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Inflammation, Metabolism and Molecular Changes in Tissue Repair and Regeneration

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Immunology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 February 2022) | Viewed by 11010

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Guest Editor
1. Division of Plastic, Aesthetic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Medical University of Graz, 8036 Graz, Austria
2. COREMED—Cooperative Centre for Regenerative Medicine, Joanneum Research GmbH, Neue Stiftingtal Str., 2, A-8010 Graz, Austria
Interests: plastic surgery; burn care; tissue engineering; regenerative medicine; wound healing; outcome measures; high-impact leadership; circular economy; sustainability
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Tissue repair after injury and surgical procedures is a complex, metabolically demanding process. Depending on the tissue's regenerative capacity and the quality of the inflammatory response, the outcome is generally imperfect, with some degree of fibrosis, which is defined by the aberrant accumulation of collagenous connective tissue. Inflammatory cells multitask at the wound site by facilitating wound debridement and producing chemokines, metabolites, and growth factors. If this well-orchestrated response becomes dysregulated, the wound can become chronic or progressively fibrotic, with both outcomes impairing tissue function, which can ultimately lead to organ failure and death. The aim of this Special Issue is to obtain a profound overview of the current understanding of the role of inflammation and cell metabolism in tissue-regenerative responses, to highlight emerging concepts that may expand therapeutic perspectives, and to briefly discuss where important knowledge gaps remain.

Prof. Dr. Lars-Peter Kamolz
Guest Editor

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Published Papers (3 papers)

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23 pages, 2511 KiB  
Article
Fetal Immunomodulatory Environment Following Cartilage Injury—The Key to CARTILAGE Regeneration?
by Iris Ribitsch, Andrea Bileck, Monika Egerbacher, Simone Gabner, Rupert L. Mayer, Lukas Janker, Christopher Gerner and Florien Jenner
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(23), 12969; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222312969 - 30 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2284
Abstract
Fetal cartilage fully regenerates following injury, while in adult mammals cartilage injury leads to osteoarthritis (OA). Thus, in this study, we compared the in vivo injury response of fetal and adult ovine articular cartilage histologically and proteomically to identify key factors of fetal [...] Read more.
Fetal cartilage fully regenerates following injury, while in adult mammals cartilage injury leads to osteoarthritis (OA). Thus, in this study, we compared the in vivo injury response of fetal and adult ovine articular cartilage histologically and proteomically to identify key factors of fetal regeneration. In addition, we compared the secretome of fetal ovine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro with injured fetal cartilage to identify potential MSC-derived therapeutic factors. Cartilage injury caused massive cellular changes in the synovial membrane, with macrophages dominating the fetal, and neutrophils the adult, synovial cellular infiltrate. Correspondingly, proteomics revealed differential regulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators and growth-factors between adult and fetal joints. Neutrophil-related proteins and acute phase proteins were the two major upregulated protein groups in adult compared to fetal cartilage following injury. In contrast, several immunomodulating proteins and growth factors were expressed significantly higher in the fetus than the adult. Comparison of the in vitro MSCs proteome with the in vivo fetal regenerative signature revealed shared upregulation of 17 proteins, suggesting their therapeutic potential. Biomimicry of the fetal paracrine signature to reprogram macrophages and modulate inflammation could be an important future research direction for developing novel therapeutics. Full article
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Review

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18 pages, 1195 KiB  
Review
Resveratrol-Induced Signal Transduction in Wound Healing
by Anna-Lisa Pignet, Marlies Schellnegger, Andrzej Hecker, Michael Kohlhauser, Petra Kotzbeck and Lars-Peter Kamolz
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(23), 12614; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222312614 - 23 Nov 2021
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 4876
Abstract
Resveratrol is a well-known polyphenol that harbors various health benefits. Besides its well-known anti-oxidative potential, resveratrol exerts anti-inflammatory, pro-angiogenic, and cell-protective effects. It seems to be a promising adjuvant for various medical indications, such as cancer, vascular, and neurodegenerative diseases. Additionally, resveratrol was [...] Read more.
Resveratrol is a well-known polyphenol that harbors various health benefits. Besides its well-known anti-oxidative potential, resveratrol exerts anti-inflammatory, pro-angiogenic, and cell-protective effects. It seems to be a promising adjuvant for various medical indications, such as cancer, vascular, and neurodegenerative diseases. Additionally, resveratrol was shown to display beneficial effects on the human skin. The polyphenol is discussed to be a feasible treatment approach to accelerate wound healing and prevent the development of chronic wounds without the drawback of systemic side effects. Despite resveratrol’s increasing popularity, its molecular mechanisms of action are still poorly understood. To take full advantage of resveratrol’s therapeutic potential, a profound knowledge of its interactions with its targets is needed. Therefore, this review highlights the resveratrol-induced molecular pathways with particular focus on the most relevant variables in wound healing, namely inflammation, oxidative stress, autophagy, collagen proliferation and angiogenesis. Full article
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14 pages, 1028 KiB  
Review
Survey of Molecular Mechanisms of Hyperbaric Oxygen in Tissue Repair
by Joerg Lindenmann, Christian Smolle, Lars-Peter Kamolz, Freyja Maria Smolle-Juettner and Wolfgang F. Graier
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(21), 11754; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222111754 - 29 Oct 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2889
Abstract
For more than six decades, hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) has been used for a variety of indications involving tissue repair. These indications comprise a wide range of diseases ranging from intoxications to ischemia-reperfusion injury, crush syndrome, central nervous injury, radiation-induced tissue damage, burn injury [...] Read more.
For more than six decades, hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) has been used for a variety of indications involving tissue repair. These indications comprise a wide range of diseases ranging from intoxications to ischemia-reperfusion injury, crush syndrome, central nervous injury, radiation-induced tissue damage, burn injury and chronic wounds. In a systematic review, the molecular mechanisms triggered by HBO described within the last two decades were compiled. They cover a wide range of pathways, including transcription, cell-to-cell contacts, structure, adhesion and transmigration, vascular signaling and response to oxidative stress, apoptosis, autophagy and cell death, as well as inflammatory processes. By analyzing 71 predominantly experimental publications, we established an overview of the current concepts regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of HBO. We considered both the abovementioned pathways and their role in various applications and indications. Full article
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