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Latest Review Papers in Macromolecules 2023

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Macromolecules".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2023) | Viewed by 15051

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Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 3 Acad. Lavrentiev Ave., 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia
Interests: coordination polymers; metal cluster complexes; crystal structure

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Department of Chemistry, INSTM Research Unit, University of Pavia, Via Torquato Taramelli 12, 27100 Pavia, Italy
Interests: controlled free radical polymerization; cyclopolymerization; sequence controlled polymers; conjugated polymers; organic materials; chirality
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue aims to collect high quality review papers in all the fields of Macromolecules. We encourage researchers from related fields to contribute review papers highlighting the latest developments in Macromolecules, or to invite relevant experts and colleagues to do so. Full length comprehensive reviews will be preferred.

Prof. Dr. Giuseppe Zanotti
Dr. Yuri V. Mironov
Prof. Dr. Dario Pasini
Guest Editors

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Published Papers (6 papers)

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32 pages, 4381 KiB  
Review
A Review of Natural Polysaccharides: Sources, Characteristics, Properties, Food, and Pharmaceutical Applications
by Ikbel Benalaya, Gilberto Alves, João Lopes and Luís R. Silva
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(2), 1322; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25021322 - 22 Jan 2024
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1997
Abstract
Natural polysaccharides, which are described in this study, are some of the most extensively used biopolymers in food, pharmaceutical, and medical applications, because they are renewable and have a high level of biocompatibility and biodegradability. The fundamental understanding required to properly exploit polysaccharides [...] Read more.
Natural polysaccharides, which are described in this study, are some of the most extensively used biopolymers in food, pharmaceutical, and medical applications, because they are renewable and have a high level of biocompatibility and biodegradability. The fundamental understanding required to properly exploit polysaccharides potential in the biocomposite, nanoconjugate, and pharmaceutical industries depends on detailed research of these molecules. Polysaccharides are preferred over other polymers because of their biocompatibility, bioactivity, homogeneity, and bioadhesive properties. Natural polysaccharides have also been discovered to have excellent rheological and biomucoadhesive properties, which may be used to design and create a variety of useful and cost-effective drug delivery systems. Polysaccharide-based composites derived from natural sources have been widely exploited due to their multifunctional properties, particularly in drug delivery systems and biomedical applications. These materials have achieved global attention and are in great demand because to their biochemical properties, which mimic both human and animal cells. Although synthetic polymers account for a substantial amount of organic chemistry, natural polymers play a vital role in a range of industries, including biomedical, pharmaceutical, and construction. As a consequence, the current study will provide information on natural polymers, their biological uses, and food and pharmaceutical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Latest Review Papers in Macromolecules 2023)
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43 pages, 5270 KiB  
Review
Towards Polycaprolactone-Based Scaffolds for Alveolar Bone Tissue Engineering: A Biomimetic Approach in a 3D Printing Technique
by Krzysztof Stafin, Paweł Śliwa and Marek Piątkowski
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(22), 16180; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms242216180 - 10 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1388
Abstract
The alveolar bone is a unique type of bone, and the goal of bone tissue engineering (BTE) is to develop methods to facilitate its regeneration. Currently, an emerging trend involves the fabrication of polycaprolactone (PCL)-based scaffolds using a three-dimensional (3D) printing technique to [...] Read more.
The alveolar bone is a unique type of bone, and the goal of bone tissue engineering (BTE) is to develop methods to facilitate its regeneration. Currently, an emerging trend involves the fabrication of polycaprolactone (PCL)-based scaffolds using a three-dimensional (3D) printing technique to enhance an osteoconductive architecture. These scaffolds are further modified with hydroxyapatite (HA), type I collagen (CGI), or chitosan (CS) to impart high osteoinductive potential. In conjunction with cell therapy, these scaffolds may serve as an appealing alternative to bone autografts. This review discusses research gaps in the designing of 3D-printed PCL-based scaffolds from a biomimetic perspective. The article begins with a systematic analysis of biological mineralisation (biomineralisation) and ossification to optimise the scaffold’s structural, mechanical, degradation, and surface properties. This scaffold-designing strategy lays the groundwork for developing a research pathway that spans fundamental principles such as molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and fabrication techniques. Ultimately, this paves the way for systematic in vitro and in vivo studies, leading to potential clinical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Latest Review Papers in Macromolecules 2023)
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18 pages, 14637 KiB  
Review
Three/Four-Dimensional Printed PLA Nano/Microstructures: Crystallization Principles and Practical Applications
by Yufeng Zhou, Jingbo Chen, Xuying Liu and Jianwei Xu
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(18), 13691; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241813691 - 05 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1100
Abstract
Compared to traditional methods, three/four-dimensional (3D/4D) printing technologies allow rapid prototyping and mass customization, which are ideal for preparing nano/microstructures of soft polymer materials. Poly (lactic acid) (PLA) is a biopolymer material widely used in additive manufacturing (AM) because of its biocompatibility and [...] Read more.
Compared to traditional methods, three/four-dimensional (3D/4D) printing technologies allow rapid prototyping and mass customization, which are ideal for preparing nano/microstructures of soft polymer materials. Poly (lactic acid) (PLA) is a biopolymer material widely used in additive manufacturing (AM) because of its biocompatibility and biodegradability. Unfortunately, owing to its intrinsically poor nucleation ability, a PLA product is usually in an amorphous state after industrial processing, leading to some undesirable properties such as a barrier property and low thermal resistance. Crystallization mediation offers a most practical way to improve the properties of PLA products. Herein, we summarize and discuss 3D/4D printing technologies in the processing of PLA nano/microstructures, focusing on crystallization principles and practical applications including bio-inspired structures, flexible electronics and biomedical engineering mainly reported in the last five years. Moreover, the challenges and prospects of 3D/4D printing technologies in the fabrication of high-performance PLA materials nano/microstructures will also be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Latest Review Papers in Macromolecules 2023)
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33 pages, 10762 KiB  
Review
Advances in Functionalization of Bioresorbable Nanomembranes and Nanoparticles for Their Use in Biomedicine
by Ahammed H. M. Mohammed-Sadhakathullah, Sofia Paulo-Mirasol, Juan Torras and Elaine Armelin
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(12), 10312; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241210312 - 18 Jun 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2224
Abstract
Bioresorbable nanomembranes (NMs) and nanoparticles (NPs) are powerful polymeric materials playing an important role in biomedicine, as they can effectively reduce infections and inflammatory clinical patient conditions due to their high biocompatibility, ability to physically interact with biomolecules, large surface area, and low [...] Read more.
Bioresorbable nanomembranes (NMs) and nanoparticles (NPs) are powerful polymeric materials playing an important role in biomedicine, as they can effectively reduce infections and inflammatory clinical patient conditions due to their high biocompatibility, ability to physically interact with biomolecules, large surface area, and low toxicity. In this review, the most common bioabsorbable materials such as those belonging to natural polymers and proteins for the manufacture of NMs and NPs are reviewed. In addition to biocompatibility and bioresorption, current methodology on surface functionalization is also revisited and the most recent applications are highlighted. Considering the most recent use in the field of biosensors, tethered lipid bilayers, drug delivery, wound dressing, skin regeneration, targeted chemotherapy and imaging/diagnostics, functionalized NMs and NPs have become one of the main pillars of modern biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Latest Review Papers in Macromolecules 2023)
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24 pages, 6922 KiB  
Review
Polymeric Wet-Strength Agents in the Paper Industry: An Overview of Mechanisms and Current Challenges
by Iolanda Francolini, Luciano Galantini, Fernando Rea, Cristiano Di Cosimo and Pierpaolo Di Cosimo
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(11), 9268; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24119268 - 25 May 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4804
Abstract
Polymeric wet-strength agents are important additives used in the paper industry to improve the mechanical properties of paper products, especially when they come into contact with water. These agents play a crucial role in enhancing the durability, strength, and dimensional stability of paper [...] Read more.
Polymeric wet-strength agents are important additives used in the paper industry to improve the mechanical properties of paper products, especially when they come into contact with water. These agents play a crucial role in enhancing the durability, strength, and dimensional stability of paper products. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the different types of wet-strength agents available and their mechanisms of action. We will also discuss the challenges associated with the use of wet-strength agents and the recent advances in the development of more sustainable and environmentally friendly agents. As the demand for more sustainable and durable paper products continues to grow, the use of wet-strength agents is expected to increase in the coming years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Latest Review Papers in Macromolecules 2023)
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35 pages, 2586 KiB  
Review
Nano-Sized Fucoidan Interpolyelectrolyte Complexes: Recent Advances in Design and Prospects for Biomedical Applications
by Natallia V. Dubashynskaya, Ekaterina R. Gasilova and Yury A. Skorik
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(3), 2615; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24032615 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2895
Abstract
The marine polysaccharide fucoidan (FUC) is a promising polymer for pharmaceutical research and development of novel drug delivery systems with modified release and targeted delivery. The presence of a sulfate group in the polysaccharide makes FUC an excellent candidate for the formation of [...] Read more.
The marine polysaccharide fucoidan (FUC) is a promising polymer for pharmaceutical research and development of novel drug delivery systems with modified release and targeted delivery. The presence of a sulfate group in the polysaccharide makes FUC an excellent candidate for the formation of interpolyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) with various polycations. However, due to the structural diversity of FUC, the design of FUC-based nanoformulations is challenging. This review describes the main strategies for the use of FUC-based PECs to develop drug delivery systems with improved biopharmaceutical properties, including nanocarriers in the form of FUC–chitosan PECs for pH-sensitive oral delivery, targeted delivery systems, and polymeric nanoparticles for improved hydrophobic drug delivery (e.g., FUC-zein PECs, core-shell structures obtained by the layer-by-layer self-assembly method, and self-assembled hydrophobically modified FUC particles). The importance of a complex study of the FUC structure, and the formation process of PECs based on it for obtaining reproducible polymeric nanoformulations with the desired properties, is also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Latest Review Papers in Macromolecules 2023)
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