Medical Application of Functional Biomaterials

A special issue of Journal of Functional Biomaterials (ISSN 2079-4983).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2022) | Viewed by 45459

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Physiology, “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 050474 Bucharest, Romania
Interests: physiology; inflammation; carcinogenesis; medical imaging; transplantation; molecular signaling; MR spectroscopy
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Guest Editor
Department of Embryology, Faculty of Dentistry, The “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 050474 Bucharest, Romania
Interests: dentin-pulp complex; biomaterials; salivary research
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The research field of functional biomaterials is evolving rapidly, as emerging technological discoveries and innovations are considered for, and often translated to, medical applications. In order to be considered for use in humans, any biomaterial needs to be proven safe, and when medical devices are made up of multiple materials, demonstrating the implant’s biocompatibility can be a very difficult task. Therefore, an appropriate method to assess the safety and tolerance of an implant made up of one or several biomaterials is to measure the host’s immune response.

This Special Issue will host papers related to recent developments in the field of medical applications of functional biomaterials. Topics will include but not be limited to: biocompatibility; immune response in medical implants; advances in dental implant biomaterials; applications of nanoparticles; natural materials with medical applications.

Dr. Cristian Scheau
Prof. Dr. Andreea Didilescu
Prof. Dr. Constantin Caruntu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Functional Biomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • biocompatibility
  • biomaterials
  • biomedical devices
  • dental implants
  • dental materials
  • nanoparticles
  • natural materials

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 193 KiB  
Editorial
Medical Application of Functional Biomaterials—The Future Is Now
by Cristian Scheau, Andreea Cristiana Didilescu and Constantin Caruntu
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(4), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13040244 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1289
Abstract
We live in unprecedented times [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Application of Functional Biomaterials)

Research

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10 pages, 5377 KiB  
Article
PLGA Nanoparticles Uptake in Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth and Oral Keratinocyte Stem Cells
by Maria Tizu, Ion Mărunțelu, Bogdan Mihai Cristea, Claudiu Nistor, Nikolay Ishkitiev, Zornitsa Mihaylova, Rozaliya Tsikandelova, Marina Miteva, Ana Caruntu, Cristina Sabliov, Bogdan Calenic and Ileana Constantinescu
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(3), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13030109 - 31 Jul 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2029
Abstract
Polymeric nanoparticles have been introduced as a delivery vehicle for active compounds in a broad range of medical applications due to their biocompatibility, stability, controlled release of active compounds, and reduced toxicity. The oral route is the most used approach for delivery of [...] Read more.
Polymeric nanoparticles have been introduced as a delivery vehicle for active compounds in a broad range of medical applications due to their biocompatibility, stability, controlled release of active compounds, and reduced toxicity. The oral route is the most used approach for delivery of biologics to the body. The homeostasis and function of oral cavity tissues are dependent on the activity of stem cells. The present work focuses, for the first time, on the interaction between two types of polymeric nanoparticles, poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) or PLGA and PLGA/chitosan, and two stem cell populations, oral keratinocyte stem cells (OKSCs) and stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs). The main results show that statistical significance was observed in OKSCs uptake when compared with normal keratinocytes and transit amplifying cells after 24 h of incubation with 5 and 10 µg/mL PLGA/chitosan. The CD117+ SHED subpopulation incorporated more PLGA/chitosan nanoparticles than nonseparated SHED. The uptake for PLGA/chitosan particles was better than for PLGA particles with longer incubation times, yielding better results in both cell types. The present results demonstrate that nanoparticle uptake depends on stem cell type, incubation time, particle concentration, and surface properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Application of Functional Biomaterials)
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8 pages, 570 KiB  
Article
Dental Pulp Response to Different Types of Calcium-Based Materials Applied in Deep Carious Lesion Treatment—A Clinical Study
by Antoanela Covaci, Lucian Toma Ciocan, Bogdan Gălbinașu, Mirela Veronica Bucur, Mădălina Matei and Andreea Cristiana Didilescu
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13020051 - 2 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4034
Abstract
Dental pulp vitality preservation in dental caries treatment is a major goal in odontotherapy. The main objective of this study was to compare dental pulp tissue responses to vital therapies in deep carious lesions, using different calcium-based materials. An ambispective study was conducted [...] Read more.
Dental pulp vitality preservation in dental caries treatment is a major goal in odontotherapy. The main objective of this study was to compare dental pulp tissue responses to vital therapies in deep carious lesions, using different calcium-based materials. An ambispective study was conducted on 47 patients. Ninety-five teeth with deep carious lesions were treated. Among them, 25 (26.32%) were diagnosed with pulpal exposures and treated by direct pulp capping. Indirect pulp capping was applied when pulp exposure was absent (n = 70; 73.68%). Fifty teeth (52.63%) were treated with TheraCal LC (prospective study), 31 teeth (32.63%) with Calcimol LC, and 14 teeth (14.74%) with Life Kerr AC (retrospective study). The results show that the survival rate for dental pulp was 100% for Life Kerr AC, 92% for TheraCal LC, and 83.87% for Calcimol LC, without significant differences. Apparently, self-setting calcium hydroxide material provided better dental pulp response than the two light-cured materials, regardless of their composition, that is, either calcium -hydroxide or calcium silicate-based. We will need a significant number of long-term clinical studies with the highest levels of evidence to determine the most adequate biomaterials for vital pulp therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Application of Functional Biomaterials)
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12 pages, 4463 KiB  
Article
Effects of Silver Diamine Nitrate and Silver Diamine Fluoride on Dentin Remineralization and Cytotoxicity to Dental Pulp Cells: An In Vitro Study
by Surapong Srisomboon, Matana Kettratad, Andrew Stray, Phakkhananan Pakawanit, Catleya Rojviriya, Somying Patntirapong and Piyaphong Panpisut
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13010016 - 1 Feb 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4312
Abstract
Silver diamine nitrate (SDN) is expected to help control caries similar to silver diamine fluoride (SDF). The aim of this study was to determine the mineral precipitation in demineralized dentin and the cytotoxicity of SDN and SDF to dental pulp cells. Demineralized dentin [...] Read more.
Silver diamine nitrate (SDN) is expected to help control caries similar to silver diamine fluoride (SDF). The aim of this study was to determine the mineral precipitation in demineralized dentin and the cytotoxicity of SDN and SDF to dental pulp cells. Demineralized dentin specimens were prepared, and SDF, SDN, or water (control) was applied. The specimens were then remineralized in simulated body fluid for 2 weeks. The mineral precipitation in the specimens was examined using FTIR-ATR, SEM-EDX, and synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM). Additionally, the cytotoxicity of SDF and SDN to human dental pulp stem cells was analyzed using an MTT assay. The increase in FTIR spectra attributable to apatite formation in demineralized dentin in the SDF group was significantly higher compared to the SDN and control groups (p < 0.05). Dentinal tubule occlusion by the precipitation of silver salts was detected in both SDF and SDN groups. The mineral density as shown in SRXTM images and cytotoxicity of both SDN and SDF groups were comparable (p > 0.05). In conclusion, SDF demonstrated superior in vitro apatite formation compared to SDN. However, the degree of mineral precipitation and cytotoxic effects of both were similar. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Application of Functional Biomaterials)
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10 pages, 2673 KiB  
Article
Physical Characterization and In Vitro Toxicity Test of PDMS Synthesized from Low-Grade D4 Monomer as a Vitreous Substitute in the Human Eyes
by Diba Grace Auliya, Soni Setiadji, Fitrilawati Fitrilawati and Risdiana Risdiana
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13010003 - 2 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2380
Abstract
Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is one of the most superior materials and has been used as a substitute for vitreous humor in the human eye. In previous research, we have succeeded in producing PDMS with low and medium viscosity using octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) monomer with a [...] Read more.
Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is one of the most superior materials and has been used as a substitute for vitreous humor in the human eye. In previous research, we have succeeded in producing PDMS with low and medium viscosity using octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) monomer with a low grade of 96%. Both have good physical properties and are comparable to commercial product PDMS and PDMS synthesized using D4 monomer with a high grade of 98%. An improvement of the synthesis process is needed to ensure that PDMS synthesized from a low-grade D4 monomer under specific synthesis conditions can repeatedly produce high-quality PDMS. Apart from good physical properties, the PDMS as a substitute for vitreous humor must also be safe and not cause other disturbances to the eyes. Here, we reported the process of synthesizing and characterizing the physical properties of low- and medium-viscosity PDMS using a low-grade D4 monomer. We also reported for the first time the in vitro toxicity test using the Hen’s Egg Test Chorioallantoic Membrane (HET-CAM) test method. We have succeeded in obtaining PDMS with viscosities of 1.15 Pa.s, 1.17 Pa.s, and 1.81 Pa.s. All samples have good physical properties such as refractive index, surface tension, and functional groups that are similar to commercial PDMS. The HET-CAM test results showed that all samples did not show signs of irritation indicating that samples were non-toxic. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that PDMS synthesized from a low-grade D4 monomer under specific synthesis conditions by the ROP method is very safe and has the potential to be developed as a substitute for vitreous humor in human eyes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Application of Functional Biomaterials)
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19 pages, 3608 KiB  
Article
Physical/Mechanical and Antibacterial Properties of Orthodontic Adhesives Containing Calcium Phosphate and Nisin
by Supachai Chanachai, Wirinrat Chaichana, Kanlaya Insee, Sutiwa Benjakul, Visakha Aupaphong and Piyaphong Panpisut
J. Funct. Biomater. 2021, 12(4), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb12040073 - 10 Dec 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2805
Abstract
Enamel demineralization around orthodontic adhesive is a common esthetic concern during orthodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to prepare orthodontic adhesives containing monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM) and nisin to enable mineralizing and antibacterial actions. The physicomechanical properties and the inhibition of [...] Read more.
Enamel demineralization around orthodontic adhesive is a common esthetic concern during orthodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to prepare orthodontic adhesives containing monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM) and nisin to enable mineralizing and antibacterial actions. The physicomechanical properties and the inhibition of S. mutans growth of the adhesives with added MCPM (5, 10 wt %) and nisin (5, 10 wt %) were examined. Transbond XT (Trans) was used as the commercial comparison. The adhesive containing a low level of MCPM showed significantly higher monomer conversion (42–62%) than Trans (38%) (p < 0.05). Materials with additives showed lower monomer conversion (p < 0.05), biaxial flexural strength (p < 0.05), and shear bond strength to enamel than those of a control. Additives increased water sorption and solubility of the experimental materials. The addition of MCPM encouraged Ca and P ion release, and the precipitation of calcium phosphate at the bonding interface. The growth of S. mutans in all the groups was comparable (p > 0.05). In conclusion, experimental orthodontic adhesives with additives showed comparable conversion but lesser mechanical properties than the commercial material. The materials showed no antibacterial action, but exhibited ion release and calcium phosphate precipitation. These properties may promote remineralization of the demineralized enamel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Application of Functional Biomaterials)
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15 pages, 3534 KiB  
Article
Molar Septum Expansion with Osseodensification for Immediate Implant Placement, Retrospective Multicenter Study with Up-to-5-Year Follow-Up, Introducing a New Molar Socket Classification
by Samvel Bleyan, João Gaspar, Salah Huwais, Charles Schwimer, Ziv Mazor, José João Mendes and Rodrigo Neiva
J. Funct. Biomater. 2021, 12(4), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb12040066 - 25 Nov 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 6023
Abstract
The ideal positioning of immediate implants in molar extraction sockets often requires the osteotomy to be in the interradicular septum, which can be challenging in some cases, with traditional site preparation techniques. Patients who had undergone molar tooth extraction and immediate implant placement [...] Read more.
The ideal positioning of immediate implants in molar extraction sockets often requires the osteotomy to be in the interradicular septum, which can be challenging in some cases, with traditional site preparation techniques. Patients who had undergone molar tooth extraction and immediate implant placement at five different centers, and followed up between August 2015 and September 2020, were evaluated. Inclusion criteria were use of the osseodensification technique for implant site preparation. The primary outcome was septum width measurement pre-instrumentation and osteotomy diameter post expansion. Clinical outcomes, such as implant insertion torque (ISQ) and implant survival rate, were also collected. A total of 131 patients, who received 145 immediate implants, were included. The mean overall septum width at baseline was 3.3 mm and the mean osteotomy diameter post instrumentation was 4.65 mm. A total of ten implants failed: seven within the healing period and three after loading; resulting in a cumulative implant survival rate of 93.1%. This retrospective study showed that osseodensification is a predictable method for immediate implant placement with interradicular septum expansion in molar extraction sockets. Furthermore, it allowed the introduction of a new molar socket classification. In the future, well-designed controlled clinical studies are needed to confirm these results and further explore the potential advantages of this technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Application of Functional Biomaterials)
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11 pages, 4966 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Clinical Performance of TiNi-Based Implants Used in Chest Wall Repair after Resection for Malignant Tumors
by Evgeniy Topolnitskiy, Timofey Chekalkin, Ekaterina Marchenko, Yuri Yasenchuk, Seung-Baik Kang, Ji-Hoon Kang and Aleksei Obrosov
J. Funct. Biomater. 2021, 12(4), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb12040060 - 11 Nov 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3364
Abstract
In this study, we assessed the outcomes after surgical treatment of thoracic post-excision defects in 15 patients, using TiNi knitted surgical meshes and customized artificial TiNi-based ribs. Methods: Eight patients were diagnosed with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) invading the chest wall, [...] Read more.
In this study, we assessed the outcomes after surgical treatment of thoracic post-excision defects in 15 patients, using TiNi knitted surgical meshes and customized artificial TiNi-based ribs. Methods: Eight patients were diagnosed with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) invading the chest wall, of which five patients were T3N0M0, two were T3N1M0, and one was T3N2M0. Squamous cell carcinoma was identified in three of these patients and adenocarcinoma in five. In two cases, chest wall resection and repair were performed for metastases of kidney cancer after radical nephrectomy. Three-dimensional CT reconstruction and X-ray scans were used to plan the surgery and customize the reinforcing TiNi-based implants. All patients received TiNi-based devices and were prospectively followed for a few years. Results: So far, there have been no lethal outcomes, and all implanted devices were consistent in follow-up examinations. Immediate complications were noted in three cases (ejection of air through the pleural drains, paroxysm of atrial fibrillation, and pleuritis), which were conservatively managed. In the long term, no complications, aftereffects, or instability of the thoracic cage were observed. Conclusion: TiNi-based devices used for extensive thoracic lesion repair in this context are promising and reliable biomaterials that demonstrate good functional, clinical, and cosmetic outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Application of Functional Biomaterials)
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Review

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20 pages, 1529 KiB  
Review
Properties and Applications of PDMS for Biomedical Engineering: A Review
by Inês Miranda, Andrews Souza, Paulo Sousa, João Ribeiro, Elisabete M. S. Castanheira, Rui Lima and Graça Minas
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13010002 - 21 Dec 2021
Cited by 240 | Viewed by 17347
Abstract
Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is an elastomer with excellent optical, electrical and mechanical properties, which makes it well-suited for several engineering applications. Due to its biocompatibility, PDMS is widely used for biomedical purposes. This widespread use has also led to the massification of the soft-lithography [...] Read more.
Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is an elastomer with excellent optical, electrical and mechanical properties, which makes it well-suited for several engineering applications. Due to its biocompatibility, PDMS is widely used for biomedical purposes. This widespread use has also led to the massification of the soft-lithography technique, introduced for facilitating the rapid prototyping of micro and nanostructures using elastomeric materials, most notably PDMS. This technique has allowed advances in microfluidic, electronic and biomedical fields. In this review, an overview of the properties of PDMS and some of its commonly used treatments, aiming at the suitability to those fields’ needs, are presented. Applications such as microchips in the biomedical field, replication of cardiovascular flow and medical implants are also reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Application of Functional Biomaterials)
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