Fungal Biofilms- New Perspectives and Practices

A special issue of Journal of Fungi (ISSN 2309-608X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 May 2023) | Viewed by 8022

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Microbiology and Virology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University in Bratislava, Ilkovičova 6, 842 15 Bratislava, Slovakia
Interests: biofilm; Candida; MRSA; virulence; resistance; farnesol; photodynamic inactivation
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Assistant Guest Editor
Department of Microbiology and Virology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University in Bratislava, 842 15 Bratislava, Slovakia
Interests: biofilm; Candida; MRSA; virulence; resistance; farnesol; photodynamic inactivation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fungal biofilms are an important part of many ecosystems. However, the biofilms formed by fungal pathogens represent a source of serious infection. Understanding the essential pattern of survival and interaction inside fungal biofilms, but also outside them, mainly toward bacteria, is an integral part of scientific knowledge. Studies of those processes are often very complicated, as fungi are eukaryotic organisms. Nevertheless, research in this area is advancing. A particular challenge in this field represents the research of pathogenicity, factors of virulence, and host–pathogen interaction, which are closely related to conventional as well as advanced strategies for the prevention/eradication of fungal biofilms.

The main mission of this Special Issue will be to uncover new information on different aspects of fungal biofilms, including both environmental and medical research aspects. We believe that the contributions published in this issue will help us to significantly expand our knowledge of fungal biofilms and will provide a high-quality source of information as well as inspiration for many experts in the field.

Prof. Dr. Helena Bujdáková
Dr. Lucia Černáková
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Fungi is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • fungi
  • natural ecosystems, single-species biofilms
  • mixed biofilms
  • quorum-sensing
  • sensing and signalling
  • resistance
  • host-pathogen interaction
  • treatment
  • antifungals
  • cold plasma
  • photodynamic inactivation

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

10 pages, 1825 KiB  
Article
Photodynamic Inactivation Effectively Eradicates Candida auris Biofilm despite Its Interference with the Upregulation of CDR1 and MDR1 Efflux Genes
by Matúš Štefánek, Lucia Černáková, Jaroslava Dekkerová and Helena Bujdáková
J. Fungi 2022, 8(11), 1137; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8111137 - 27 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1491
Abstract
Candida auris, in recent years, has emerged as a dangerous nosocomial pathogen. It represents a challenge for effective treatment because of its multiresistance. Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) is a promising way to solve problems with a wide range of resistant microorganisms. This study [...] Read more.
Candida auris, in recent years, has emerged as a dangerous nosocomial pathogen. It represents a challenge for effective treatment because of its multiresistance. Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) is a promising way to solve problems with a wide range of resistant microorganisms. This study aimed to use PDI for the eradication of C. auris biofilms. Moreover, the regulation of the CDR1, CDR2, and MDR1 resistance genes was studied. Experiments were performed on 24 h biofilms formed by three clinical isolates of C. auris in vitro. PDI was performed in the presence of the photosensitizer methylene blue (0.25 mM) and samples were irradiated with a red laser (λ = 660 nm, 190 mW/cm2) for 79, 120, and 300 s. To confirm the PDI effect, confocal laser scanning microscopy was performed after treatment. Effective PDI was achieved in all strains. The highest inhibition was observed after 300 s irradiation, with over 90% inhibition compared with the non-irradiated control sample. PDI was observed to upregulate the expression of the CDR1 gene, but mainly the MDR1 gene. Despite this observation, PDI significantly decreased the survival of C. auris biofilm cells and proved to have great potential for the eradication of problematic resistant yeasts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Biofilms- New Perspectives and Practices)
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18 pages, 14618 KiB  
Article
Biofilm Formation by Chromoblastomycosis Fungi Fonsecaea pedrosoi and Phialophora verrucosa: Involvement with Antifungal Resistance
by Ingrid S. Sousa, Thaís P. Mello, Elaine P. Pereira, Marcela Q. Granato, Celuta S. Alviano, André L. S. Santos and Lucimar F. Kneipp
J. Fungi 2022, 8(9), 963; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8090963 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1897
Abstract
Patients with chromoblastomycosis (CBM) suffer chronic tissue lesions that are hard to treat. Considering that biofilm is the main growth lifestyle of several pathogens and it is involved with both virulence and resistance to antimicrobial drugs, we have investigated the ability of CBM [...] Read more.
Patients with chromoblastomycosis (CBM) suffer chronic tissue lesions that are hard to treat. Considering that biofilm is the main growth lifestyle of several pathogens and it is involved with both virulence and resistance to antimicrobial drugs, we have investigated the ability of CBM fungi to produce this complex, organized and multicellular structure. Fonsecaea pedrosoi and Phialophora verrucosa conidial cells were able to adhere on a polystyrene abiotic substrate, differentiate into hyphae and produce a robust viable biomass containing extracellular matrix. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the tridimensional architecture of the mature biofilms, revealing a dense network of interconnected hyphae, inner channels and amorphous extracellular polymeric material. Interestingly, the co-culture of each fungus with THP-1 macrophage cells, used as a biotic substrate, induced the formation of a mycelial trap covering and damaging the macrophages. In addition, the biofilm-forming cells of F. pedrosoi and P. verrucosa were more resistant to the conventional antifungal drugs than the planktonic-growing conidial cells. The efflux pump activities of P. verrucosa and F. pedrosoi biofilms were significantly higher than those measured in conidia. Taken together, the data pointed out the biofilm formation by CBM fungi and brought up a discussion of the relevance of studies about their antifungal resistance mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Biofilms- New Perspectives and Practices)
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11 pages, 4707 KiB  
Article
Characteristics of Biofilms Formed by C. parapsilosis Causing an Outbreak in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
by Atsushi Miyake, Kenji Gotoh, Jun Iwahashi, Akinobu Togo, Rie Horita, Miho Miura, Masahiro Kinoshita, Keisuke Ohta, Yushiro Yamashita and Hiroshi Watanabe
J. Fungi 2022, 8(7), 700; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8070700 - 01 Jul 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1541
Abstract
Background: We dealt with the occurrence of an outbreak of Candida parapsilosis in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in September 2020. There have been several reports of C. parapsilosis outbreaks in NICUs. In this study we describe our investigation into both the [...] Read more.
Background: We dealt with the occurrence of an outbreak of Candida parapsilosis in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in September 2020. There have been several reports of C. parapsilosis outbreaks in NICUs. In this study we describe our investigation into both the transmission route and the biofilm of C. parapsilosis. Methods: C. parapsilosis strains were detected in three inpatients and in two environmental cultures in our NICU. One environmental culture was isolated from the incubator used by a fungemia patient, and another was isolated from the humidifier of an incubator that had been used by a nonfungemia patient. To prove their identities, we tested them by micro satellite analysis. We used two methods, dry weight measurements and observation by electron microscopy, to confirm biofilm. Results: Microsatellite analysis showed the five C. parapsilosis cultures were of the same strain. Dry weight measurements and electron microscopy showed C. parapsilosis formed biofilms that amounted to clumps of fungal cells. Conclusions: We concluded that the outbreak happened due to horizontal transfer through the humidifier of the incubator and that the C. parapsilosis had produced biofilm, which promoted an invasive and infectious outbreak. Additionally, biofilm is closely associated with pathogenicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Biofilms- New Perspectives and Practices)
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14 pages, 2354 KiB  
Article
Photoinactivation of Yeast and Biofilm Communities of Candida albicans Mediated by ZnTnHex-2-PyP4+ Porphyrin
by Sueden O. Souza, Bruno L. Raposo, José F. Sarmento-Neto, Júlio S. Rebouças, Danielle P. C. Macêdo, Regina C. B. Q. Figueiredo, Beate S. Santos, Anderson Z. Freitas, Paulo E. Cabral Filho, Martha S. Ribeiro and Adriana Fontes
J. Fungi 2022, 8(6), 556; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8060556 - 25 May 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2252
Abstract
Candida albicans is the main cause of superficial candidiasis. While the antifungals available are defied by biofilm formation and resistance emergence, antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (aPDI) arises as an alternative antifungal therapy. The tetracationic metalloporphyrin Zn(II) meso-tetrakis(N-n-hexylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin (ZnTnHex-2-PyP4+) has [...] Read more.
Candida albicans is the main cause of superficial candidiasis. While the antifungals available are defied by biofilm formation and resistance emergence, antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (aPDI) arises as an alternative antifungal therapy. The tetracationic metalloporphyrin Zn(II) meso-tetrakis(N-n-hexylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin (ZnTnHex-2-PyP4+) has high photoefficiency and improved cellular interactions. We investigated the ZnTnHex-2-PyP4+ as a photosensitizer (PS) to photoinactivate yeasts and biofilms of C. albicans strains (ATCC 10231 and ATCC 90028) using a blue light-emitting diode. The photoinactivation of yeasts was evaluated by quantifying the colony forming units. The aPDI of ATCC 90028 biofilms was assessed by the MTT assay, propidium iodide (PI) labeling, and scanning electron microscopy. Mammalian cytotoxicity was investigated in Vero cells using MTT assay. The aPDI (4.3 J/cm2) promoted eradication of yeasts at 0.8 and 1.5 µM of PS for ATCC 10231 and ATCC 90028, respectively. At 0.8 µM and same light dose, aPDI-treated biofilms showed intense PI labeling, about 89% decrease in the cell viability, and structural alterations with reduced hyphae. No considerable toxicity was observed in mammalian cells. Our results introduce the ZnTnHex-2-PyP4+ as a promising PS to photoinactivate both yeasts and biofilms of C. albicans, stimulating studies with other Candida species and resistant isolates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Biofilms- New Perspectives and Practices)
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