Resource Recovery of Wastes by Fermentation towards a Sustainable Circular Economy

A special issue of Fermentation (ISSN 2311-5637). This special issue belongs to the section "Industrial Fermentation".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 June 2022) | Viewed by 16762

Special Issue Editors

Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, University of Borås, 501 90 Borås, Sweden
Interests: waste biorefinery; bioprocess; ethanol; biogas; pretreatment; fermentation; fungi
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Food and Agricultural Product Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Interests: bioprocess; fermentation; mycotoxin

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The exponential growth of human population over the last several centuries has disrupted the ecological balance of natural resource. This is due to in the current linear system, in which the resources are extracted from the nature, manufactured, used and wasted. This resulted in diminishing of our resources and accumulating wastes. This means that our world is not in balance, as other organisms in nature cannot handle these wastes and converting them back to the resources. Therefore, a new paradigm that enables recovering resource from the waste materials has been gaining attention nowadays and known as a circular economy concept. A circular economy keeps resources in use for as long as possible, extracts maximum value from use, then recovers and regenerates products and materials at the end of their shelf-life. Hence, it reduces the dependence on virgin feedstocks as well as reducing the quantity of material going to landfill sites. A promising approach to convert waste materials into valuable products is via fermentation with the as it occurs at ambient temperature and has been happening naturally for years. This special issue is therefore dedicated to publishing recent innovative research results, as well as review papers that deals with extracting and/or recovering resources from exhaust gas, wastewater and solid wastes (agricultural, municipal and industrial) by fermentation using various microorganisms. The manuscripts could be dealing with a technical or economical issues on these topics.

Prof. Dr. Mohammad Taherzadeh
Dr. Rachma Wikandari
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • resource recovery
  • circular economy
  • solid wastes
  • wastewater
  • exhaust gas
  • fermentation
  • techno-economy

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 2837 KiB  
Article
Recycling Food Waste and Saving Water: Optimization of the Fermentation Processes from Cheese Whey Permeate to Yeast Oil
Fermentation 2022, 8(7), 341; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8070341 - 19 Jul 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3084
Abstract
With the aim of developing bioprocesses for waste valorization and a reduced water footprint, we optimized a two-step fermentation process that employs the oleaginous yeast Cutaneotrichosporon oleaginosus for the production of oil from liquid cheese whey permeate. For the first step, the addition [...] Read more.
With the aim of developing bioprocesses for waste valorization and a reduced water footprint, we optimized a two-step fermentation process that employs the oleaginous yeast Cutaneotrichosporon oleaginosus for the production of oil from liquid cheese whey permeate. For the first step, the addition of urea as a cost-effective nitrogen source allowed an increase in yeast biomass production. In the second step, a syrup from candied fruit processing, another food waste supplied as carbon feeding, triggered lipid accumulation. Consequently, yeast lipids were produced at a final concentration and productivity of 38 g/L and 0.57 g/L/h respectively, which are among the highest reported values. Through this strategy, based on the valorization of liquid food wastes (WP and mango syrup) and by recovering not only nutritional compounds but also the water necessary for yeast growth and lipid production, we addressed one of the main goals of the circular economy. In addition, we set up an accurate and fast-flow cytometer method to quantify the lipid content, avoiding the extraction step and the use of solvents. This can represent an analytical improvement to screening lipids in different yeast strains and to monitoring the process at the single-cell level. Full article
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24 pages, 2987 KiB  
Article
Towards a Complete Exploitation of Brewers’ Spent Grain from a Circular Economy Perspective
Fermentation 2022, 8(4), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8040151 - 29 Mar 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3705
Abstract
In the present work, brewers’ spent grain (BSG), which represents the major by-product of the brewing industry, was recovered from a regional brewery and fractionated in order to obtain a complete valorization. In particular, the whole process was divided in two main parts. [...] Read more.
In the present work, brewers’ spent grain (BSG), which represents the major by-product of the brewing industry, was recovered from a regional brewery and fractionated in order to obtain a complete valorization. In particular, the whole process was divided in two main parts. A first pretreatment with hot water in an autoclave allowed the separation of a solution containing the soluble proteins and sugars, which accounted for 25% of the total starting biomass. This first step allowed the preparation of a medium that was successfully employed as a valuable growing medium for different microbial fermentations, leading to valuable fungal biomass as well as triglycerides with a high content of linear or branched fatty acids, depending on the microorganism used. The solid water-insoluble residue was then submitted to a lignocellulose deep eutectic solvent-mediated fractionation, which allowed the recovery of two important main fractions: BSG cellulose and BSG lignin. The latter product was tested as potential precursor for the development of cement water reducers with encouraging results. This combination of treatments of the waste biomass appeared to be a promising sustainable strategy for the development of the full exploitation of BSG from a circular economy perspective. Full article
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11 pages, 1079 KiB  
Article
Modelling of the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation for a Pine Sawdust Biorefinery
Fermentation 2022, 8(3), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8030130 - 16 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2193
Abstract
The decline in world oil reserves evidences the need to diversify the sources of equivalent raw materials. The use of biomass is one of the most explored alternatives. This work evaluates the second-generation bioethanol (2G) production from a pine sawdust soda- ethanol pulp [...] Read more.
The decline in world oil reserves evidences the need to diversify the sources of equivalent raw materials. The use of biomass is one of the most explored alternatives. This work evaluates the second-generation bioethanol (2G) production from a pine sawdust soda- ethanol pulp by simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation (SSF) to obtain the best conditions for scaling up the process. Experimental designs have been used to find mathematical models that define the complex situation jointly varying time with other variables (enzyme load and temperature). Time periods in the full model varied from 0 h to 72 h. Given the results (curve shape differences), it was decided to split the design in two, covering periods from 0 h to 24 h (Model I) and from 24 to 72 h (Model II). The pulp chemical composition was 80.2% glucans, 7.2% xylans, 0.3% galactans, 8.4% mannans, 3.7% lignin. Cellic® Ctec2 cellulolytic enzymes were used for saccharification and Saccharomyces cerevisiae IMR 1181 (SC 1181) yeast for fermentation. The best conditions found in the two designs were 30 FPU g−1 glucans, 39 °C, 24 h for Model I, and 30 FPU g−1 glucans, 35 °C, 72 h for Model II. Fermentation optimal values were 63.23 and 81.93 for Models I and II, respectively. Full article
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20 pages, 4315 KiB  
Article
Co-Treatment with Single and Ternary Mixture Gas of Dimethyl Sulfide, Propanethiol, and Toluene by a Macrokinetic Analysis in a Biotrickling Filter Seeded with Alcaligenes sp. SY1 and Pseudomonas Putida S1
Fermentation 2021, 7(4), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7040309 - 14 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2233
Abstract
The biotrickling filter (BTF) treatment is an effective way of dealing with air pollution caused by volatile organic compounds (VOCs). However, this approach is typically used for single VOCs treatment but not for the mixtures of VOC and volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs), [...] Read more.
The biotrickling filter (BTF) treatment is an effective way of dealing with air pollution caused by volatile organic compounds (VOCs). However, this approach is typically used for single VOCs treatment but not for the mixtures of VOC and volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs), even if they are often encountered in industrial applications. Therefore, we investigated the performance of BTF for single and ternary mixture gas of dimethyl sulfide (DMS), propanethiol, and toluene, respectively. Results showed that the co-treatment enhanced the removal efficiency of toluene, but not of dimethyl sulfide or propanethiol. Maximum removal rates (rmax) of DMS, propanethiol and toluene were calculated to be 256.41 g·m−3·h−1, 204.08 g·m−3·h−1 and 90.91 g·m−3·h−1, respectively. For a gas mixture of these three constituents, rmax was measured to be 114.94 g·m−3·h−1, 104.17 g·m−3·h−1 and 99.01 g·m−3·h−1, separately. Illumina MiSeq sequencing analysis further indicated that Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the major bacterial groups in BTF packing materials. A shift of bacterial community structure was observed during the biodegradation process. Full article
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14 pages, 5780 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Nutritional Composition of Pure Filamentous Fungal Biomass as a Novel Ingredient for Fish Feed
Fermentation 2021, 7(3), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7030152 - 13 Aug 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4335
Abstract
The rapid growth of aquaculture and the lack of fish meal demand new sustainable ingredients. Although fungal biomass is found to be a promising sustainable fish feed supplementation candidate, the characteristics of this protein-rich source are closely influenced by the quality of the [...] Read more.
The rapid growth of aquaculture and the lack of fish meal demand new sustainable ingredients. Although fungal biomass is found to be a promising sustainable fish feed supplementation candidate, the characteristics of this protein-rich source are closely influenced by the quality of the applied growth medium. In this work, the nutritional properties of pure filamentous fungal biomass provided from the cultivation of Aspergillus oryzae, Neurospora intermedia and Rhzopus oryzae were evaluated to assess their potential as alternative novel protein sources in fish feed. In this regard, fungal biomass yields of up to 0.19 ± 0.005 (g dry biomass/g substrate glucose) were obtained during submerged cultivation of fungal strains. The pure fungal biomass acquired could contain significant amounts of protein up to 62.2 ± 1.2% (w/w). The obtained protein had a high quality with notable inclusion of essential amino acids such as lysine, arginine, methionine and threonine with comparable concentrations to those of fish meal. Fungal biomass is mainly considered as protein source, however, entitlement of 6.9 ± 0.5, 4.0 ± 0.7 and 17.2 ± 1.1% (w/w) of lipids and ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to saturated fatty acids (SFA) of 1.37:1, 1.74:1 and 1.47:1 in A. oryzae, N. intermedia and R. oryzae, respectively, signal health benefits for the fish. Considering the results, protein-rich pure fungal biomass with amino acid composition is greatly compatible with fish meal, and contains essential nutrients such as fatty acids and minerals. This pure biomass constitutes a promising sustainable alternative supplement to be introduced in fish feed industry. Full article
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