Solution-Based Processes in Semiconductors and Electronic Devices

A special issue of Crystals (ISSN 2073-4352). This special issue belongs to the section "Inorganic Crystalline Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 14862

Special Issue Editors

Department of Electronic Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 84001, Taiwan
Interests: metal-oxide-semiconductor technology; high-speed semiconductor devices; semiconductor manufacturing technology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Gokaraju Rangaraju Institute of Engineering and Technology (GRIET), Hyderabad, India
Interests: wireless power transfer; electric vehicles
Dr. Jun Hieng Kiat
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Lee KongChian Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia
Interests: renewable energy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the last few decades, significant progress has been made in the synthesis of a wide range of semiconductor materials using a chemical solution method. The solution-based method is generally flexible, faster, and less expensive compared to vapor deposition methods. The solution-based process can exhibits capable and cost-effective manufacturing performance in the creation of high-quality inorganic or organic films for various applications. Recent developments in processes and applications have led to new advances in microelectronic and photonic devices (e.g., field-effect transistors, solar cells, sensors, memory devices, etc.).

We invite authors to contribute original research as well as review articles on the recent progress of all kinds of solution-based methods in relation to semiconductors and their applications in microelectronic and photonic devices. Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Solution-based methods with Si, III-V, or other semiconductors.
  • The synthesis and properties of solution-based thin films (including physical, chemical, and electronic properties).
  • Solution-based processes in relation to semiconductors in electronic or optoelectronic applications.
  • Novel concepts and applications of solution-based processes.

Prof. Dr. Chien-Jung Huang
Prof. Dr. Kuan-Wei Lee
Prof. Dr. Bobba Phaneendra Babu
Dr. Jun Hieng Kiat
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Crystals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

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Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 3662 KiB  
Article
Inhibited Degradation of Organic–Inorganic Perovskite-Based Quantum Dot Films via Rapid Annealing Temperatures
Crystals 2023, 13(3), 452; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst13030452 - 04 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1290
Abstract
General hot-plate heating is used to form a crystal structure of films; however, how to achieve a homogeneous and regulated crystal formation will be a crucial challenge in the future. In this study, based on perovskite-series materials, organic methylamine lead trioxide (MAPbI3 [...] Read more.
General hot-plate heating is used to form a crystal structure of films; however, how to achieve a homogeneous and regulated crystal formation will be a crucial challenge in the future. In this study, based on perovskite-series materials, organic methylamine lead trioxide (MAPbI3) films doped with inorganic lead iodide (CsPbI3) quantum dots (QDs) are treated using the rapid thermal annealing (RTA) process in argon gas to break the crystallization barrier. These RTA-treated perovskite quantum dot (PQD) films at various temperatures of 100–160 °C are detected using X-ray diffraction, X-ray spectroscopy, and absorbance measurements to investigate their structural and optical properties as well as their binding states. The experimental results demonstrate that the PQD film annealed at 120 °C has optimized characteristics, revealing better crystallinity and the lowest content of oxygen atoms (31.4%) and C-O-C bonding (20.1%). A too-high RTA temperature, more than 140 °C, causes severe degradation with the existence of PbI2. A proper RTA process, an alternative to normal heating and annealing, can effectively inhibit the occurrence of degradation and even usefully improve the performance of PQD films. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solution-Based Processes in Semiconductors and Electronic Devices)
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10 pages, 2547 KiB  
Article
Lead-Free Piezoelectric Ceramic Micro-Pressure Thick Films
Crystals 2023, 13(2), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst13020201 - 22 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1344
Abstract
In this study, non-stoichiometry lead-free piezoelectric ceramic Li0.058(K0.48Na0.535)0.966(Nb0.9Ta0.1)O3 (LKNNT) thick films were deposited on Pt/Ti/Si substrates using spin-coating method technology to form a LKNNT/Pt/Ti/Si structure of the micro-pressure thick films. [...] Read more.
In this study, non-stoichiometry lead-free piezoelectric ceramic Li0.058(K0.48Na0.535)0.966(Nb0.9Ta0.1)O3 (LKNNT) thick films were deposited on Pt/Ti/Si substrates using spin-coating method technology to form a LKNNT/Pt/Ti/Si structure of the micro-pressure thick films. Additionally, the influence on the crystalline properties, surface microstructure images, and mechanical properties, and the piezoelectric properties of the non-stoichiometry lead-free piezoelectric ceramic Li0.058(K0.48Na0.535)0.966(Nb0.9Ta0.1)O3 (LKNNT) thick films were observed, analyzed, and calculated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), focused ion beam (FIB) microscopy, nano-indention technology, and other instruments. This study was divided into two parts: The first part was the investigation into the fabrication parameters and properties of the bottom layer (Pt) and buffer layer (Ti). The Pt/Ti/Si structures were achieved by the DC sputtering method, and then the rapid thermal annealing (RTA) post-treatment process was used to re-arrange the grains and reduce defects in the lead-free Li0.058(K0.48Na0.535)0.966(Nb0.9Ta0.1)O3 (LKNNT) thick films. In the second part, lead-free Li0.058(K0.48Na0.535)0.966(Nb0.9Ta0.1)O3 (LKNNT) powder was prepared by the solid-state reaction method, and then acetic acid (C2H4O2) solvent was added to form a slurry for spin-coating technology processing. The fabrication parameters, thick film micro-structure, crystalline properties, nano-indention technology, and the piezoelectric coefficient characteristics of the developed lead-free Li0.058(K0.48Na0.535)0.966(Nb0.9Ta0.1)O3 (LKNNT)/Pt/Ti/Si structure of the micro-pressure thick film devices a were investigated. According to the experimental results, the optimal fabrication processing parameters of the lead-free Li0.058(K0.48Na0.535)0.966(Nb0.9Ta0.1)O3 (LKNNT) were an RTA temperature of 500 °C, a Ti buffer-layer thickness of 273.9 nm, a Pt bottom electrode-layer thickness of 376.6 nm, a theoretical density of LKNNT of 4.789 g/cm3, a lattice constant of 3.968 × 10−8 cm, and a d33 value of 150 pm/V. Finally, regarding the mechanical properties of the micro-pressure devices for when a microforce of 3 mN was applied, the thick film revealed a hardness of 60 MPa, a Young’s modulus of 13 GPa, and an elasticity interval of 1.25 μm, which are suitable for future applications of micro-pressure devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solution-Based Processes in Semiconductors and Electronic Devices)
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13 pages, 21257 KiB  
Article
Bipolar Switching Properties of GdOx:SiO2 Thin Film Resistive Random Access Memory Using Co-Sputtering Technology
Crystals 2023, 13(2), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst13020156 - 17 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1026
Abstract
Using two kinds of targets (gallium and silicon dioxide) and the rf magnetron sputtering deposited technique, GdOx:SiO2 thin film RRAM devices were deposited on TiN/Si substrate to form a metal–insulator–metal (MIM) structure. In addition, different oxygen concentrations and rf sputtering [...] Read more.
Using two kinds of targets (gallium and silicon dioxide) and the rf magnetron sputtering deposited technique, GdOx:SiO2 thin film RRAM devices were deposited on TiN/Si substrate to form a metal–insulator–metal (MIM) structure. In addition, different oxygen concentrations and rf sputtering power parameters were prepared for the GdOx:SiO2 thin films. Decrease of the defects and oxygen vacancies of the GdOx:SiO2 thin films were used and repaired by rapid thermal annealing technology. Indium tin oxide (ITO) as the top electrode on the GdOx:SiO2 thin film was prepared by the physical vapor deposition (PVD) method, and ITO/GdOx:SiO2/TiN/Si structures of the GdOx:SiO2 thin films’ RRAM devices were also made. In addition, the current–voltage curves and devices’ endurance properties were measured by an impedance analyzer. Finally, the crystalline style, the preferred phase, the grain size, and surface microstructure of the thin films were analyzed and observed from X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscope measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solution-Based Processes in Semiconductors and Electronic Devices)
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18 pages, 6815 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Annealing Temperatures and Dimethylformamide Doses on Porous TiO2 Films
Crystals 2023, 13(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst13010061 - 29 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1323
Abstract
In this study, we develop a facile and feasible synthetic technique for producing denser porous titanium dioxide (TiO2) films. The porous TiO2 films are effectively prepared using a sol–gel process with dimethylformamide (DMF). The TiO2 solution is synthesized by [...] Read more.
In this study, we develop a facile and feasible synthetic technique for producing denser porous titanium dioxide (TiO2) films. The porous TiO2 films are effectively prepared using a sol–gel process with dimethylformamide (DMF). The TiO2 solution is synthesized by adjusting DMF doses ranging from 0 to 10 wt%, and the as-grown TiO2 films are further annealed at different temperatures from 300 to 500 °C. The TiO2 films exhibit an asymmetry anatase TiO2 phase as annealing temperatures increase, and a denser structure as DMF doses increase. The optical properties of all samples are studied, and the porous TiO2 obtained by 7.5 wt% DMF dose demonstrates a remarkable transmittance and reflectance of 51.87% and 27.55%, respectively, in the visible region from 350 to 850 nm when compared to the pure TiO2 films. The calculated band gap values range from 3.15 to 3.25 eV. Furthermore, the resistivity of 350 °C-annealed porous TiO2 thin film is determined by the Hall effect, revealing an increase from 4.46 to an of average 4.79 ohm · cm after injecting DMF solvent. These findings have the potential to assist a growing number of optoelectronic applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solution-Based Processes in Semiconductors and Electronic Devices)
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11 pages, 5736 KiB  
Article
Crystalline Phase Segregation of Quantum-Dots-Passivated CH3NH3PbI3 Film via Argon Plasma Treatment
Crystals 2022, 12(11), 1556; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12111556 - 31 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1114
Abstract
In this study, a composite perovskite film composed of lead cesium triiodide (CsPbI3) quantum dots (QDs) and methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3; MAPbI3) was proposed. The CsPbI3 QDs prepared by hot-injecting were used [...] Read more.
In this study, a composite perovskite film composed of lead cesium triiodide (CsPbI3) quantum dots (QDs) and methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3; MAPbI3) was proposed. The CsPbI3 QDs prepared by hot-injecting were used as an anti-solvent in precursors to passivate the surface of this composite perovskite film. The further argon (Ar) plasma treatment improves the surface of the film. The effects of the powers from 100 to 200 W on the composite perovskite film structure, chemical element composition, and optical properties were studied. The experimental results demonstrate that the CsPbI3 QDs passivation boosts the ultraviolet light absorption (350–450 nm) and inhibits the formation of the PbI2 phase. Furthermore, Ar plasma treatment effectively improved CsPbI3 QDs passivation on MAPbI3 film. The powers lower than 140 W cause C=O bonds to dissolve and coordination bonds to form between OA carboxyl moieties and undercoordinated Pb2+ ions. At 160 and 140 W, the obvious crystal phase segregation and a decrease in light absorption are observed, respectively. Meanwhile, the strong bombardment of Ar ions at higher than 160 W causes the severe degradation of MAPbI3 film. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solution-Based Processes in Semiconductors and Electronic Devices)
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9 pages, 2078 KiB  
Article
The Mechanism of PEDOT: PSS Films with Organic Additives
Crystals 2022, 12(8), 1109; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12081109 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3056
Abstract
This article demonstrates changes in the structures of poly (3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene): polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT: PSS) with the addition of organic additives. The mechanisms of PEDOT: PSS are analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), cross-sectional images obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and contact [...] Read more.
This article demonstrates changes in the structures of poly (3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene): polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT: PSS) with the addition of organic additives. The mechanisms of PEDOT: PSS are analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), cross-sectional images obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and contact angles. In this paper, a bond-breaking reaction and phase separation are successfully found to occur between PEDOT: PSS molecules and the organic additives. Our research also finds that this bond-breaking reaction and phase separation exist in the PEDOT: PSS–sorbitol–maltitol film at the same time. The addition of organic additives will improve the optical properties and the moisture stability of PEDOT: PSS films. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solution-Based Processes in Semiconductors and Electronic Devices)
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8 pages, 1943 KiB  
Article
Effects of Different Anti-Solvents and Annealing Temperatures on Perovskite Thin Films
Crystals 2022, 12(8), 1074; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12081074 - 31 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1496
Abstract
Since perovskite materials are currently mostly used in the active layer of solar cells, how to maximize the conversion efficiency of the active layer is the most urgent problem at present. In this regard, the extremely low voltage loss and tunable energy gap [...] Read more.
Since perovskite materials are currently mostly used in the active layer of solar cells, how to maximize the conversion efficiency of the active layer is the most urgent problem at present. In this regard, the extremely low voltage loss and tunable energy gap of methyl lead iodide (MAPbI3) perovskites make them very suitable for all perovskite solar cell applications, and are also compatible with silicon crystalline systems. Therefore, the future development of MAPbI3 perovskite will be very important. The key point of film formation in MAPbI3 is the addition of anti-solvent, which will affect the overall quality of the film. Whether it can be used as an excellent active layer to improve the application value will be very important. Therefore, the research purpose of this topic “Effects of different anti-solvents and annealing temperatures on perovskites” is to complete the basic research and development of a light-absorbing layer of a solar cell element, in which three different anti-solvents need to be matched with each other as the active light-absorbing layer of a solar cell. Through optimization, using the chemical properties of different anti-solvents and different annealing temperatures, combined with the low-process-cost characteristics of organic materials and many other advantages, we researched the optimized process methods and parameters to improve the absorption efficiency of the active light-absorbing layer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solution-Based Processes in Semiconductors and Electronic Devices)
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10 pages, 3217 KiB  
Article
TSFZ Growth of Eu-Substituted Large-Size LSCO Crystals
Crystals 2022, 12(7), 998; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12070998 - 18 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1689
Abstract
The travelling solvent floating zone (TSFZ) growth of Eu-substituted LSCO (La1.81−xEuxSr0.19CuO4, with nominal x = 0 ÷ 0.4) single crystals was systematically explored for the first time. The substitution of La with Eu considerably decreased [...] Read more.
The travelling solvent floating zone (TSFZ) growth of Eu-substituted LSCO (La1.81−xEuxSr0.19CuO4, with nominal x = 0 ÷ 0.4) single crystals was systematically explored for the first time. The substitution of La with Eu considerably decreased the decomposition temperature. Optimal growth parameters were found to be: oxygen pressure 9.0–9.5 bars; Eu-free CuO-poor solvent (66 mol% CuO) with a molar ratio of La2O3:SrCO3:CuO = 4:4.5:16.5 and growth rate 0.6 mm/hour. The obtained single crystals were characterized with optical polarized microscopy, X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. The solubility of Eu in LSCO appeared to be limited to x~0.36–0.38 under the used conditions. The substitution of La3+ with smaller Eu3+ ions led to a structural transition from tetragonal with space group I4/mmm for La1.81Sr0.19CuO4 (x = 0) to orthorhombic with space group Fmmm for La1.81−xSr0.19EuxCuO4 (x = 0.2, 0.3, 0.4), and to a substantial shrinking of the c-axis from 13.2446 Å (x = 0.0) to 13.1257 Å (x = 0.4). Such structural changes were accompanied by a dramatic decrease in the superconducting critical temperature, Tc, from 29.5 K for x = 0 to 13.8 K for 0.2. For x ≥ 0.3, no superconductivity was detected down to 4 K. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solution-Based Processes in Semiconductors and Electronic Devices)
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10 pages, 4747 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Argon Plasma on Organic Perovskite MAPbI3 Film Doped with Inorganic Perovskite CsPbI3 Quantum Dots (QDs)
Crystals 2022, 12(6), 799; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12060799 - 06 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1692
Abstract
In this study, the inorganic perovskite cesium lead triiodide (CsPbI3) quantum dots (QDs) produced by hot-injection method were added into the hybrid perovskite methylamine lead triiodide (CH3NH3PbI3; MAPbI3) to form composite perovskite film. [...] Read more.
In this study, the inorganic perovskite cesium lead triiodide (CsPbI3) quantum dots (QDs) produced by hot-injection method were added into the hybrid perovskite methylamine lead triiodide (CH3NH3PbI3; MAPbI3) to form composite perovskite film. It is not easy for argon (Ar) to react with perovskite. Therefore, argon plasma was used to optimize the properties of the surface. However, methylamine lead triiodide molecular will be degraded by excessive wattage. Therefore, the influence of plasma power acting on composite perovskite film was investigated. The experimental results show that the light absorption capacity can be increased by argon plasma power of 140 watt (W) acting on the surface of films because organic impurities are removed and surface morphology of film is changed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solution-Based Processes in Semiconductors and Electronic Devices)
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