6G Wireless Communication Systems: Applications, Opportunities and Challenges II

A special issue of Future Internet (ISSN 1999-5903). This special issue belongs to the section "Internet of Things".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 September 2023) | Viewed by 7989

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor

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Guest Editor
Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, An-Najah National University, Nablus 44859, Palestine
Interests: space-time coded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing; propagation channel modeling; 5G Mobile Communications; novel localization applications
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Guest Editor
School of Engineering, Computing and Design, University of Chichester, Chichester PO19 6PE, UK
Interests: intelligent reflecting surfaces (IRS); smart signal processing; massive MIMO; 5G and beyond; machine learning; optimization; Internet of Things (IoT); smart energy cities
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Guest Editor
Faculty of Engineering and Informatics, University of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1DP, UK
Interests: energy-efficient front-end design; radio frequency; energy harvesting; communications systems; 5G communications; sensor design; localisation-based services; signal processing; optimisation process; MIMO system design; health hazards; propagations, antennas and electromagnetic computational techniques
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Lockdown restrictions to curb the spread of COVID-19 have rendered connectivity very important. This helps those in lockdown at home interact with others via social media platforms and support remote working for tens of millions of employees and non-employees alike.

Thanks to the existing mobile infrastructure and the new fifth-generation (5G) communication networks, the unabated mobile data demand is supported to meet the needs of all industries to achieve a much broader worldwide revolution in the digital economy. By following the current pace of this growth, it is anticipated that 75.44 billion Internet of Things (IoT)-connected devices, such as computers and tablets, will be produced worldwide by 2025. This transition will present a formidable challenge for future mobile communication technology as wireless networks are hitting their physical capacity limits. There is also a growing concern about the associated significant increase in cyberattacks, e-waste and energy consumption required to maintain such networks.

Therefore, it is imperative to develop radically new solutions to support this ever-increasing number of connected devices in smart, energy-efficient, environmentally friendly and cyber-safe ways. To address this, the future 5G and beyond (6G) wireless networks will be a transformative factor for both society and the economy by delivering unprecedented, seamless, massive connectivity to millions of users and interconnected devices while helping us meet the net-zero target.

To meet the future challenges, the sixth-generation (6G) mobile network is expected to define the high technical standard of this new spectrum, including energy-efficient transmission techniques, cyber-safe frameworks, etc.

The objective of this Special Issue is to define the framework of the sixth generation of wireless communication networks, its services, breakthrough technologies, and sustainability approaches. We are soliciting original contributions that have not been published and are not currently under consideration by any other journals, with a particular emphasis on radically new concepts and ideas for next-generation wireless communication systems.

Dr. Chan Hwang See
Prof. Dr. Simeon Keates
Dr. Yousef Dama
Dr. Kelvin Anoh
Prof. Dr. Raed A. Abd-Alhameed
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Future Internet is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • novel AI-based architectures, frameworks, and testbeds for 6G
  • new energy-harvesting technologies
  • new antenna array design for massive MIMO
  • intelligent spectrum management in 5G/6G using AI-assisted blockchains
  • breakthrough technologies and concepts
  • new network architecture concepts and technologies to harness new spectra
  • techniques to improve energy efficiency in a radio network
  • reconfigurable antennas and devices for the next generation
  • innovative AI and 6G-enabled user applications
  • ai applications for the physical layer of wireless communications
  • sustainable electronics for next-generation communication systems
  • new wireless sensor networks and its applications
  • next generation of cybersecurity framework
  • digital technologies for smart cities

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 511 KiB  
Article
System Performance Analysis of Sensor Networks for RF Energy Harvesting and Information Transmission
by Kuncheng Lei and Zhenrong Zhang
Future Internet 2023, 15(5), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi15050172 - 30 Apr 2023
Viewed by 947
Abstract
This paper investigates the problem of RF energy harvesting in wireless sensor networks, with the aim of finding a suitable communication protocol by comparing the performance of the system under different protocols. The network is made up of two parts: first, at the [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the problem of RF energy harvesting in wireless sensor networks, with the aim of finding a suitable communication protocol by comparing the performance of the system under different protocols. The network is made up of two parts: first, at the beginning of each timeslot, the sensor nodes harvest energy from the base station (BS) and then send packets to the BS using the harvested energy. For the energy-harvesting part of the wireless sensor network, we consider two methods: point-to-point and multi-point-to-point energy harvesting. For each method, we use two independent control protocols, namely head harvesting energy of each timeslot (HHT) and head harvesting energy of dedicated timeslot (HDT). Additionally, for complex channel states, we derive the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of packet transmission time using selective combining (SC) and maximum ratio combining (MRC) techniques. Analytical expressions for system reliability and packet timeout probability are obtained. At the same time, we also utilize the Monte Carlo simulation method to simulate our system and have analyzed both the numerical and simulation solutions. Results show that the performance of the HHT protocol is better than that of the HDT protocol, and the MRC technology outperforms the SC technology for the HHT protocol in terms of the energy-harvesting efficiency coefficient, sensor positions, transmit signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and length of energy harvesting time. Full article
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20 pages, 15430 KiB  
Article
Electric Drive with an Adaptive Controller and Wireless Communication System
by Mateusz Malarczyk, Mateusz Zychlewicz, Radoslaw Stanislawski and Marcin Kaminski
Future Internet 2023, 15(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi15020049 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1450
Abstract
In this paper, the problem of the remote control of electric drives with a complex mechanical structure is discussed. Oscillations of state variables and control precision are the main issues found in such applications. The article proposes a smart, IoT-enabled controller, which allows [...] Read more.
In this paper, the problem of the remote control of electric drives with a complex mechanical structure is discussed. Oscillations of state variables and control precision are the main issues found in such applications. The article proposes a smart, IoT-enabled controller, which allows remote communication with a drive. To solve the problem of speed oscillations and to make the system robust to parameter uncertainty, an adaptive controller with two neural networks is designed. First, numerical tests are conducted in a Matlab/Simulink environment to examine the operation of the proposed control strategy. Afterwards, the obtained results are verified in a laboratory setup equipped with a 0.5 kW electric motor. Remote access is provided by a low-cost, ARM-based ESP32 microcontroller. Usually, virtual instruments used to communicate with remote devices require specific software, which may be expensive and pose compatibility problems. Therefore, the main contribution of the article is the creation of a low-cost, web-based Human-Machine Interface (HMI) with an asynchronous server utility provided by the ESP32 that allows remote control and data acquisition of electric drive state variables. Full article
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21 pages, 14593 KiB  
Article
Transfer Functions and Linear Distortions in Ultra-Wideband Channels Faded by Rain in GeoSurf Satellite Constellations
by Emilio Matricciani and Carlo Riva
Future Internet 2023, 15(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi15010027 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1429
Abstract
Because of rain attenuation, the equivalent baseband transfer function of large bandwidth radio-links will not be ideal. We report the results concerning radio links to/from satellites orbiting in GeoSurf satellite constellations located at Spino d’Adda, Prague, Madrid, and Tampa, which are all sites [...] Read more.
Because of rain attenuation, the equivalent baseband transfer function of large bandwidth radio-links will not be ideal. We report the results concerning radio links to/from satellites orbiting in GeoSurf satellite constellations located at Spino d’Adda, Prague, Madrid, and Tampa, which are all sites in different climatic regions. By calculating rain attenuation and phase delay with the Synthetic Storm Technique, we have found that in a 10-GHz bandwidth centered at 80 GHz (W-Band)—to which we refer to as “ultra-wideband-, both direct and orthogonal channels will introduce significant amplitude and phase distortions, which increase with rain attenuation. Only “narrow-band” channels (100~200 MHz) will not be affected. The ratio between the probability of bit error with rain attenuation and the probability of bit error with no rain attenuation increases with rain attenuation. The estimated loss in the signal-to-noise ratio can reach 3~4 dB. All results depend on the site, Tampa being the worst. To confirm these findings, future work will need a full Monte Carlo digital simulation. Full article
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19 pages, 6102 KiB  
Article
LSSDNF: A Lightweight Secure Software Defined Network Framework for Future Internet in 5G–6G
by Surjit Singh, Vivek Mehla and Srete Nikolovski
Future Internet 2022, 14(12), 369; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi14120369 - 08 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1694
Abstract
As information technology advances quickly, so does the 5G–6G network management system, which is moving toward greater integration, decentralization, diversity, and intelligence. As flexibility is a crucial criterion for 5G–6G network architecture, we use the Software Defined Network (SDN) paradigm to make the [...] Read more.
As information technology advances quickly, so does the 5G–6G network management system, which is moving toward greater integration, decentralization, diversity, and intelligence. As flexibility is a crucial criterion for 5G–6G network architecture, we use the Software Defined Network (SDN) paradigm to make the programmability more flexible. Due to their ability to replace the current TCP/IP architecture with one that separates the control plane and data plane, software-defined networks have gained much popularity. However, they are susceptible to routing attacks. Therefore, this work proposes Lightweight Security Framework that combines blockchain technology with Software-Defined Networking (LSSDNF) to address this problem. The proposed framework adds the routing data that the controller withheld to the multichain blockchain. Here, a mininet network simulator is used to model the proposed framework. The data transfer rate or network throughput, bandwidth variation, and jitter have all been used to assess the performance of single-controller-SDN networks and multi-controller-SDN networks. The results demonstrate that the proposed framework performs better than the conventional single-controller-SDN architecture in terms of throughput, bandwidth fluctuation, and jitter. Full article
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12 pages, 1770 KiB  
Article
A Fairness Index Based on Rate Variance for Downlink Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access System
by Jie Yang, Jiajia Zhu and Ziyu Pan
Future Internet 2022, 14(9), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi14090261 - 31 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1577
Abstract
Aiming at the resource allocation problem of a non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) system, a fairness index based on sample variance of users’ transmission rates is proposed, which has a fixed range and high sensitivity. Based on the proposed fairness index, the fairness-constrained power [...] Read more.
Aiming at the resource allocation problem of a non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) system, a fairness index based on sample variance of users’ transmission rates is proposed, which has a fixed range and high sensitivity. Based on the proposed fairness index, the fairness-constrained power allocation problem in NOMA system is studied; the problem is decoupled into the intra cluster power allocation problem and the inter cluster power allocation problem. The nonconvex optimization problem is solved by the continuous convex approximation (SCA) method, and an intra and inter cluster power iterative allocation algorithm with fairness constrained is proposed to maximize the total throughput. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can take into account intra cluster, inter cluster, and system fairness, and maximize the system throughput on the premise of fairness. Full article
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