A Themed Issue in Honor of Prof. Dr. Xin-Hua Wang on the Occasion of His 70th Birthday: Diversity, Ecology and Evolution of Aquatic Insects

A special issue of Insects (ISSN 2075-4450). This special issue belongs to the section "Insect Systematics, Phylogeny and Evolution".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 October 2023) | Viewed by 22249

Special Issue Editors

College of Fisheries and Life Science, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China
Interests: biogeography; entomology; ecology; systematics; eDNA; mitogenome; molecular phylogeny
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Natural History, University Museum of Bergen, PO Box 7800, NO-5020 Bergen, Norway
Interests: Chironomids; Trichoptera; taxonomy
Department of Biological Sciences, Towson University, 8000 York, Towson, MD 21252-0001, USA
Interests: aquatic ecology; Chironomidae; taxonomy; DNA barcode
College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
Interests: aquatic insects; taxonomy; biomonitoring

Special Issue Information

text

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is dedicated to Prof. Dr. Xin-Hua Wang, Professor at the College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, China, on the occasion of his 70th birthday and to celebrate his enormous contributions in the field of aquatic insect diversity, ecology and evolution.

From 1971 to 1975, Prof. Xin-Hua Wang began his biological studies at the Department of Biology, Nankai University, Tianjin, China. He then began his fellowship at the Department of Biology, Nankai University. In 1999, he graduated with a PhD degree at the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Bergen, Norway, focusing on the Chinese Chironomidae under the supervision of Prof. Ole A. Sæther. Starting from 2000, he became a full-time professor at the Faculty of Zoology at the College of Life Sciences, Nankai University.

Prof. Wang and his coworkers have made remarkable contributions to cutting-edge research areas, including aquatic resources, environmental biology and the systematics of Chironomidae. The achievement of a significant breakthrough in the above-mentioned areas has been well acknowledged by scholars at home and abroad. To date, Prof. Wang has published over 300 original research articles, a series of book chapters and books, and has completed 18 projects of the National Natural Science Foundation of China, 8 international cooperation projects and 8 projects of the National Basic Science and Technology Program. In total, Prof. Wang has established five new genera, and described more than 300 new species of Chironomidae with his 15 PhD students, 14 MSc students, and a large number of undergraduate students. As a chairman, Prof. Xin-Hua Wang hosted the XVII International Chironomidae Symposium in 2009 and the third International Symposium on Aquatic Entomology Societies in East Asia in 2005. He has served as a professional advisor in a wide array of academic societies with a strong reputation. He was a long-standing member of the Asian Benthic Society and served as President from 2015 to 2018. He was also a director of the China Zoological Society, Vice President of Tianjin Zoological Society and executive director of of Tianjin Fisheries Society, and is a director of the Chinese Society for Ocean and Limnology.

Insects is pleased to announce a Special Issue dedicated to Prof. Xin-Hua Wang in honor of his 70th birthday for his outstanding achievements in the field of aquatic insects. This Special Issue aims to publish high-quality original submissions that address and update our understanding of the diversity, ecology and evolution of aquatic insects, including studies in the fields of classic and molecular taxonomy, DNA barcoding, phylogeny, ecology and biogeography.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.                          

Dr. Xiao-Long Lin
Prof. Dr. Trond Andersen
Prof. Dr. Susan E. Gresens
Prof. Dr. Bei-Xin Wang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Insects is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • aquatic insects
  • biogeography
  • diversity
  • DNA barcode
  • ecology
  • phylogeny
  • taxonomy

Published Papers (15 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

16 pages, 13385 KiB  
Article
Occurrence and Population Density of the Endemic Species Cordulegaster buchholzi (Anisoptera: Cordulegastridae) on the Cyclades Islands in Greece
Insects 2023, 14(11), 896; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14110896 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 683
Abstract
Our research was focused on determining the geomorphological characteristics of streams, characteristics of sediment in streams, habitat, emergence sites and flight period. Larvae were recorded in 19 streams (altitude of 35–680 m a.s.l.), with an average minimum width of 44.2 cm, an average [...] Read more.
Our research was focused on determining the geomorphological characteristics of streams, characteristics of sediment in streams, habitat, emergence sites and flight period. Larvae were recorded in 19 streams (altitude of 35–680 m a.s.l.), with an average minimum width of 44.2 cm, an average maximum width of 352.9 cm, an average minimum depth of 9 cm and an average maximum depth (in pools) of 55 cm, with an average stream gradient of 12 grades (range 0.6–45 grades). In terms of grain size, the sediment in these biotopes can be characterized as sandy gravel, medium-grained gravel with an admixture of fine sand and an admixture of coarse-grained gravel prevails (with dominancy of fraction 2–5 mm with a representation of 47%). The larval density reached 0.1–62.2 larvae per 1 m2 of suitable sediment. Exuviae (100 exuviae found in total) occurred at an average of 66 cm horizontal distance from the shore and an average vertical height of 124 cm above the ground. The average total distance of larval movement was 190 cm. The emergence site was categorized as larvae-dominated tree trunks (57% of cases), rocks (51%) and overhanging rocks (11%). The flight period was recorded from 17th May to 15th July (literary record—to 15th August) with peak flight activity noted in the third quarter of June. Considering the size of the area—extent of occurrence, the population of C. buchholzi is strongly threatened; according to the IUCN categories it should be classified as endangered (EN). Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 2865 KiB  
Article
New Mitogenomes of the Polypedilum Generic Complex (Diptera: Chironomidae): Characterization and Phylogenetic Implications
Insects 2023, 14(3), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14030238 - 27 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1217
Abstract
Mitochondrial genomics, as a useful marker for phylogenetics and systematics of organisms, are important for molecular biology studies. The phylogenetic relationships of the Polypedilum generic complex remains controversial, due to lack taxonomy and molecular information. In this study, we newly sequenced mitogenomes of [...] Read more.
Mitochondrial genomics, as a useful marker for phylogenetics and systematics of organisms, are important for molecular biology studies. The phylogenetic relationships of the Polypedilum generic complex remains controversial, due to lack taxonomy and molecular information. In this study, we newly sequenced mitogenomes of 14 species of the Polypedilum generic complex. Coupled with three recently published sequences, we analyzed the nucleotide composition, sequence length, and evolutionary rate of this generic complex. The control region showed the highest AT content. The evolution rate of protein coding genes was as follows: ATP8 > ND6 > ND5 > ND3 > ND2 > ND4L > ND4 > COX1 > ND1 > CYTB > APT6 > COX2 > COX3. We reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships among the genera within the Polypedilum generic complex based on 19 mitochondrial genomes (seventeen ingroups and two outgroups), using Bayesian Inference (BI) and Maximum Likelihood (ML) methods for all databases. Phylogenetic analysis of 19 mitochondrial genomes demonstrated that the Endochironomus + Synendotendipes was sister to Phaenopsectra + Sergentia. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

27 pages, 13099 KiB  
Article
New Color-Patterned Species of Microtendipes Kieffer, 1913 (Diptera: Chironomidae) and a Deep Intraspecific Divergence of Species by DNA Barcodes
Insects 2023, 14(3), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14030227 - 24 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1187
Abstract
The genus Microtendipes Kieffer (Diptera: Chironomidae) has a nearly worldwide distribution, comprising more than 60 species, which are further divided into two species groups based on larval stage. However, species delimitation and identification among the adults of this genus are controversial and uncertain. [...] Read more.
The genus Microtendipes Kieffer (Diptera: Chironomidae) has a nearly worldwide distribution, comprising more than 60 species, which are further divided into two species groups based on larval stage. However, species delimitation and identification among the adults of this genus are controversial and uncertain. For instance, previous studies have provided many synonymies based on conspecific color pattern variations in Microtendipes species. Here, we used DNA barcode data to address Microtendipes species delimitation as well as to test whether color pattern variations can be diagnostic characters for interspecific identification. The 151 DNA barcodes used, 51 of which were contributed by our laboratory, represent 21 morphospecies. Species with specific color patterns could be accurately separated based on DNA barcodes. Consequently, the color patterns of adult males could be important diagnostic characters. The average intraspecific and interspecific sequence divergences were 2.8% and 12.5%, respectively, and several species exhibited deep intraspecific divergences higher than 5%. Molecular operational taxonomic units (OTUs) ranged from 21 to 73, based on methods including phylogenetic trees, the assemble species by automatic partitioning method, the Poisson tree process (PTP), and the general mixed Yule-coalescent (GMYC) method. As a result of these analyses, five new species were recognized (M. baishanzuensis sp. nov., M. bimaculatus sp. nov., M. nigrithorax sp. nov., M. robustus sp. nov., and M. wuyiensis sp. nov.). Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 9180 KiB  
Article
Four New Species of the Genus Eoneureclipsis (Trichoptera: Psychomyiidae) from China Inferred from Morphology and DNA Barcodes
Insects 2023, 14(2), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14020158 - 04 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1106
Abstract
Four new species of the genus Eoneureclipsis Kimmins, 1955 from China are described, illustrated, and diagnosed based on male genitalia: Eoneureclipsis jianfenglingensis sp. nov. from Hainan, E. foraminulatus sp. nov. from Guangxi, E. spinosus sp. nov. from Guangxi and Guangdong, and E. gei sp. nov. [...] Read more.
Four new species of the genus Eoneureclipsis Kimmins, 1955 from China are described, illustrated, and diagnosed based on male genitalia: Eoneureclipsis jianfenglingensis sp. nov. from Hainan, E. foraminulatus sp. nov. from Guangxi, E. spinosus sp. nov. from Guangxi and Guangdong, and E. gei sp. nov. from Fujian. A dichotomous key to Chinese adult males of Eoneureclipsis is provided. A distribution map for all Eoneureclipsis species is also presented. The DNA barcodes (partial mtCOI sequences) of E. jianfenglingensis sp. nov., E. gei sp. nov., and E. hainanensis Mey, 2013 have been generated and compared with all existing sequences of Eoneureclipsis species. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 5749 KiB  
Article
Comparative Analysis of Mitogenomes of Chironomus (Diptera: Chironomidae)
Insects 2022, 13(12), 1164; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13121164 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1389
Abstract
(1) Background: Chironomids are biological indicators, playing an important role in monitoring and assessing the changes in water ecosystems. Mitochondrial genomes have been widely applied as a molecular marker to analyze the taxonomy and phylogeny of insects. However, knowledge of the mitogenomes of [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Chironomids are biological indicators, playing an important role in monitoring and assessing the changes in water ecosystems. Mitochondrial genomes have been widely applied as a molecular marker to analyze the taxonomy and phylogeny of insects. However, knowledge of the mitogenomes of Chironomus species is scarce at present, which limits our understanding of the evolutionary relationships among Chironomus. (2) Methods: In our study, the mitogenomes and their basic structure of 12 Chironomus species and one Microchironomus species were newly sequenced. Combined with reported mitogenomes, a total of 15 mitogenomes of Chironomus were selected for a comparative mitogenomic analysis and phylogenetic reconstruction of Chironomus. (3) Results: Each mitogenome of the Chironomus species has the typical 37 genes and a control region. The basic structure of the whole mitogenomes of Chironomus species is relatively conservative, and the genetic arrangements stay the same as the ancestral mitogenome. (4) Conclusions: Our study enriches the library of mitogenomes of chironomids and provides a valuable resource for understanding the evolutionary history of Chironomus. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 2858 KiB  
Article
The First Study of Mating Mistakes in Stoneflies (Plecoptera) from China, with Remarks on Their Biological Implications
Insects 2022, 13(12), 1102; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13121102 - 30 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1666
Abstract
Currently, information on the biology of Plecoptera from China is scarce, particularly on mating behavior. In this paper, the existence of mating mistakes (erroneous mating attempts) involving 13 Chinese stonefly species (belonging to nine genera and three families) is reported. These erroneous mating [...] Read more.
Currently, information on the biology of Plecoptera from China is scarce, particularly on mating behavior. In this paper, the existence of mating mistakes (erroneous mating attempts) involving 13 Chinese stonefly species (belonging to nine genera and three families) is reported. These erroneous mating behaviors can be included into three different categories: mating attempts between conspecific males (including the formation of erroneous mating balls), mating attempts between different taxa (including displacement attempts during copulation), and mating-related behaviors with non-living objects. From these behaviors, some aspects of stoneflies during mating, such as the physical competition between males, the sensorial mechanisms implied in triggering a mating behavior, the conditions favoring the mating mistakes, and the possible consequences of interspecific mating in the hybrid production, are discussed. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2843 KiB  
Article
New Mitogenome Features of Philopotamidae (Insecta: Trichoptera) with Two New Species of Gunungiella
Insects 2022, 13(12), 1101; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13121101 - 29 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1155
Abstract
A total of 14 individuals of Philopotamidae, from China, were examined. Six species in four genera, including two new species of the genus Gunungiella, were recognized. Their COI barcode sequences were extracted, mitogenomes were sequenced, assembled and analyzed. All of these sequences [...] Read more.
A total of 14 individuals of Philopotamidae, from China, were examined. Six species in four genera, including two new species of the genus Gunungiella, were recognized. Their COI barcode sequences were extracted, mitogenomes were sequenced, assembled and analyzed. All of these sequences were used to further reveal the phylogenetic relationships of the family Philopotamidae. In addition, two new species: Gunungiella wangi n. sp., Gunungiella flabellata n. sp. were described and illustrated. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 7393 KiB  
Article
New Synonym and New Species Record of Filchneria (Plecoptera: Perlodidae) from China with a Morphological, Phylogenetic and Biogeographic Study on This Genus
Insects 2022, 13(11), 1044; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13111044 - 11 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1333
Abstract
The type species of Filchneria Klapálek, 1908, F. mongolica (Klapálek, 1901), is based on a single female collected from Mongolia, but it was considered the same as another species, F. songi from Qinling, China, when the genus Filchneria was proposed. This study narrates [...] Read more.
The type species of Filchneria Klapálek, 1908, F. mongolica (Klapálek, 1901), is based on a single female collected from Mongolia, but it was considered the same as another species, F. songi from Qinling, China, when the genus Filchneria was proposed. This study narrates the story of these two species, which have been confused for a century. Until now, the distribution of F. mongolica has been confirmed only in Mongolia and Russia, and we recently recorded it for the first time in Inner Mongolia as a new species record in China. Additionally, the genus Sinoperlodes is a junior synonym of Filchneria, as demonstrated by both the morphological and molecular analysis. Phylogenetic analysis based on the subfamily Perlodinae is provided, along with morphological and biogeographic comparisons of Filchneria and its relatives. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2331 KiB  
Article
Phylogenetic Analyses Support the Monophyly of the Genus Lispe Latreille (Diptera: Muscidae) with Insights into Intrageneric Relationships
Insects 2022, 13(11), 1015; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13111015 - 03 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1370
Abstract
Lispe Latreille (Diptera: Muscidae) are a widespread group of predatory flies that inhabit semi-aquatic environments. Previous studies on this genus have mainly focused on morphological classification, so molecular data are entirely lacking, and there has been no attempt at a phylogenetic placement of [...] Read more.
Lispe Latreille (Diptera: Muscidae) are a widespread group of predatory flies that inhabit semi-aquatic environments. Previous studies on this genus have mainly focused on morphological classification, so molecular data are entirely lacking, and there has been no attempt at a phylogenetic placement of the genus or the resolution of intragenic relationships. To address the phylogenetic placement of Lispe and to fill its gap in the Tree of Life Web Project, 58 Lispe spp. (covering 11 out of 13 acknowledged Lispe species groups) were selected to reconstruct a phylogeny using Maximum likelihood (ML) estimates, Maximum Parsimony (MP) analyses, and Bayesian inference (BI) based on two mitochondrial protein-coding genes (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COXI) and cytochrome b gene (CYTB)) and one nuclear gene (a fragment of the carbamoyl phosphate synthetase region of the CAD gene). The phylogenetic analyses indicated that the monophyletic Lispe is the sister group of the monophyletic Limnophora, together forming the tribe Limnophorini under the subfamily Coenosiinae. Three generic categories are proven obsolete: Chaetolispa Malloch, Lispacoenosia Snyder, and Xenolispa Malloch. Within the genus, the validity of 11 species groups is clarified by both molecular and morphological data. This study provides a sound basis for continuing intergeneric and intrageneric research into this fascinating and widespread genus. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2026 KiB  
Article
Small Islands, Small Ponds, Small Communities—Water Beetles and Water Boatmen in the Faroe Islands
Insects 2022, 13(10), 923; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13100923 - 12 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1481
Abstract
Water beetles of the families Dytiscidae and Haliplidae (Coleoptera) as well as water boatmen (Heteroptera: Corixidae) are well-studied groups in Northern Europe. In the Faroe Islands, their diversity is much lower than in the British Isles and Fennoscandia. Here, we first describe the [...] Read more.
Water beetles of the families Dytiscidae and Haliplidae (Coleoptera) as well as water boatmen (Heteroptera: Corixidae) are well-studied groups in Northern Europe. In the Faroe Islands, their diversity is much lower than in the British Isles and Fennoscandia. Here, we first describe the communities of water beetles and water boatmen in Faroese ponds and, secondly, assess whether community compositions are driven by habitat characteristics or dispersal abilities of species. To this end, we sampled 57 ponds, ranging between <50 m2 and >50,000 m2. Environmental variables such as pond size, temperature, pH, and depth were measured, and distance to nearest neighboring pond was calculated as a measure of isolation. The sampling yielded 1522 individuals of eight species, with species richness of the ponds ranging between zero and six. Pond size (shoreline length) did explain differences in community composition, whereas water depth explained differences in diversity indices with lower diversity in deeper ponds. We found species-specific relations between abundance and shoreline length, e.g., H. fulvus and H. palustris being restricted to larger ponds. Lastly, water beetle and water boatmen communities in Faroese ponds are discussed in the light of island biogeography and species distributions in the North Atlantic islands. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 7093 KiB  
Article
Response of Chironomids to Key Environmental Factors: Perspective for Biomonitoring
Insects 2022, 13(10), 911; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13100911 - 07 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1294
Abstract
Chironomids are the species-richest family among macroinvertebrates and are often used as indicators of ecological conditions in inland waters. High taxonomic expertise is needed for identification and new species are still being described even in the well-known West Palearctic region. Our Microsoft Access [...] Read more.
Chironomids are the species-richest family among macroinvertebrates and are often used as indicators of ecological conditions in inland waters. High taxonomic expertise is needed for identification and new species are still being described even in the well-known West Palearctic region. Our Microsoft Access relational database comprises data on Chironomid species collected in rivers and lakes in Italy and some other European countries over a period of about 50 years, often associated with physical-chemical data, but in some cases, only data on Chironomids are available with no associated environmental data. The aim of the present paper was to propose the calculation of ecological traits of Chironomid species as a tool to derive information on water quality, when only data on Chironomid species composition are present, while environmental data are lacking. Traits summarizing the species’ response to environmental variables were evaluated, with emphasis on natural and man-influenced factors: current velocity, water temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, and nutrients. Traits calculations were carried out in the R environment using a subset of our data, including both environmental data and Chironomid abundances. The relations between sites, Chironomid, species and traits were evaluated using correspondence analysis and other multivariate methods. The response of species showed an interaction among different factors, with the possibility of ordering species along a single environmental gradient, extending from cold running waters to warm standing waters, with few exceptions. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 2826 KiB  
Article
Genome-Wide Identification of P450 Genes in Chironomid Propsilocerus akamusi Reveals Candidate Genes Involved in Gut Microbiota-Mediated Detoxification of Chlorpyrifos
Insects 2022, 13(9), 765; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13090765 - 24 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1539
Abstract
Chironomids commonly dominate macroinvertebrate assemblages in aquatic habitats and these non-biting midges are known for their ability to tolerate contaminants. Studies regarding the interplay between gut microbiota and host detoxification ability is currently a point of interest. Cytochrome P450s (P450s) are critical metabolic [...] Read more.
Chironomids commonly dominate macroinvertebrate assemblages in aquatic habitats and these non-biting midges are known for their ability to tolerate contaminants. Studies regarding the interplay between gut microbiota and host detoxification ability is currently a point of interest. Cytochrome P450s (P450s) are critical metabolic enzymes in which a subset is involved in xenobiotic detoxification. In this study, we first conducted an integrated global investigation of P450s based on the whole genomic sequence of Propsilocerus akamusi and retrieved a series of 64 P450 genes which were further classified into 4 clans and 25 families on the basis of phylogenetic relationships. With assistance of RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR validation, the expression profile of screened PaP450s in guts was compared between chlorpyrifos-challenged larvae with deficient gut microbiota (GD) and those with a conventional gut community (CV). An increasing prevalence of chlorpyrifos from sublethal to lethal dosages induced a greater mortality rate of individuals coupled with remarkable downregulation of 14 P450s in GD larval guts when compared to CV ones. Moreover, it turned out that the decreased level of PaCYP3998B1 and PaCYP3987D1 might imply impaired host endogenous detoxification capability potentiated by gut dysbiosis, reflected by a remarkably severe mortality in GD larvae treated with lethal chlorpyrifos. Collectively, our study unveiled candidate P450 genes that might be mediated by gut symbionts in chlorpyrifos-challenged P. akamusi larvae, possibly facilitating further understanding of the detoxified mechanism that chironomids might employ to alleviate poisonousness. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 3119 KiB  
Article
Comparative Mitogenomic Analyses of Hydropsychidae Revealing the Novel Rearrangement of Protein-Coding Gene and tRNA (Trichoptera: Annulipalpia)
Insects 2022, 13(9), 759; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13090759 - 23 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1441
Abstract
Gene rearrangement of the mitochondrial genome of insects, especially the rearrangement of protein-coding genes, has long been a hot topic for entomologists. Although mitochondrial gene rearrangement is common within Annulipalpia, protein-coding gene rearrangement is relatively rare. As the largest family in Annulipalpia, the [...] Read more.
Gene rearrangement of the mitochondrial genome of insects, especially the rearrangement of protein-coding genes, has long been a hot topic for entomologists. Although mitochondrial gene rearrangement is common within Annulipalpia, protein-coding gene rearrangement is relatively rare. As the largest family in Annulipalpia, the available mitogenomes from Hydropsychidae Curtis, 1835 are scarce, and thus restrict our interpretation of the mitogenome characteristic. In this study, we obtained 19 novel mitogenomes of Hydropsychidae, of which the mitogenomes of the genus Arctopsyche are published for the first time. Coupled with published hydropsychid mitogenome, we analyzed the nucleotide composition evolutionary rates and gene rearrangements of the mitogenomes among subfamilies. As a result, we found two novel gene rearrangement patterns within Hydropsychidae, including rearrangement of protein-coding genes. Meanwhile, our results consider that the protein-coding gene arrangement of Potamyia can be interpreted by the tandem duplication/random loss (TDRL) model. In addition, the phylogenetic relationships within Hydropsychidae constructed by two strategies (Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood) strongly support the monophyly of Arctopscychinae, Diplectroninae, Hydropsychinae, and Macronematinae. Our study provides new insights into the mechanisms and patterns of mitogenome rearrangements in Hydropsychidae. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 4551 KiB  
Article
Comparative Mitogenome Analyses of Subgenera and Species Groups in Epeorus (Ephemeroptera: Heptageniidae)
Insects 2022, 13(7), 599; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13070599 - 30 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1378
Abstract
Epeorus Eaton, 1881 is a diverse mayfly genus in Heptageniidae comprising more than 100 species which are further divided into nine subgenera and several species groups. However, the classification and the phylogenetic relationships among them are still uncertain. Here, 15 complete mitochondrial genomes [...] Read more.
Epeorus Eaton, 1881 is a diverse mayfly genus in Heptageniidae comprising more than 100 species which are further divided into nine subgenera and several species groups. However, the classification and the phylogenetic relationships among them are still uncertain. Here, 15 complete mitochondrial genomes of Epeorus were sequenced and compared together with six available ones of same genus in the NCBI database. Based on morphological classification, the 21 mitogenomes were classified into six subgenera (Proepeorus, Epeorus s.str., Belovius, Iron, Caucasiron and Siniron) and four species groups (G1, G2, montanus and longimanus). Among all analyzed mitogenomes, the gene rearrangement of trnI-trnM-trnQ-NCR-ND2 was first found occurring in three species of group G1, whereas the gene block trnI-trnM-trnQ-trnM-ND2 was observed in all other mitogenomes of Epeorus. Furthermore, the genetic composition and codon usage of species in group G1 were also significantly different from all other Epeorus species, except group longimanus. The intergenic spacer between trnA and trnR, which has the stem-loop secondary structure, occurred in all 21 mitogenomes, and the sequences of stems and loops were conserved within species groups. Furthermore, the phylogenetic analyses strongly support the monophyly of all species groups, although three of six recognized subgenera Proepeorus, Belovius, and Iron, were shown as the non-monophyletic groups. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

32 pages, 11189 KiB  
Article
Descriptions and Barcoding of Five New Chinese Deuterophlebia Species Revealing This Genus in Both Holarctic and Oriental Realms (Diptera: Deuterophlebiidae)
Insects 2022, 13(7), 593; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13070593 - 28 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2121
Abstract
The monotypic family Deuterophlebiidae of China was recorded twice previously from far northwest upon adults, the most parts of this country have not been investigated, leaving a huge blank of knowledge on their morphology, diversity, biology, or distribution. After deliberated collecting and rearing [...] Read more.
The monotypic family Deuterophlebiidae of China was recorded twice previously from far northwest upon adults, the most parts of this country have not been investigated, leaving a huge blank of knowledge on their morphology, diversity, biology, or distribution. After deliberated collecting and rearing in recent years, we obtained more than one thousand specimens of Deuterophlebiidae, they are classified into five new species herein: Deuterophlebia sinensis sp. nov., D. yunnanensis sp. nov., D. wuyiensis sp. nov., D. acutirhina sp. nov. and D. alata sp. nov. Detailed descriptions and photographs of gathered life stages are given for these new species. Adults of them can be identified by chaetotaxy and length ratio of flagellomeres and legs, microtrichia on postgena and shape of their clypeus, pupae can be recognized by thoracic spines and abdominal chitin bands, and larvae can be separated by setae on thorax and abdomen. Genetic distances between species are 0.086–0.175 based on their COI genes. This contribution represents the first database of the enigmatic Deuterophlebiidae from China and shows a new distribution pattern of Deuterophlebia. In addition, the discovery throws some light on the origin and biogeography of the genus and family. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop