Feature Papers in Digital Dentistry

A special issue of Dentistry Journal (ISSN 2304-6767). This special issue belongs to the section "Digital Technologies".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 October 2024 | Viewed by 17780

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Guest Editor
Division of Prosthodontics and Implant Prosthodontics, Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Genova, Largo R. Benzi 10, 16132 Genova, Italy
Interests: bone regeneration; CAD/CAM prosthesis; digital planning; soft tissue integration
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Guest Editor
Division of Prosthodontics and Implant Prosthodontics, Department of Surgical Sciences (DISC), University of Genoa, 16132 Genoa, Italy
Interests: dental implants; implantology; implant surface; peri-implantitis; restorative materials; dental abutments
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Surgical Sciences and Integrated Diagnostics, School of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Genoa, 16132 Genoa, Italy
Interests: dental implants; implantology; surface; peri-implantitis; restorative materials; dental abutments
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are glad to announce this Special Issue on “Feature Papers in Digital Dentistry”. We encourage researchers to contribute papers that highlight the latest developments in digital dentistry topics and to invite relevant experts to do so.

You are welcome to send short proposals for the submission of feature papers to our Managing Editor Ms. Adele Min (adele.min@mdpi.com) before submission. All papers will be subjected to thorough and rigorous peer review.

We look forward to receiving your excellent work.

Prof. Dr. Luigi Canullo
Dr. Maria Menini
Dr. Paolo Pesce
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Dentistry Journal is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • digital planning
  • desktop scanners
  • dental implants
  • restorative materials
  • intraoral scanners
  • face scanners
  • dynamic articulators
  • software
  • CAD/CAM
  • guided surgery
  • custom-made
  • aligners
  • bone regeneration

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 2428 KiB  
Article
Vacuum Plasma Treatment Device for Enhancing Fibroblast Activity on Machined and Rough Titanium Surfaces
by Luigi Canullo, Tullio Genova, Giorgia Chinigò, Roberta Iacono, Paolo Pesce, Maria Menini and Federico Mussano
Dent. J. 2024, 12(3), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj12030071 - 7 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1216
Abstract
This study was conducted to compare the effects of an innovative plasma surface treatment device that does not need a gas supply for titanium disks with two different surface topographies: the prototypical machined surface (MAC) and one of the most diffused roughened ones [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to compare the effects of an innovative plasma surface treatment device that does not need a gas supply for titanium disks with two different surface topographies: the prototypical machined surface (MAC) and one of the most diffused roughened ones (SL) obtained through grit blasting and acid etching. A total of 200-MAC and 200-SL titanium disks were used. Each group of disks was divided into four sub-groups of 40 samples each that were subjected to five different tests. Among these, 150-MAC and 150-SL were considered the test group, and they were treated with plasma for 15, 30, and 60 s after being removed from the sterile packaging. On the other hand, 50-MAC and 50-SL were considered the control group, and they were only removed from sterile plastic vials. The samples were analyzed to evaluate the capability of the plasma treatment in influencing protein adsorption, cell adhesion, proliferation, and microbial growth on the test group disks when compared to the untreated disks. Protein adsorption was significantly enhanced after 20 min of plasma treatment for 15 and 30 s on the MAC and SL disks. Plasma treatment for 15 and 30 s significantly increased the level of adhesion in both treated samples after 30 min. Furthermore, the MAC samples showed a significant increase in cell adhesion 4 h after plasma treatment for 15 s. The SEM analysis highlighted that, on the treated samples (especially on the MAC disks), the cells with a polygonal and flat shape prevailed, while the fusiform- and globular-shaped cells were rare. The encouraging results obtained further confirm the effectiveness of plasma treatments on cell adhesion and fibroblast activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Digital Dentistry)
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10 pages, 788 KiB  
Article
A Comparative Study of Shade-Matching Reproducibility Using an Intraoral Scanner and a Spectrophotometer
by Franciele Floriani, Carlos A. Jurado, Salahaldeen Abuhammoud, Marcos Vargas, Nicholas G. Fischer, Silvia Rojas-Rueda and Guilherme Carpena Lopes
Dent. J. 2024, 12(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj12030062 - 4 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1365
Abstract
Background: We compared the repeatability of the shade determination of resin composite restorations and acrylic teeth in light and darker shades at baseline and after an aging process through two digital tooth color-matching methods: using a Trios 3Shape intraoral scanner and using a [...] Read more.
Background: We compared the repeatability of the shade determination of resin composite restorations and acrylic teeth in light and darker shades at baseline and after an aging process through two digital tooth color-matching methods: using a Trios 3Shape intraoral scanner and using a Vita Easyshade Compact spectrophotometer. Material and Methods: Forty upper central incisor acrylic teeth in the shade A1 (n = 10) and A3 (n = 10) were randomly assigned to be restored with Filtek Bulk Fill in the shade A1 (n = 10) or A3 (n = 10). Subsequently, 20 Class V cavities were prepared in a standardized manner (mesio-distal = 3.0 mm, cervical–occlusal = 2.0 mm, depth = 1.5 mm). Cavities were restored using an universal adhesive system and resin composite in two increments and were light-cured. The shade difference between the resin composite Class V restorations in acrylic teeth of the A1 and A3 shades was evaluated at baseline and after aging. Aging was simulated using ultraviolet light for 120 h. An Easyshade device and an intraoral scanner were used under D65 illumination. Measurements were taken five times, on top of the restoration and on the acrylic teeth, in a randomized manner. Results: Data analysis was on the calculation of the arithmetic mean for the percentage of repeatability conducted by the Trios scanner and the Easyshade device. There was no statistically significant comparison between the shade measurement devices (p > 0.05). At baseline, the repeatability for both the Trios intraoral scanner and the Vita Easyshade Compact device for artificial teeth in the shades A1 and A3 was 100%. After aging, the trueness recorded by the intraoral scanner and the Easyshade device for artificial teeth in the shade A1 was 80%. For Class V restoration with shade A1, the intraoral scanner recorded 80% trueness and the Easyshade device recorded 60% trueness at baseline. For shade A3, the intraoral scanner recorded 60% trueness and the Easyshade device recorded 60% trueness. Conclusions: The intraoral scanner and Easyshade device are reliable for baseline shade selection, but their accuracy decreases after aging, particularly for darker shades. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Digital Dentistry)
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10 pages, 2123 KiB  
Article
SEM Evaluation of the Marginal Gap of Zirconia-Reinforced Lithium Silicate Full Crowns and the Effect of Post Crystallization: An In Vitro Study
by Asaf Shely, Diva Lugassy, Maxim Anufriev, Joseph Nissan, Olisya Rauchwerger and Gil Ben-Izhack
Dent. J. 2024, 12(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj12030061 - 4 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1418
Abstract
Background: This study compared the influence of crystallization on marginal gap adaptation by using computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD-CAM) for producing monolithic zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate (ZLS) ceramic crowns. Methods: A total of 25 plastic teeth were scanned using a Primescan intra-oral scanner (IOS), [...] Read more.
Background: This study compared the influence of crystallization on marginal gap adaptation by using computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD-CAM) for producing monolithic zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate (ZLS) ceramic crowns. Methods: A total of 25 plastic teeth were scanned using a Primescan intra-oral scanner (IOS), and ZLS crowns were ground. For each unit (abutment and crown), the marginal gap was evaluated pre crystallization and post crystallization at four regions of interest through the use of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). To compare the marginal gap between the two groups, a Kolmogorov–Smirnov test performed on the study variables indicated a normal distribution (p > 0.05) followed by paired samples T-tests (α = 0.0005). Results: After crystallization, there were significantly higher circumferential marginal gaps (CMGs) for all four surfaces (distal (p = 0.0005), mesial (p = 0.0005), palatal (p = 0.0005), and buccal (p = 0.0005)). The total mean marginal gap (MMG) revealed a significantly higher result for the post-crystallization group (79.82 ± 7.86 μm) compared to the pre-crystallization group (24.25 ± 5.49 μm). Conclusions: The post-crystallization group showed a significantly higher marginal gap compared to the pre-crystallization group in all parameters, but both groups were in the clinically accepted threshold (<120 microns). In terms of the marginal gap, it is arguable whether to carry out post-crystallization for CELTRA® DUO crowns and achieve better mechanical properties but significantly increase the marginal gap. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Digital Dentistry)
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13 pages, 2635 KiB  
Article
Automated Remodelling of Connectors in Fixed Partial Dentures
by Hassen Jemaa, Michael Eisenburger and Andreas Greuling
Dent. J. 2023, 11(11), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11110252 - 27 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1774
Abstract
In this study, an approach for automated parametric remodelling of the connector cross-sectional area in a CAD model of a given fixed partial denture (FPD) geometry was developed and then applied to a 4-unit FPD. The remodelling algorithm was implemented using Rhinoceros and [...] Read more.
In this study, an approach for automated parametric remodelling of the connector cross-sectional area in a CAD model of a given fixed partial denture (FPD) geometry was developed and then applied to a 4-unit FPD. The remodelling algorithm was implemented using Rhinoceros and the Grasshopper plugin. The generated CAD models were used to perform a finite element analysis with Ansys to analyse the stress distribution in an implant-supported 4-unit FPD for different connector designs. The results showed that the type of connector adjustment matters and that the resulting stress can be significantly different even for connectors with the same cross-sectional area. For tensile stresses, a reduction in the connector cross-sectional area from the gingival side showed the highest influence on each connector type. It can be concluded that the developed algorithm is suitable for automatic connector detection and adjustment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Digital Dentistry)
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13 pages, 2101 KiB  
Article
Comparative Analysis between 3D-Printed Models Designed with Generic and Dental-Specific Software
by Cristian Abad-Coronel, Doménica Patricia Pazán, Lorena Hidalgo and Jaime Larriva Loyola
Dent. J. 2023, 11(9), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11090216 - 14 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1630
Abstract
With the great demand in the market for new dental software, the need has been seen to carry out a precision study for applications in digital dentistry, for which there is no comparative study, and there is a general ignorance regarding their applications. [...] Read more.
With the great demand in the market for new dental software, the need has been seen to carry out a precision study for applications in digital dentistry, for which there is no comparative study, and there is a general ignorance regarding their applications. The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy differences between digital impressions obtained using generic G-CAD (general CAD) and D-CAD (CAD dental) software. Today, there is a difference between the design software used in dentistry and these in common use. Thus, it is necessary to make a comparison of precision software for specific and generic dental use. We hypothesized that there is no significant difference between the software for specific and general dental use. Methods: A typodont was digitized with an intraoral scanner and the models obtained were exported in STL format to four different softwares (Autodesk MeshMixer 3.5, Exocad Dental, Blender for dental, and InLAB). The STL files obtained by each software were materialized using a 3D printer. The printed models were scanned and exported in STL files, with which six pairs of groups were formed. The groups were compared using analysis software (3D Geomagic Control X) by superimposing them in the initial alignment order and using the best fit method. Results: There were no significant differences between the four analyzed software types; however, group 4, composed of the combination of D-CAD (Blender–InLAB), obtained the highest average (−0.0324 SD = 0.0456), with a higher accuracy compared to the group with the lowest average (group 5, composed of the combination of the Meshmixer and Blender models), a generic software and a specific software (0.1024 SD = 0.0819). Conclusion: Although no evidence of significant difference was found regarding the accuracy of 3D models produced by G-CAD and D-CAD, combinations of groups where specific dental design software was present showed higher accuracy (precision and trueness). The comparison of the 3D graphics obtained with the superimposition of the digital meshes of the printed models performed with the help of the analysis software using the best fit method, replicating the same five reference points for the six groups formed, evidenced a greater tolerance in the groups using D-CAD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Digital Dentistry)
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12 pages, 2288 KiB  
Article
Clinical Evaluation of Corrosion Resistance, Ion Release, and Biocompatibility of CoCr Alloy for Metal-Ceramic Restorations Produced by CAD/CAM Technologies
by Zlatina Tomova, Angelina Vlahova, Stefan Zlatev, Ilyana Stoeva, Desislav Tomov, Delyana Davcheva and Viktor Hadzhigaev
Dent. J. 2023, 11(7), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11070166 - 7 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1355
Abstract
Background. CAD/CAM technologies facilitate using powder CoCr alloys to produce metal-ceramic dental restorations. However, base alloys may induce oxidative stress in the oral cavity due to corrosion and ion release. This study evaluated resistance to corrosion and release of metal ions from 3D [...] Read more.
Background. CAD/CAM technologies facilitate using powder CoCr alloys to produce metal-ceramic dental restorations. However, base alloys may induce oxidative stress in the oral cavity due to corrosion and ion release. This study evaluated resistance to corrosion and release of metal ions from 3D printed CoCr dental alloy and their effect on oral oxidative stress. Methods. Metal-ceramic crowns with 3D printed copings from CoCr alloy EOS CobaltChrome SP2 (EOS, Germany) were fabricated for 35 patients. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for measuring the concentration of Co and Cr ions in non-stimulated saliva before prosthetic treatment (BPT), at 2 h and 7 days after the dental treatment (APT2, APT7, respectively). Open circuit potentials (Eocp) were evaluated at APT2 and APT7. Estimating oral oxidative stress, measurements of 8-isoprostaglandin F2-alpha were conducted using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) at stages BPT, APT2, and APT7. Results. Salivary Co level increased at APT2 and decreased to the initial levels at APT7. No statistical difference was found between the levels of 8-isoPGF2-alpha measured, and between the Eocp measurements at APT2 and APT7. Conclusions. The studied alloy showed stable corrosion resistance and the metal ion release did not induce oral oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Digital Dentistry)
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Review

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15 pages, 1544 KiB  
Review
Materials and Applications of 3D Printing Technology in Dentistry: An Overview
by Min Jeong, Kyle Radomski, Diana Lopez, Jack T. Liu, Jason D. Lee and Sang J. Lee
Dent. J. 2024, 12(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj12010001 - 19 Dec 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4242
Abstract
Purpose. This narrative review aims to provide an overview of the mechanisms of 3D printing, the dental materials relevant to each mechanism, and the possible applications of these materials within different areas of dentistry. Methods. Subtopics within 3D printing technology in dentistry were [...] Read more.
Purpose. This narrative review aims to provide an overview of the mechanisms of 3D printing, the dental materials relevant to each mechanism, and the possible applications of these materials within different areas of dentistry. Methods. Subtopics within 3D printing technology in dentistry were identified and divided among five reviewers. Electronic searches of the Medline (PubMed) database were performed with the following search keywords: 3D printing, digital light processing, stereolithography, digital dentistry, dental materials, and a combination of the keywords. For this review, only studies or review papers investigating 3D printing technology for dental or medical applications were included. Due to the nature of this review, no formal evidence-based quality assessment was performed, and the search was limited to the English language without further restrictions. Results. A total of 64 articles were included. The significant applications, applied materials, limitations, and future directions of 3D printing technology were reviewed. Subtopics include the chronological evolution of 3D printing technology, the mechanisms of 3D printing technologies along with different printable materials with unique biomechanical properties, and the wide range of applications for 3D printing in dentistry. Conclusions: This review article gives an overview of the history and evolution of 3D printing technology, as well as its associated advantages and disadvantages. Current 3D printing technologies include stereolithography, digital light processing, fused deposition modeling, selective laser sintering/melting, photopolymer jetting, powder binder, and 3D laser bioprinting. The main categories of 3D printing materials are polymers, metals, and ceramics. Despite limitations in printing accuracy and quality, 3D printing technology is now able to offer us a wide variety of potential applications in different fields of dentistry, including prosthodontics, implantology, oral and maxillofacial, orthodontics, endodontics, and periodontics. Understanding the existing spectrum of 3D printing applications in dentistry will serve to further expand its use in the dental field. Three-dimensional printing technology has brought about a paradigm shift in the delivery of clinical care in medicine and dentistry. The clinical use of 3D printing has created versatile applications which streamline our digital workflow. Technological advancements have also paved the way for the integration of new dental materials into dentistry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Digital Dentistry)
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15 pages, 889 KiB  
Review
Use of Digital Diagnostic Aids for Initial Caries Detection: A Review
by Emma Kay Chan, Yuet Ying Wah, Walter Yu-Hang Lam, Chun-Hung Chu and Ollie Yiru Yu
Dent. J. 2023, 11(10), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11100232 - 28 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3837
Abstract
The advance in digital diagnostic technologies has significantly facilitated the detection of dental caries. Despite the increase in clinically available digital diagnostic aids for dental caries, there is yet to be a comprehensive summary of all available technology. This review aims to provide [...] Read more.
The advance in digital diagnostic technologies has significantly facilitated the detection of dental caries. Despite the increase in clinically available digital diagnostic aids for dental caries, there is yet to be a comprehensive summary of all available technology. This review aims to provide an overview of digital diagnostic aids for the clinical detection of dental caries, particularly those at an initial stage. Currently available digital diagnostic aids for caries detection can be classified into four categories according to the initial source of energy, including radiation-based aids, light-based aids, ultrasound-based aids, and electric-based aids. Radiation-based aids use ionizing radiation, normally X-ray, to produce images of dental structures. Radiation-based aids encompass digital bitewing radiography and cone beam computed tomography. Light-based aids employ light or laser to induce signals for the detection of the changes in the carious dental hard tissue. Common light-based aids include digital transillumination and light/laser-induced fluorescence. Ultrasound-based aids detect the signal of ultrasound waves to assess the acoustic impedance of the carious teeth. The ultrasound caries detector is an available ultrasound-based aid. Electric-based aids assess the changes in the electric current conductance or impedance of the teeth with caries. Available electric-based aids include electrical conductance measurement and alternating current impedance spectroscopy. Except for these clinically available digital diagnostic aids, many digital diagnostic aids for caries detection are still under development with promising results in laboratory settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Digital Dentistry)
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