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Planning, Operation and Control of Power Grids with Penetration of Renewable Energy Sources

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "A1: Smart Grids and Microgrids".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 January 2023) | Viewed by 13646

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Biomedical and Electronics Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Informatics, University of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1DP, UK
Interests: operations research; planning and control of distribution networks; integration of distributed low-carbon technologies including wind, photovoltaics, electric vehicles and energy storage; active network management (smart grids); multi-vector energy systems’ operation and planning

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Guest Editor
Department of Biomedical and Electronics Engineering, University of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1DP, UK
Interests: mobile, wireless and satellite communications; integrated communications networks—protocols, resource, mobility and network management; cyber security; software-defined networks; network virtualisation; artificial intelligence
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Faculty of Engineering and Informatics, University of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1DP, UK
Interests: energy-efficient front-end design; radio frequency; energy harvesting; communications systems; 5G communications; sensor design; localisation-based services; signal processing; optimisation process; MIMO system design; health hazards; propagations, antennas and electromagnetic computational techniques
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The power system transformation to sustainable energy is required in order to mitigate their negative impact on the natural environment and human health. However, the transformation itself is a challenging task and requires overcoming multiple obstacles. The complexity of the process is increasing due to the highly variable and weather-driven nature of renewable energy sources. Such high stochasticity on both the supply and demand sides drastically changes the operating rules and conditions under which the power system is managed, controlled, and developed.

This Special Issue seeks papers in the areas of distribution system optimization, planning operation and control, with an emphasis on solving real-time or near-real-time research problems. This also includes the power system operation and control and modelling, and numerical techniques for power flow and optimal power flow studies. Example applications include, but are not limited to, power grids, smart grids, transmission and distribution systems, Virtual Power Plants (VPPs), and Artificial Intelligence (AI) and forecasting techniques for distribution system operation, planning and control. Topics of interest for publication include, but are not restricted to, the following:

  • Distribution system and smart grids optimization, planning and control;
  • Active management of distribution systems and smart grids;
  • Operation and management of smart grids/microgrids;
  • The role of Transmission System Operator (TSO)/ Distribution System Operator (DSO) interactions in both permanent and dynamic power system regimes;
  • Applications of Big data Analytics techniques in power system and smart grid operation, planning and control;
  • Applications of Internet of Things (IoT) in power system and smart grid operation and planning;
  • Applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in power system and smart grid planning, operation and control.

Dr. Geev Mokryani
Prof. Yim-Fun Hu
Prof. Raed A. Abd-Alhameed
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Power system transformation and grid integration
  • Distribution system operator
  • Microgrids, Virtual Power Plants, and Aggregators
  • Smart Grid Technologies and Infrastructures
  • Optimization and Computational Intelligence
  • Uncertainty and Risk Management Methods
  • Big Data Analytics and Industrial Informatics for smart grids
  • Internet of Things (IoT) for smart grids
  • Artificial Intelligence and Machine learning for smart grids

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 5704 KiB  
Article
Metaheuristic for the Allocation and Sizing of PV-STATCOMs for Ancillary Service Provision
by Zedequias Machado Alves, Renata Mota Martins, Gustavo Marchesan and Ghendy Cardoso Junior
Energies 2023, 16(1), 424; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16010424 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1016
Abstract
In addition to active power generation, photovoltaic inverters can be used to provide ancillary services to grids, including reactive power compensation. This paper proposes a metaheuristic approach based on particle swarm optimization for the allocation and sizing of photovoltaic inverters that perform the [...] Read more.
In addition to active power generation, photovoltaic inverters can be used to provide ancillary services to grids, including reactive power compensation. This paper proposes a metaheuristic approach based on particle swarm optimization for the allocation and sizing of photovoltaic inverters that perform the complementary functions of static synchronous compensator (PV-STATCOM) units. The objective of the aforementioned approach is to reduce the initial investment cost in the acquisition of PV-STATCOM units. The proposed methodology considers both the daily load curve and generation and is applied to a 33-bus test system. The methodology is validated based on an exhaustive search algorithm and tested over 1000 consecutive simulations for the same problem; consequently, the methodology produces low standard deviations and errors, indicating its robustness. The methodology demonstrates an improved grid voltage profile throughout the day when applied to the 33-bus test system. Furthermore, the photovoltaic inverter efficiently performs its main function of active power generation. As a major contribution, the proposed methodology may assist investors in determining the allocation and sizing of PV-STATCOM units to perform the ancillary service of reactive power compensation in grids Full article
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12 pages, 16886 KiB  
Article
Study of Grid-Connected PV System for a Low Voltage Distribution System: A Case Study of Cambodia
by Vannak Vai and Samphors Eng
Energies 2022, 15(14), 5003; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15145003 - 08 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1935
Abstract
The low voltage (LV) distribution systems are extended year by year due to the increase in energy demand. To overcome this issue, distribution system utilities have been focusing on designing and operating an appropriate distribution system with minimum capital and operational expenditure for [...] Read more.
The low voltage (LV) distribution systems are extended year by year due to the increase in energy demand. To overcome this issue, distribution system utilities have been focusing on designing and operating an appropriate distribution system with minimum capital and operational expenditure for supplying electricity to users. This article compares different algorithms to design an LVAC distribution system in a rural area, which focuses on minimizing the total length of lines and the power losses and balancing the loads among the three phases including the economic evaluation of the grid-connected PV system. Firstly, the shortest path (SP) algorithm is established to search for the minimization of the conductor used. Secondly, three different algorithms which are repeated phase sequence (RPABC), first fit bin packing (FFBP), and mixed-integer quadratic programming (MIQP) algorithms are developed to balance the load and minimize power losses. Next, a comparative result of three different algorithms is provided. Finally, the techno-economic analysis of the grid-connected PV system with different electricity tariffs with hybrid optimization of multiple energy resources (HOMER) software is studied in the planning period. To validate a proposed method, the 129-buses low voltage distribution in a rural village, in Cambodia, is tested. The simulation result confirms the optimal solution of the MIQP algorithm and PV system integration in designing a distribution system in a particular case study. Full article
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20 pages, 4442 KiB  
Article
A Nature-Inspired Algorithm to Enable the E-Mobility Participation in the Ancillary Service Market
by Davide Falabretti and Francesco Gulotta
Energies 2022, 15(9), 3023; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15093023 - 20 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1320
Abstract
In the present paper, a tool is proposed to optimally schedule the charging requests of a fleet of carsharing Electric Vehicles (EVs) in an urban area, to enable their participation in the Ancillary Service Market. The centralized scheduler minimizes the imbalance of an [...] Read more.
In the present paper, a tool is proposed to optimally schedule the charging requests of a fleet of carsharing Electric Vehicles (EVs) in an urban area, to enable their participation in the Ancillary Service Market. The centralized scheduler minimizes the imbalance of an EV fleet with respect to the power commitment declared in the Day-Ahead Market, providing also tertiary reserve and power balance control to the grid. The regulation is carried out by optimizing the initial charging time of each vehicle, according to a deadline set by the carsharing operator. To this purpose, a nature-inspired optimization is adopted, implementing innovative hybridizations of the Artificial Bee Colony algorithm. The e-mobility usage is simulated through a topology-aware stochastic model based on carsharing usage in Milan (Italy) and the Ancillary Services requests are modeled by real data from the Italian electricity market. The numerical simulations performed confirmed the effectiveness of the approach in identifying a suitable schedule for the charging requests of a large EV fleet (up to 3200 units), with acceptable computational effort. The benefits on the economic sustainability of the E-carsharing fleet given by the participation in the electricity market are also confirmed by an extensive sensitivity analysis. Full article
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19 pages, 2904 KiB  
Article
Appropriate Volt–Var Curve Settings for PV Inverters Based on Distribution Network Characteristics Using Match Rate of Operating Point
by Daisuke Iioka, Kenichi Kusano, Takahiro Matsuura, Hiromu Hamada and Teru Miyazaki
Energies 2022, 15(4), 1375; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15041375 - 14 Feb 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2052
Abstract
This paper describes the process of setting up an appropriate volt–var curve for the reactive power control of a photovoltaic (PV) inverter interconnected to a distribution line that is voltage controlled by a load ratio control transformer (LRT). Computer simulations with 360 patterns [...] Read more.
This paper describes the process of setting up an appropriate volt–var curve for the reactive power control of a photovoltaic (PV) inverter interconnected to a distribution line that is voltage controlled by a load ratio control transformer (LRT). Computer simulations with 360 patterns of volt–var curves applied to five actual distribution line models are presented. The number of patterns was narrowed down to 23 by using voltage, distribution-line loss, number of LRT tap operations, and a new evaluation index, the match ratio. When a power-factor constraint is imposed on the PV inverter, it may not output the reactive power according to the volt–var curve depending on the active power output. The match rate is an index to show the percentage of the operating points of the PV inverter that conform with the volt–var curve. By evaluating the match rate, it can be demonstrated if the PV inverter efficiently contributes to the voltage control, which greatly contributes to narrowing of the volt–var curve. It is demonstrated that the volt–var curve obtained using the proposed method is superior in terms of voltage controllability, distribution line losses, and the number of LRT tap controls. Full article
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16 pages, 2020 KiB  
Article
Active Distribution Networks Planning Considering Multi-DG Configurations and Contingency Analysis
by Bilal Amjad, Mohammad Ahmad A. Al-Ja’afreh and Geev Mokryani
Energies 2021, 14(14), 4361; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14144361 - 19 Jul 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2308
Abstract
This paper proposes a novel method for planning active distribution networks (ADNs) with the integration of an active network management (ANM) scheme using coordinated voltage control (CVC) through on-load tap changer (OLTC) transformers. The method was formulated as a security-constrained optimal power flow [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a novel method for planning active distribution networks (ADNs) with the integration of an active network management (ANM) scheme using coordinated voltage control (CVC) through on-load tap changer (OLTC) transformers. The method was formulated as a security-constrained optimal power flow (SCOPF) problem to minimize total operational costs, which maximizes the utilization of renewable distributed generators (DGs) over a planning horizon. The ANM scheme was applied using OLTC to ensure safe operation and reduce voltage violations in the network. To analyse the impact of ANM, the planning problem was examined both with and without the ANM scheme. Moreover, SCOPF, considering the N-1 line contingency analysis and multi-DG configuration, was implemented to analyse the feasibility of the proposed method and the advantages of ANM under contingency situations. The method was validated on a weakly-meshed 16-bus UK generic distribution system (UKGDS). The results showed that ANM can lower operational costs and maintain network voltage for operation in feasible conditions even in the case of a contingency. Moreover, the ANM scheme mitigated the voltage rise effect caused by DGs and maximized their utilization. Full article
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16 pages, 4687 KiB  
Article
Flyback Photovoltaic Micro-Inverter with a Low Cost and Simple Digital-Analog Control Scheme
by Salam J. Yaqoob, Adel Obed, Rana Zubo, Yasir I. A. Al-Yasir, Hussein Fadhel, Geev Mokryani and Raed A. Abd-Alhameed
Energies 2021, 14(14), 4239; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14144239 - 14 Jul 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3560
Abstract
The single-stage flyback Photovoltaic (PV) micro-inverter is considered as a simple and small in size topology but requires expensive digital microcontrollers such as Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) or Digital Signal Processor (DSP) to increase the system efficiency, this would increase the cost of [...] Read more.
The single-stage flyback Photovoltaic (PV) micro-inverter is considered as a simple and small in size topology but requires expensive digital microcontrollers such as Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) or Digital Signal Processor (DSP) to increase the system efficiency, this would increase the cost of the overall system. To solve this problem, based on a single-stage flyback structure, this paper proposed a low cost and simple analog-digital control scheme. This control scheme is implemented using a low cost ATMega microcontroller built in the Arduino Uno board and some analog operational amplifiers. First, the single-stage flyback topology is analyzed theoretically and then the design consideration is obtained. Second, a 120 W prototype was developed in the laboratory to validate the proposed control. To prove the effectiveness of this control, we compared the cost price, overall system efficiency, and THD values of the proposed results with the results obtained by the literature. So, a low system component, single power stage, cheap control scheme, and decent efficiency are achieved by the proposed system. Finally, the experimental results present that the proposed system has a maximum efficiency of 91%, with good values of the total harmonic distortion (THD) compared to the results of other authors. Full article
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