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Natural and Synthetic Toxins: Molecular Aspects and Development Treatment Strategy II

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Toxicology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2023) | Viewed by 5218

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Hradec Králové, 50003 Hradec Králové, Czech Republic
Interests: toxins; drug design and development; antidotes for pesticide and nerve agent intoxications; Alzheimer’s disease; detergents as disinfectants, decontamination means; nanotechnology; health economics and pharmacoeconomics
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is the continuation of our previous Special Issue, entitled "Natural and Synthetic Toxins: Molecular Aspects and Development Treatment Strategy".

There are many chemical molecules of different origins—natural, semi-natural, or synthetic. Year by year, many novel compounds are synthesized or isolated worldwide. Many of them influence biological systems. Some display positive effects, as promising drug candidates; on the other hand, others exert high toxicity to organisms.

This Special Issue will be focused on both synthetic and naturally occurring toxins, their chemistry, and their biochemistry. Their effects will be solved at the molecular level (molecular biology and computer modelling). Finally, their toxic potential and possible antidotes used in the case of intoxication will be discussed.

Prof. Dr. Kamil Kuca
Dr. Eugenie Nepovimova
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • toxins
  • synthetic toxins
  • natural toxins
  • toxic industrial chemicals
  • chemical warfare agents
  • antidotes
  • signaling pathways
  • molecular biology
  • in vitro and in vivo
  • biochemistry

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 2513 KiB  
Article
Activation of the ROS/CncC Signaling Pathway Regulates Cytochrome P450 CYP4BQ1 Responsible for (+)-α-Pinene Tolerance in Dendroctonus armandi
by Bin Liu, Ming Tang and Hui Chen
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(19), 11578; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms231911578 - 30 Sep 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1442
Abstract
Bark beetles mainly rely on detoxification enzymes to resist the host tree’s defense against oleoresin terpenes. Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) play an important role in the detoxification of plant allelochemicals and pesticides in insect. One P450 gene (DaCYP4BQ1) is associated with [...] Read more.
Bark beetles mainly rely on detoxification enzymes to resist the host tree’s defense against oleoresin terpenes. Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) play an important role in the detoxification of plant allelochemicals and pesticides in insect. One P450 gene (DaCYP4BQ1) is associated with the response of (+)-α-pinene in Dendroctonus armandi. However, the regulatory mechanism of this P450 gene response to (+)-α-pinene is still unknown. In this study, spatiotemporal expression profiling indicated that CYP4BQ1 was highly expressed in adult and larval stages of D. armandi, and it was predominantly expressed in fat body, midgut, and Malpighian tubules of adults. Moreover, the expression of CYP4BQ1 significantly increased after exposure to (+)-α-pinene, and depletion of it decreased the tolerance of adults to (+)-α-pinene. In addition, (+)-α-pinene treatment induced the expression of the transcription factors cap ‘n’ collar isoform C (CncC) and its binding factor muscle aponeurosis fibromatosis (Maf), elevated the level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Silencing CncC suppressed CYP4BQ1 expression and enhanced the susceptibility of beetles to (+)-α-pinene. Similarly, application of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger N-acetylcysteine reduced the production and accumulation of H2O2, suppressed the expression of CncC, Maf, and CYP4BQ1 and led to decreased tolerance of adults to (+)-α-pinene. In contrast, ingestion of the CncC agonist curcumin elevated CYP4BQ1 expression and enhanced (+)-α-pinene tolerance. The results demonstrate that, in D. armandi, (+)-α-pinene induces CYP4BQ1 via activation of the ROS/CncC signaling pathway. Full article
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10 pages, 1655 KiB  
Article
The Toxicity, Sublethal Effects, and Biochemical Mechanism of β-Asarone, a Potential Plant-Derived Insecticide, against Bemisia tabaci
by Ran Wang, Yong Fang, Wunan Che, Qinghe Zhang, Jinda Wang and Chen Luo
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(18), 10462; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms231810462 - 09 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1370
Abstract
Bemisia tabaci is a threat to agriculture worldwide because of its potential to cause devastating damage to various crops. β-asarone is a bioactive pesticidal chemical originating from Acorus calamus (or “Sweet Flag”) plants, and it displays significant lethal effects against insect pests. In [...] Read more.
Bemisia tabaci is a threat to agriculture worldwide because of its potential to cause devastating damage to various crops. β-asarone is a bioactive pesticidal chemical originating from Acorus calamus (or “Sweet Flag”) plants, and it displays significant lethal effects against insect pests. In this study, we established a baseline of susceptibility to β-asarone from China and patterns of cross-resistance to other popular insecticides. We found that all the 12 field-collected B. tabaci populations exhibited high susceptibility to β-asarone, and there was no cross-resistance detected for other tested insecticides. We subsequently evaluated the sublethal effects of β-asarone on physiology and biochemistry via LC25 treatment (4.7 mg/L). LC25 of β-asarone resulted in prolonged developmental duration and decreased survival rates in B. tabaci nymphs, pseudopupae, and adults. Significant reductions in oviposition duration, fecundity, and hatchability were also observed. Additionally, the metabolic enzyme activity and expression profiles of selected cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) genes following the LC25 treatment of β-asarone suggest that enhanced detoxification via P450s could be involved in the observed sublethal effects. These findings demonstrate the strong toxicity and significant sublethal effects of β-asarone on B. tabaci and suggest that the induced overexpression of P450 genes could be associated with the response to β-asarone. Full article
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Review

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12 pages, 1037 KiB  
Review
Insecticide Resistance and Its Management in Two Invasive Cryptic Species of Bemisia tabaci in China
by Qian Wang, Chen Luo and Ran Wang
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(7), 6048; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24076048 - 23 Mar 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1825
Abstract
The sweet potato whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a major agricultural pest with a wide host range throughout the world. The species designation for B. tabaci includes numerous distinct cryptic species or biotypes. Two invasive B. tabaci biotypes, MEAM1 (B) and MED (Q), were [...] Read more.
The sweet potato whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a major agricultural pest with a wide host range throughout the world. The species designation for B. tabaci includes numerous distinct cryptic species or biotypes. Two invasive B. tabaci biotypes, MEAM1 (B) and MED (Q), were found in China at the end of the 20th century and at the beginning of the 21st century. MEAM1 (B) and MED (Q) show higher pesticide resistance levels than native strains, and the levels of resistance vary with changes in insecticide selection pressure. Recent studies have revealed metabolic resistance mechanisms and target site mutations in invasive B. tabaci strains that render them resistant to a range of insecticides and have uncovered the frequency of these resistance-related mutations in B. tabaci populations in China. Novel pest control agents, such as RNA-based pesticides and nano-pesticides, have achieved effective control effects in the laboratory and are expected to be applied for field control of B. tabaci in the future. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of resistance developed by these invasive B. tabaci populations since their invasion into China. We also provide suggestions for ecologically sound and efficient B. tabaci control. Full article
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