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Advanced Energy and Carbon Saving Systems for Oil and Gas Transportation

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "H: Geo-Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (23 October 2023) | Viewed by 10181

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
College of Pipeline and Civil Engineering, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580, China
Interests: energy-saving system; hydrogen gas pipeline

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Pipeline and Civil Engineering, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580, China
Interests: energy saving system; LNG system

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Pipeline and Civil Engineering, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580, China
Interests: energy-saving system

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As energy systems race toward low carbon, energy-saving systems become significant for oil and gas transportation, especially for pipeline transportation and so on. For oil and gas transportation, energy-saving includes two aspects: 1) the transportation system itself can be served as a means for energy saving, such as natural gas pipelines, which can achieve storage by the pipeline or tank; 2) oil–gas transportation systems consume large amounts of energy during operation, which should be improved by increasing energy efficiency and reducing energy consumption. For energy efficiency increase, drag reduction methods should be put forward. In addition, pumps or compressors should run at high efficiency. For energy consumption decrease, we should utilize advanced gas transmission processes, waste heat recovery systems, and develop new energy, including green energy. Furthermore, renewable energy including hydrogen should be researched for oil and gas transportation systems.

This Special Issue aims to present and disseminate the most recent advances related to the theory, design, modeling, application, control, and condition monitoring of all types of advanced energy-saving systems for oil and gas.

Dr. Cuiwei Liu
Dr. Jianlu Zhu
Dr. Qihui Hu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • pipeline
  • compressor
  • oil
  • gas
  • hydrogen

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

19 pages, 10526 KiB  
Article
Quantitative Analysis of Leakage Consequences of LNG Ship-to-Ship Bunkering Based on CFD
by Xiangyu Kong, Wenling Jiao, Weidong Xiang, Qiang Wang, Jiaolong Cao and Lianfu Han
Energies 2023, 16(12), 4631; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16124631 - 10 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1405
Abstract
Leakage incidents on LNG bunker vessels will result in a serious degree of hazard. This paper investigates typical high-risk scenarios such as hose ruptures and valve joint leakages. The consequences of an LNG leakage accident during the simultaneous operation of a bunker vessel [...] Read more.
Leakage incidents on LNG bunker vessels will result in a serious degree of hazard. This paper investigates typical high-risk scenarios such as hose ruptures and valve joint leakages. The consequences of an LNG leakage accident during the simultaneous operation of a bunker vessel and a container carrier are simulated using the FLACS software, and the dispersion range of the combustible vapor cloud is quantitatively analyzed under both ballast and laden conditions. Under the ballast condition, the diffusion range of the combustible vapor cloud on the side of the bunker vessel is 58 × 15.5 m from the front wall of the cargo equipment room to the bow of the vessel, and 35 × 9.5 m between the cargo equipment room and the transom of the vessel. Under the laden condition, the diffusion range on the side of the bunker vessel is 58 × 15.5 m from the front wall of the cargo equipment room to the bow of the vessel, and 15 × 4 m between the rear end wall of the cargo equipment room and the front wall of the stern of the vessel. These results provide important technical guidance and reference values for the safe operation of LNG bunker vessels. Full article
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22 pages, 69603 KiB  
Article
Design of a Device and System to Study the Liquid–Solid-Phase Equilibrium Experiment of CO2 in PLNG
by Jianlu Zhu, Zihe Li and Yuxing Li
Energies 2023, 16(7), 3045; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16073045 - 27 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1400
Abstract
Pressurized liquefied natural gas (PLNG) is a new natural gas liquefaction solution proposed in recent years for reducing the construction and operating costs of floating liquefied natural gas (FLNG). For natural gas, the liquefaction temperature is strongly influenced by the pressure; when the [...] Read more.
Pressurized liquefied natural gas (PLNG) is a new natural gas liquefaction solution proposed in recent years for reducing the construction and operating costs of floating liquefied natural gas (FLNG). For natural gas, the liquefaction temperature is strongly influenced by the pressure; when the pressure increases, the liquefaction temperature of natural gas increases accordingly. The increase in the liquefaction temperature of natural gas leads to a higher solubility of impurities such as carbon dioxide, which means that the pretreatment standards for liquefied natural gas can be reduced. Therefore, the use of PLNG technology can simplify pretreatment plants and significantly reduce construction and operating costs. In order to better apply PLNG technology to FLNG, it is necessary to understand the solubility of carbon dioxide in pressurized LNG and the phase change during liquefaction. To achieve this, experimental setups are needed to simulate the temperature and pressure environment of the LNG to obtain the relevant data and observe the relevant phenomena. After a literature research and analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of previous experimental setups, several improvements are proposed in this paper, and based on this, a visualization device is designed for studying the liquid–solid-phase equilibrium experiment of CO2 in PLNG. The device has a pressure resistance of 20 MPa, a minimum operating temperature of 77 K, and a variable volume function. It is also equipped with a sapphire window to be able to observe the inside of the device. In order to verify the superiority of the device, experiments were conducted using the device to verify the pressure resistance, variable volume, and visualization functions of the device. The experimental results show that the experimental device designed in this paper does have a certain superiority. Full article
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19 pages, 2555 KiB  
Article
Computational Fluid Dynamic Simulation of Leakage Acoustic Waves Propagation Model for Gas Pipelines
by Xuejie Li, Yuan Xue, Yuxing Li and Qingshan Feng
Energies 2023, 16(2), 615; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16020615 - 4 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1471
Abstract
When leakage occurs for natural gas pipelines, acoustic waves generated at the leakage point will propagate to both ends of the pipe, which will be measured and processed to detect and locate the leakage. When acoustic waves propagate in the gas, the amplitude [...] Read more.
When leakage occurs for natural gas pipelines, acoustic waves generated at the leakage point will propagate to both ends of the pipe, which will be measured and processed to detect and locate the leakage. When acoustic waves propagate in the gas, the amplitude will attenuate and the waveform will spread, which decides the installation distance of acoustic sensors. Therefore, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation research on the acoustic wave propagation model is accomplished and verified by experiments to provide the foundation for the acoustic leak location method. The propagation model includes two parts: amplitude attenuation model and waveform spreading model. Both can be obtained by the established CFD simulation model. Additionally, the amplitude attenuation model can be verified by the experiments. Then, the simulation method is applied to conclude the propagation model under variable conditions, including different flow directions, Reynolds numbers, and diameters. Finally, the experimental demonstration of the leak location based on the propagation model is given. The results indicate that not only the gas viscosity but also the gas flow can influence the propagation model, and the leak location method based on the propagation model is effective. Conclusions can be drawn that CFD simulation on the propagation model for natural gas pipelines is an efficient way to carry out research and provide the theoretical basis for acoustic leak location method application. Full article
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16 pages, 4269 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Influencing Factors of the Leak Detection Method Based on the Disturbance-Reflected Signal
by Dongsheng Guo, Zhaoxue Cui, Cuiwei Liu and Yuxing Li
Energies 2023, 16(2), 572; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16020572 - 4 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1710
Abstract
Leak detection technology, based on the disturbance-reflected signal, can realize pipeline state inspection without relying on the transient characteristics of leakage. However, the lack of research on the factors affecting the detection effect of this method greatly restricts its popularization and application. Therefore, [...] Read more.
Leak detection technology, based on the disturbance-reflected signal, can realize pipeline state inspection without relying on the transient characteristics of leakage. However, the lack of research on the factors affecting the detection effect of this method greatly restricts its popularization and application. Therefore, this paper realizes the valve opening and closing through dynamic mesh technology and further establishes a 2D pipeline disturbance and reflection signal detection model. The correctness of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model detection mechanism was verified by theoretical analysis and indoor pipe flow experiments. In this process, it was found that reflections from boundaries, such as the pipe end, could also be identified and did not interfere with leak-related signals. In addition, the positioning errors of the leakage hole and the pipe end were 4.447% and 0.121%, respectively, and accurate positioning with zero error was able to be achieved in the calculation results of the CFD model. Finally, the influence factors of the detection effect of this method were analyzed by inputting the determined disturbance signal. Both the disturbance signal characteristics and the leakage hole characteristics affected the reflected signal, and the former played a more prominent role. Surprisingly, the results showed that pipeline flow and pressure had very limited influence on this method. Full article
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19 pages, 5497 KiB  
Article
Prediction of Mixing Uniformity of Hydrogen Injection inNatural Gas Pipeline Based on a Deep Learning Model
by Yue Su, Jingfa Li, Wangyi Guo, Yanlin Zhao, Jianli Li, Jie Zhao and Yusheng Wang
Energies 2022, 15(22), 8694; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15228694 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2198
Abstract
It is economical and efficient to use existing natural gas pipelines to transport hydrogen. The fast and accurate prediction of mixing uniformity of hydrogen injection in natural gas pipelines is important for the safety of pipeline transportation and downstream end users. In this [...] Read more.
It is economical and efficient to use existing natural gas pipelines to transport hydrogen. The fast and accurate prediction of mixing uniformity of hydrogen injection in natural gas pipelines is important for the safety of pipeline transportation and downstream end users. In this study, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method was used to investigate the hydrogen injection process in a T-junction natural gas pipeline. The coefficient of variation (COV) of a hydrogen concentration on a pipeline cross section was used to quantitatively characterize the mixing uniformity of hydrogen and natural gas. To quickly and accurately predict the COV, a deep neural network (DNN) model was constructed based on CFD simulation data, and the main influencing factors of the COV including flow velocity, hydrogen blending ratio, gas temperature, flow distance, and pipeline diameter ratio were taken as input nodes of the DNN model. In the model training process, the effects of various parameters on the prediction accuracy of the DNN model were studied, and an accurate DNN architecture was constructed with an average error of 4.53% for predicting the COV. The computational efficiency of the established DNN model was also at least two orders of magnitude faster than that of the CFD simulations for predicting the COV. Full article
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16 pages, 1394 KiB  
Article
An Optimization Method for a Compressor Standby Scheme Based on Reliability Analysis
by Xuejie Li, Yuan Xue, Yuxing Li and Qingshan Feng
Energies 2022, 15(21), 8305; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15218305 - 7 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1243
Abstract
The reliability of the compressor system determines the gas supply safety. An important method to improve the reliability is to set up standby compressors in stations, conducted by the standby compressor or power. A lack of quantitative assessments of standby compressors often results [...] Read more.
The reliability of the compressor system determines the gas supply safety. An important method to improve the reliability is to set up standby compressors in stations, conducted by the standby compressor or power. A lack of quantitative assessments of standby compressors often results in more spare compressors or power than actually needed, which wastes money. In this study, a reliability-based method is proposed to determine the numbers and positions of the standby compressors, which can reduce investments, and ensure reliability. Firstly, Monte Carlo method was used to calculate the compressor outage probability of the whole pipeline, respectively, through which the initial number of standby compressors was obtained. Further, the standby schemes were designed, in which the positions of the failed compressors were obtained by the Monte Carlo simulation. Moreover, the worst situation in which the compressors were shut down was used to test the standby scheme, calculating the flow reliability, pressure boundary, and total power. Finally, using the Xin–Yue–Zhe pipeline as a case study, the results indicate that the number of standby compressors in the improved schemes was reduced by seven and the pipeline reliability reached 96.86%. Full article
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