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Effects of Exercise Release Mediated Myokines on Immune System

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Immunology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 February 2023) | Viewed by 6861

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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The importance of exercise for the wellbeing of the immune system was described by some researchers as early as the 1970s. Regular physical activity is essential in increasing the ability of the body to counteract infections, despite an initial, transient, exercise-induced immunosuppression. Exercise can induce stress-like responses in organisms, similar to those observed after sepsis and trauma. These physical–clinical stressors induce mechanical, metabolic, and hormonal responses to maintain homeostasis. As a part of its process, the immune system is affected by acute and chronic adaptations, leading to adjustments in the inflammatory response and the response of leucocytes. Such cells are responsive to hormones, as well as to cytokines, to maintain their constant communication with the skeletal muscle. More recently, proteins similar to cytokines—myokines—have been discovered to be produced and released by the skeletal muscle itself during physical exercise. These molecules have autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions, and help in performing the regulation of the immunometabolism, thanks to their ability to induce significant metabolic, energetic, and hormonal changes. In this Special Issue, we intend to collect original articles and reviews describing the important roles of myokines in the complex communication between the skeletal muscle and the immune system, and their role in modulating immune system activation.

Prof. Dr. Mirko Pesce
Prof. Dr. Antonia Patruno
Dr. Teresa Paolucci
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • myokines
  • cytokines
  • inflammation
  • skeletal muscle
  • immune system

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 2820 KiB  
Article
Hsp90 as a Myokine: Its Association with Systemic Inflammation after Exercise Interventions in Patients with Myositis and Healthy Subjects
by Xiao Švec, Hana Štorkánová, Maja Špiritović, Kryštof Slabý, Sabína Oreská, Aneta Pekáčová, Barbora Heřmánková, Kristýna Bubová, Petr Česák, Haya Khouri, Gulalai Amjad, Heřman Mann, Martin Komarc, Karel Pavelka, Ladislav Šenolt, Josef Zámečník, Jiří Vencovský and Michal Tomčík
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(19), 11451; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms231911451 - 28 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1752
Abstract
Compelling evidence supports the health benefits of physical exercise on the immune system, possibly through the molecules secreted by the skeletal muscles known as myokines. Herein, we assessed the impact of exercise interventions on plasma Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) levels in 27 [...] Read more.
Compelling evidence supports the health benefits of physical exercise on the immune system, possibly through the molecules secreted by the skeletal muscles known as myokines. Herein, we assessed the impact of exercise interventions on plasma Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) levels in 27 patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) compared with 23 IIM patients treated with standard-of-care immunosuppressive therapy only, and in 18 healthy subjects undergoing strenuous eccentric exercise, and their associations with the traditional serum markers of muscle damage and inflammation. In contrast to IIM patients treated with pharmacotherapy only, in whom we demonstrated a significant decrease in Hsp90 over 24 weeks, the 24-week exercise program resulted in a stabilization of Hsp90 levels. These changes in Hsp90 levels were associated with changes in several inflammatory cytokines/chemokines involved in the pathogenesis of IIM or muscle regeneration in general. Strenuous eccentric exercise in healthy volunteers induced a brief increase in Hsp90 levels with a subsequent return to baseline levels at 14 days after the exercise, with less pronounced correlations to systemic inflammation. In this study, we identified Hsp90 as a potential myokine and mediator for exercise-induced immune response and as a potential biomarker predicting improvement after physiotherapy in muscle endurance in IIM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Exercise Release Mediated Myokines on Immune System)
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Review

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24 pages, 2073 KiB  
Review
The Impact of Exercise on Immunity, Metabolism, and Atherosclerosis
by Ulrike Meyer-Lindemann, Aldo Moggio, Alexander Dutsch, Thorsten Kessler and Hendrik B. Sager
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(4), 3394; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24043394 - 08 Feb 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4443
Abstract
Physical exercise represents an effective preventive and therapeutic strategy beneficially modifying the course of multiple diseases. The protective mechanisms of exercise are manifold; primarily, they are elicited by alterations in metabolic and inflammatory pathways. Exercise intensity and duration strongly influence the provoked response. [...] Read more.
Physical exercise represents an effective preventive and therapeutic strategy beneficially modifying the course of multiple diseases. The protective mechanisms of exercise are manifold; primarily, they are elicited by alterations in metabolic and inflammatory pathways. Exercise intensity and duration strongly influence the provoked response. This narrative review aims to provide comprehensive up-to-date insights into the beneficial effects of physical exercise by illustrating the impact of moderate and vigorous exercise on innate and adaptive immunity. Specifically, we describe qualitative and quantitative changes in different leukocyte subsets while distinguishing between acute and chronic exercise effects. Further, we elaborate on how exercise modifies the progression of atherosclerosis, the leading cause of death worldwide, representing a prime example of a disease triggered by metabolic and inflammatory pathways. Here, we describe how exercise counteracts causal contributors and thereby improves outcomes. In addition, we identify gaps that still need to be addressed in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Exercise Release Mediated Myokines on Immune System)
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