inflammation /carcinogenesis
  • Support instruments for personalized medicine
  • Microorganisms and inflammation
  • Autoimmune disorders
  • Skin conditions and systemic inflammatory diseases
  • Skin manifestations of COVID-19

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 194 KiB  
Editorial
Personalized Medicine in the Field of Inflammatory Skin Disorders
by Mircea Tampa, Monica Neagu, Constantin Caruntu and Simona Roxana Georgescu
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(3), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12030426 - 9 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2087
Abstract
Inflammatory skin diseases occur after the onset of abnormal immune cell responses and the activation of various immune signaling pathways in the skin [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine in the Field of Inflammatory Skin Disorders)

Research

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14 pages, 3068 KiB  
Article
Effectiveness of Platelet-Rich Plasma Therapy in Androgenic Alopecia—A Meta-Analysis
by Simona Roxana Georgescu, Andreea Amuzescu, Cristina Iulia Mitran, Madalina Irina Mitran, Clara Matei, Carolina Constantin, Mircea Tampa and Monica Neagu
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(3), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12030342 - 24 Feb 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 8282
Abstract
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) represents a novel therapy tested and is used more and more frequently in dermatology and cosmetic surgery for a variety of conditions, including androgenic alopecia (AGA), a common condition with a complex pathogenesis involving genetic factors, hormonal status and inflammation. [...] Read more.
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) represents a novel therapy tested and is used more and more frequently in dermatology and cosmetic surgery for a variety of conditions, including androgenic alopecia (AGA), a common condition with a complex pathogenesis involving genetic factors, hormonal status and inflammation. We performed an extensive literature search which retrieved 15 clinical trials concerning the use in AGA of PRP therapy, alone or in combination, in male, female or mixed patient groups. A quantitative statistical meta-analysis of n = 17 trial groups proved significant increases in hair density from 141.9 ± 108.2 to 177.5 ± 129.7 hairs/cm2 (mean ± SD) following PRP (p = 0.0004). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first meta-analysis that proved a statistically significant correlation between the number of PRP treatments per month and the percentage change in hair density (r = 0.5, p = 0.03), as well as a negative correlation between the mean age of treatment group and the percentage change in hair density (r = −0.56, p = 0.016). Other factors considered for analysis were the PRP preparation method, amount used per treatment, hair diameter, terminal hairs and pull test. We conclude that PRP represents a valuable and effective therapy for AGA in both males and females if patients are rigorously selected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine in the Field of Inflammatory Skin Disorders)
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13 pages, 3384 KiB  
Article
Serum Sialylation Changes in Actinic Keratosis and Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients
by Mircea Tampa, Ilinca Nicolae, Cristina Iulia Mitran, Madalina Irina Mitran, Cosmin Ene, Clara Matei, Simona Roxana Georgescu and Corina Daniela Ene
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(10), 1027; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11101027 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1965
Abstract
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC), a malignant proliferation of the cutaneous epithelium, is the second most common skin cancer after basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Unlike BCC, cSCC exhibits a greater aggressiveness and the ability to metastasize to any organ in the body. Chronic [...] Read more.
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC), a malignant proliferation of the cutaneous epithelium, is the second most common skin cancer after basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Unlike BCC, cSCC exhibits a greater aggressiveness and the ability to metastasize to any organ in the body. Chronic inflammation and immunosuppression are important processes linked to the development of cSCC. The tumor can occur de novo or from the histological transformation of preexisting actinic keratoses (AK). Malignant cells exhibit a higher amount of sialic acid in their membranes than normal cells, and changes in the amount, type, or linkage of sialic acid in malignant cell glycoconjugates are related to tumor progression and metastasis. The aim of our study was to investigate the sialyation in patients with cSCC and patients with AK. We have determined the serum levels of total sialic acid (TSA), lipid-bound sialic acid (LSA), beta-galactoside 2,6-sialyltransferase I (ST6GalI), and neuraminidase 3 (NEU3) in 40 patients with cSCC, 28 patients with AK, and 40 healthy subjects. Data analysis indicated a significant increase in serum levels of TSA (p < 0.001), LSA (p < 0.001), ST6GalI (p < 0.001), and NEU3 (p < 0.001) in the cSCC group compared to the control group, whereas in patients with AK only the serum level of TSA was significantly higher compared to the control group (p < 0.001). When the cSCC and AK groups were compared, significant differences between the serum levels of TSA (p < 0.001), LSA (p < 0.001), ST6GalI (p < 0.001) and NEU3 (p < 0.001) were found. The rate of synthesis of sialoglycoconjugates and their rate of enzymatic degradation, expressed by the ST6GalI/NEU3 ratio, is 1.64 times lower in the cSCC group compared to the control group (p < 0.01) and 1.53 times lower compared to the AK group (p < 0.01). The tumor diameter, depth of invasion, and Ki67 were associated with higher levels of TSA and LSA. These results indicate an aberrant sialylation in cSCC that correlates with tumor aggressiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine in the Field of Inflammatory Skin Disorders)
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19 pages, 2463 KiB  
Article
Differential Expression of Estrogen-Responsive Genes in Women with Psoriasis
by Vladimir Sobolev, Anna Soboleva, Elena Denisova, Malika Denieva, Eugenia Dvoryankova, Elkhan Suleymanov, Olga V. Zhukova, Nikolay Potekaev, Irina Korsunskaya and Alexandre Mezentsev
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(9), 925; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11090925 - 17 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2551
Abstract
In women, the flow of psoriasis is influenced by each phase of a woman’s life cycle. According to previous findings, significant changes in the levels of sex hormones affect the severity of the disease. Aim: The aim of this study was to [...] Read more.
In women, the flow of psoriasis is influenced by each phase of a woman’s life cycle. According to previous findings, significant changes in the levels of sex hormones affect the severity of the disease. Aim: The aim of this study was to identify the estrogen-responsive genes that could be responsible for the exacerbation of psoriasis in menopausal women. Methods: Skin samples of lesional skin donated by psoriasis patients (n = 5) were compared with skin samples of healthy volunteers (n = 5) using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). The set of differentially expressed proteins was subjected to protein ontology analysis to identify differentially expressed estrogen-responsive proteins. The expression of discovered proteins was validated by qPCR and ELISA on four groups of female participants. The first group included ten psoriasis patients without menopause; the second included eleven postmenopausal patients; the third included five healthy volunteers without menopause; and the fourth included six postmenopausal volunteers. Moreover, the participants’ blood samples were used to assess the levels of estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone. Results: We found that the levels of estradiol and progesterone were significantly lower and the levels of testosterone were significantly higher in the blood of patients compared to the control. The protein ontology analysis of LC–MS/MS data identified six proteins, namely HMOX1, KRT19, LDHA, HSPD1, MAPK1, and CA2, differentially expressed in the lesional skin of female patients compared to male patients. ELISA and qPCR experiments confirmed differential expression of the named proteins and their mRNA. The genes encoding the named proteins were differentially expressed in patients compared to volunteers. However, KRT19 and LDHA were not differentially expressed when we compared patients with and without menopause. All genes, except MAPK1, were differentially expressed in patients with menopause compared to the volunteers with menopause. HMOX1, KRT19, HSPD1, and LDHA were differentially expressed in patients without menopause compared to the volunteers without menopause. However, no significant changes were found when we compared healthy volunteers with and without menopause. Conclusion: Our experiments discovered a differential expression of six estrogen-controlled genes in the skin of female patients. Identification of these genes and assessment of the changes in their expression provide insight into the biological effects of estrogen in lesional skin. The results of proteomic analysis are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD021673. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine in the Field of Inflammatory Skin Disorders)
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21 pages, 4384 KiB  
Article
Unconventional Therapy with IgY in a Psoriatic Mouse Model Targeting Gut Microbiome
by Mihaela Surcel, Adriana Munteanu, Gheorghita Isvoranu, Alef Ibram, Constantin Caruntu, Carolina Constantin and Monica Neagu
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(9), 841; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11090841 - 26 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2134
Abstract
Psoriasis has a multifactorial pathogenesis and recently it was shown that alterations in the skin and intestinal microbiome are involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Therefore, microbiome restoration becomes a promising preventive/therapy strategy in psoriasis. In our pre-clinical study design using a mice [...] Read more.
Psoriasis has a multifactorial pathogenesis and recently it was shown that alterations in the skin and intestinal microbiome are involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Therefore, microbiome restoration becomes a promising preventive/therapy strategy in psoriasis. In our pre-clinical study design using a mice model of induced psoriatic dermatitis (Ps) we have tested the proof-of-concept that IgY raised against pathological human bacteria resistant to antibiotics can alleviate psoriatic lesions and restore deregulated immune cell parameters. Besides clinical evaluation of the mice and histology of the developed psoriatic lesions, cellular immune parameters were monitored. Immune cells populations/subpopulations from peripheral blood and spleen cell suspensions that follow the clinical improvement were assessed using flow cytometry. We have quantified T lymphocytes (CD3ε+) with T-helper (CD4+CD8) and T-suppressor/cytotoxic (CD8a+CD4) subsets, B lymphocytes (CD3εCD19+) and NK cells (CD3εNK1.1+). Improved clinical evolution of the induced Ps along with the restoration of immune cells parameters were obtained when orally IgY was administered. We pin-point that IgY specific compound can be used as a possible pre-biotic-like alternative adjuvant in psoriasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine in the Field of Inflammatory Skin Disorders)
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18 pages, 302 KiB  
Article
Cellular Response against Oxidative Stress, a Novel Insight into Lupus Nephritis Pathogenesis
by Corina Daniela Ene, Simona Roxana Georgescu, Mircea Tampa, Clara Matei, Cristina Iulia Mitran, Madalina Irina Mitran, Mircea Nicolae Penescu and Ilinca Nicolae
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(8), 693; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11080693 - 22 Jul 2021
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 2353
Abstract
The interaction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and hydrocarbonates promotes acute and chronic tissue damage, mediates immunomodulation and triggers autoimmunity in systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) patients. The aim of the study was to determine the pathophysiological mechanisms of [...] Read more.
The interaction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and hydrocarbonates promotes acute and chronic tissue damage, mediates immunomodulation and triggers autoimmunity in systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) patients. The aim of the study was to determine the pathophysiological mechanisms of the oxidative stress-related damage and molecular mechanisms to counteract oxidative stimuli in lupus nephritis. Our study included 38 SLE patients with lupus nephritis (LN group), 44 SLE patients without renal impairment (non-LN group) and 40 healthy volunteers as control group. In the present paper, we evaluated serum lipid peroxidation, DNA oxidation, oxidized proteins, carbohydrate oxidation, and endogenous protective systems. We detected defective DNA repair mechanisms via 8-oxoguanine-DNA-glycosylase (OGG1), the reduced regulatory effect of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) in the activation of AGE-RAGE axis, low levels of thiols, disulphide bonds formation and high nitrotyrosination in lupus nephritis. All these data help us to identify more molecular mechanisms to counteract oxidative stress in LN that could permit a more precise assessment of disease prognosis, as well as developing new therapeutic targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine in the Field of Inflammatory Skin Disorders)
12 pages, 468 KiB  
Article
Prevalence and Characteristics of Psoriasis in Romania—First Study in Overall Population
by Alin Codruț Nicolescu, Ștefana Bucur, Călin Giurcăneanu, Laura Gheucă-Solovăstru, Traian Constantin, Florentina Furtunescu, Ioan Ancuța and Maria Magdalena Constantin
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(6), 523; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11060523 - 7 Jun 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2851
Abstract
Background: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by an excessive hyperproliferation of keratinocytes and a combination of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental influences. The pathogenesis of psoriasis is complex and the exact mechanism remains elusive. Objectives: The study of the prevalence of psoriasis [...] Read more.
Background: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by an excessive hyperproliferation of keratinocytes and a combination of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental influences. The pathogenesis of psoriasis is complex and the exact mechanism remains elusive. Objectives: The study of the prevalence of psoriasis will allow the estimation of the number of people suffering from this condition at the national level, as well as the development and validation of a questionnaire to estimate the prevalence and the risk factors associated with the disease. Methods: A quantitative research was conducted at a national level among the target population in order to validate the questionnaire and estimate the national prevalence. Results: Declaratively, the prevalence of psoriasis in the studied group (N = 1500) is 4%, the first symptoms appearing around the age of 50, with a certified diagnosis being made on average at 55 years. The prevalence of psoriasis vulgaris was 4.99%. Conclusions: The results obtained will be useful in guiding future initiatives and communication campaigns related to this condition, and the methodological approach used will provide the opportunity to make recommendations for improving similar initiatives in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine in the Field of Inflammatory Skin Disorders)
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10 pages, 980 KiB  
Article
S100A6, Calumenin and Cytohesin 2 as Biomarkers for Cutaneous Involvement in Systemic Sclerosis Patients: A Case Control Study
by Paul Balanescu, Eugenia Balanescu, Cristian Baicus and Anca Balanescu
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(5), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11050368 - 2 May 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1900
Abstract
Background: Systemic sclerosis (Ssc) is an autoimmune disease with incomplete known physiopathology. There is a high number of candidate proteomic biomarkers for Ssc that have not yet been confirmed on independent Ssc cohorts. The aim of the study was to confirm circulating S100A6, [...] Read more.
Background: Systemic sclerosis (Ssc) is an autoimmune disease with incomplete known physiopathology. There is a high number of candidate proteomic biomarkers for Ssc that have not yet been confirmed on independent Ssc cohorts. The aim of the study was to confirm circulating S100A6, calumenin, and cytohesin 2 as biomarkers for Ssc. Methods: 53 Ssc patients and 26 age- and gender-matched controls were included. Serum S100A6, calumenin, and cytohesin 2 were evaluated with commercial ELISA kits. Associations between serum expression and clinical Ssc characteristics were evaluated. Results: Serum calumenin, S100A6, and cytohesin 2 were higher in Ssc patients compared to controls. Calumenin associated with extensive cutaneous fibrosis, frequency of Raynaud phenomenon, and low complement level, and had a tendency to be higher in Ssc patients with pulmonary fibrosis. S100A6 correlated with the number of active digital ulcers. Serum cytohesin 2 levels were higher in patients with teleangiectasia and associated with pulmonary artery pressure. Conclusions: Serum calumenin, S100A6, and cytohesin 2 were confirmed as biomarkers on an independent group of Ssc patients. Calumenin had the best predictive capacity for cutaneous Ssc manifestations. Future studies are needed to evaluate the prognostic value of these biomarkers and evaluate them as possible therapeutic targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine in the Field of Inflammatory Skin Disorders)
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10 pages, 2337 KiB  
Article
Sea-Buckthorn Seed Oil Induces Proliferation of both Normal and Dysplastic Keratinocytes in Basal Conditions and under UVA Irradiation
by Maria Dudau, Alexandra Catalina Vilceanu, Elena Codrici, Simona Mihai, Ionela Daniela Popescu, Lucian Albulescu, Isabela Tarcomnicu, Georgeta Moise, Laura Cristina Ceafalan, Mihail E. Hinescu, Ana-Maria Enciu and Cristiana Tanase
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(4), 278; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11040278 - 7 Apr 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2419
Abstract
Past decades demonstrate an increasing interest in herbal remedies in the public eye, with as many as 80% of people worldwide using these remedies as healthcare products, including those for skin health. Sea buckthorn and its derived products (oil; alcoholic extracts), rich in [...] Read more.
Past decades demonstrate an increasing interest in herbal remedies in the public eye, with as many as 80% of people worldwide using these remedies as healthcare products, including those for skin health. Sea buckthorn and its derived products (oil; alcoholic extracts), rich in flavonoids and essential fatty acids, are among these healthcare products. Specifically, sea buckthorn and its derivatives are reported to have antioxidant and antitumor activity in dysplastic skin cells. On the other hand, evidence suggests that the alteration of lipid metabolism is related to increased malignant behavior. Given the paradoxical involvement of lipids in health and disease, we investigated how sea-buckthorn seed oil, rich in long-chain fatty acids, modifies the proliferation of normal and dysplastic skin cells in basal conditions, as well as under ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation. Using real-time analysis of normal and dysplastic human keratinocytes, we showed that sea-buckthorn seed oil stimulated the proliferation of dysplastic cells, while it also impaired the ability of both normal and dysplastic cells to migrate over a denuded area. Furthermore, UVA exposure increased the expression of CD36/SR-B2, a long-chain fatty acid translocator that is related to the metastatic behavior of tumor cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine in the Field of Inflammatory Skin Disorders)
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Review

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12 pages, 3783 KiB  
Review
Current Challenges in Deciphering Sutton Nevi—Literature Review and Personal Experience
by Roxana Nedelcu, Alexandra Dobre, Alice Brinzea, Ionela Hulea, Razvan Andrei, Sabina Zurac, Mihaela Balaban, Mihaela Antohe, Lorena Manea, Andreea Calinescu, Anastasia Coman, Florentina Pantelimon, Adina Dobritoiu, Catalin Popescu, Raluca Popescu, Elena Balasescu, Daniela Ion and Gabriela Turcu
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(9), 904; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11090904 - 9 Sep 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4695
Abstract
Halo nevi, known as leukoderma acquisitum centrifugum, Sutton nevus, leukopigmentary nevus, perinevoid vitiligo, or perinevoid leukoderma, together with vitiligo and melanoma-associated hypopigmentation, belong to the group of dermatoses designated as immunological leukodermas. The etiology and pathogenesis of halo nevi has not been fully [...] Read more.
Halo nevi, known as leukoderma acquisitum centrifugum, Sutton nevus, leukopigmentary nevus, perinevoid vitiligo, or perinevoid leukoderma, together with vitiligo and melanoma-associated hypopigmentation, belong to the group of dermatoses designated as immunological leukodermas. The etiology and pathogenesis of halo nevi has not been fully elucidated. There are several mechanisms through which a lymphocytic infiltrate can induce tumoral regression. In this review, we aimed to update the knowledge about Sutton nevi starting with the clinical appearance and dermoscopic features, continuing with information regarding conventional microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and the immunological mechanisms responsible for the occurrence of halo nevi. We also included in the article original unpublished results when discussing dermoscopic, pathologic and immunohistochemical results in halo nevi. Sutton nevi are valuable models for studying antitumor reactions that the human body can generate. The slow and effective mechanism against a melanocytic skin tumor can teach us important lessons about both autoimmune diseases and anticancer defenses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine in the Field of Inflammatory Skin Disorders)
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41 pages, 1690 KiB  
Review
Interrogating Epigenome toward Personalized Approach in Cutaneous Melanoma
by Elena-Georgiana Dobre, Carolina Constantin, Marieta Costache and Monica Neagu
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(9), 901; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11090901 - 9 Sep 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3846
Abstract
Epigenetic alterations have emerged as essential contributors in the pathogenesis of various human diseases, including cutaneous melanoma (CM). Unlike genetic changes, epigenetic modifications are highly dynamic and reversible and thus easy to regulate. Here, we present a comprehensive review of the latest research [...] Read more.
Epigenetic alterations have emerged as essential contributors in the pathogenesis of various human diseases, including cutaneous melanoma (CM). Unlike genetic changes, epigenetic modifications are highly dynamic and reversible and thus easy to regulate. Here, we present a comprehensive review of the latest research findings on the role of genetic and epigenetic alterations in CM initiation and development. We believe that a better understanding of how aberrant DNA methylation and histone modifications, along with other molecular processes, affect the genesis and clinical behavior of CM can provide the clinical management of this disease a wide range of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, as well as potential therapeutic targets that can be used to prevent or abrogate drug resistance. We will also approach the modalities by which these epigenetic alterations can be used to customize the therapeutic algorithms in CM, the current status of epi-therapies, and the preliminary results of epigenetic and traditional combinatorial pharmacological approaches in this fatal disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine in the Field of Inflammatory Skin Disorders)
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21 pages, 1097 KiB  
Review
Current Trends in Advanced Alginate-Based Wound Dressings for Chronic Wounds
by Andreea Barbu, Bogdan Neamtu, Marius Zăhan, Gabriela Mariana Iancu, Ciprian Bacila and Vioara Mireșan
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(9), 890; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11090890 - 7 Sep 2021
Cited by 71 | Viewed by 8321
Abstract
Chronic wounds represent a major public health issue, with an extremely high cost worldwide. In healthy individuals, the wound healing process takes place in different stages: inflammation, cell proliferation (fibroblasts and keratinocytes of the dermis), and finally remodeling of the extracellular matrix (equilibrium [...] Read more.
Chronic wounds represent a major public health issue, with an extremely high cost worldwide. In healthy individuals, the wound healing process takes place in different stages: inflammation, cell proliferation (fibroblasts and keratinocytes of the dermis), and finally remodeling of the extracellular matrix (equilibrium between metalloproteinases and their inhibitors). In chronic wounds, the chronic inflammation favors exudate persistence and bacterial film has a special importance in the dynamics of chronic inflammation in wounds that do not heal. Recent advances in biopolymer-based materials for wound healing highlight the performance of specific alginate forms. An ideal wound dressing should be adherent to the wound surface and not to the wound bed, it should also be non-antigenic, biocompatible, semi-permeable, biodegradable, elastic but resistant, and cost-effective. It has to give protection against bacterial, infectious, mechanical, and thermal agents, to modulate the level of wound moisture, and to entrap and deliver drugs or other molecules This paper explores the roles of alginates in advanced wound-dressing forms with a particular emphasis on hydrogels, nanofibers networks, 3D-scaffolds or sponges entrapping fibroblasts, keratinocytes, or drugs to be released on the wound-bed. The latest research reports are presented and supported with in vitro and in vivo studies from the current literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine in the Field of Inflammatory Skin Disorders)
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26 pages, 937 KiB  
Review
Cannabinoids and Inflammations of the Gut-Lung-Skin Barrier
by Cristian Scheau, Constantin Caruntu, Ioana Anca Badarau, Andreea-Elena Scheau, Anca Oana Docea, Daniela Calina and Ana Caruntu
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(6), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11060494 - 31 May 2021
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 4670
Abstract
Recent studies have identified great similarities and interferences between the epithelial layers of the digestive tract, the airways and the cutaneous layer. The relationship between these structures seems to implicate signaling pathways, cellular components and metabolic features, and has led to the definition [...] Read more.
Recent studies have identified great similarities and interferences between the epithelial layers of the digestive tract, the airways and the cutaneous layer. The relationship between these structures seems to implicate signaling pathways, cellular components and metabolic features, and has led to the definition of a gut-lung-skin barrier. Inflammation seems to involve common features in these tissues; therefore, analyzing the similarities and differences in the modulation of its biomarkers can yield significant data promoting a better understanding of the particularities of specific signaling pathways and cellular effects. Cannabinoids are well known for a wide array of beneficial effects, including anti-inflammatory properties. This paper aims to explore the effects of natural and synthetic cannabinoids, including the components of the endocannabinoid system, in relation to the inflammation of the gut-lung-skin barrier epithelia. Recent advancements in the use of cannabinoids as anti-inflammatory substances in various disorders of the gut, lungs and skin are detailed. Some studies have reported mixed or controversial results, and these have also been addressed in our paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine in the Field of Inflammatory Skin Disorders)
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19 pages, 1035 KiB  
Review
Application of Janus Kinase Inhibitors in Atopic Dermatitis: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials
by Hou-Ren Tsai, Jing-Wun Lu, Li-Yu Chen and Tai-Li Chen
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(4), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11040279 - 7 Apr 2021
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 4511
Abstract
Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors are promising treatments for atopic dermatitis (AD). The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of JAK inhibitors for AD treatment via the “Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation” approach. We identified 15 randomized [...] Read more.
Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors are promising treatments for atopic dermatitis (AD). The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of JAK inhibitors for AD treatment via the “Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation” approach. We identified 15 randomized controlled trials comparing oral or topical JAK inhibitors against placebo to treat AD. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed, and the numbers-needed-to-treat (NNTs)/numbers-needed-to-harm (NNHs) were calculated. Patients treated with JAK inhibitors were associated with higher rates of achieving eczema area and severity index-75 (rate ratio (RR): 2.84; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.20–3.67; I2: 38.9%; NNT = 3.97), Investigator’s Global Assessment response (RR: 2.99; 95% CI: 2.26–3.95; I2: 0%; NNT = 5.72), and pruritus numerical rating scale response (RR: 2.52; 95% CI: 1.90–3.35; I2: 39.4%; NNT = 4.91) than those treated with placebo. Moreover, patients treated with JAK inhibitors had a higher risk of treatment-emergent adverse events (RR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.02–1.28; I2: 52%; NNH = 14.80) but not adverse events leading to drug discontinuation. According to the evidence-based results, JAK inhibitors are potentially effective strategies (certainty of evidence: “moderate”) for treating AD with tolerable side effects (certainty of evidence: “low”). Nevertheless, long-term follow-up is required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine in the Field of Inflammatory Skin Disorders)
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9 pages, 3114 KiB  
Case Report
Dealing with Corticosteroid and High-Dose Cyclosporine Therapy in a Pyoderma Gangrenosum Patient Contracting a COVID-19 Infection
by Marcella Ricardis May, Albert Rübben, Andrea Lennertz, Luk Vanstreels and Marike Leijs
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(2), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12020173 - 27 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2396
Abstract
Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare and chronic neutrophil inflammation belonging to the spectrum of autoinflammatory disorders. Immunosuppressive therapy is the cornerstone of successful treatment. However, due to the global COVID-19 pandemic, physicians struggle with therapeutic strategies during infection. This paper describes the [...] Read more.
Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare and chronic neutrophil inflammation belonging to the spectrum of autoinflammatory disorders. Immunosuppressive therapy is the cornerstone of successful treatment. However, due to the global COVID-19 pandemic, physicians struggle with therapeutic strategies during infection. This paper describes the case of a 58-year-old patient with a very painful, rapidly increasing wound on his right foot, which was diagnosed as pyoderma gangrenosum. Five weeks after the initial treatment with high-dose immunosuppressives (combination therapy with cyclosporine A and systemic methylprednisolone), he became infected with COVID-19. Reduction in the immunosuppressive dosage proved effective, as the patient recovered from COVID-19 without any complication and showed rapid wound healing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine in the Field of Inflammatory Skin Disorders)
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