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Opportunities and Challenges in Organic Optoelectronic Materials and Devices

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2021) | Viewed by 35565

Special Issue Editors

Sauvage Center for Molecular Sciences, Hubei Key Lab on Organic and Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials, Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
Interests: organic optoelectronic materials; devices
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Electronic Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 84001, Taiwan
Interests: metal-oxide-semiconductor technology; high-speed semiconductor devices; semiconductor manufacturing technology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, new organic semiconducting materials and devices have been rapidly developed in practical applications, e.g., light-emitting devices, solar cells, transistors, and detectors.

The present Special Issue intends to highlight the results of experimental and theoretical investigations on the emerging organic optoelectronic materials and devices, with the extension to organic/inorganic hybrid ones, particularly related to the state-of-the-art quantum dots and perovskite families. This issue mainly covers light/electricity generation or harvesting mechanisms, based on the structure-property relationships. Broad aspects of this topic will be compiled, such as synthesis of new materials, morphological control, photophysical characterization, defect passivation, thin-film growth, optical manipulation, and device engineering.

Original manuscripts (full-length articles, short communications, highlights, or mini reviews), pointing out results from experimental and theoretical investigations, with reference to emerging materials and devices for light-to-electricity or electricity-to-light conversion, are all welcome.

Dr. Guohua Xie
Prof. Dr. Chien-Jung Huang
Prof. Dr. Kuan-Wei Lee
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Organic semiconductors
  • Organic photonics
  • Inorganic/organic hybrid materials
  • Excitons
  • Electroluminescence
  • Photovoltaics
  • Vacuum/solution process
  • Energy transfer

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

10 pages, 17633 KiB  
Article
Hermetic Seal of Organic Light Emitting Diode with Glass Frit
Molecules 2022, 27(1), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27010076 - 23 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2425
Abstract
The components of OLED encapsulation with hermetic sealing and a 1026-day lifetime were measured by PXI-1033. The optimal characteristics were obtained when the thickness of the TPBi layer was 20 nm. This OLED obtained a maximum luminance (Lmax) of 25,849 cd/m2 at [...] Read more.
The components of OLED encapsulation with hermetic sealing and a 1026-day lifetime were measured by PXI-1033. The optimal characteristics were obtained when the thickness of the TPBi layer was 20 nm. This OLED obtained a maximum luminance (Lmax) of 25,849 cd/m2 at a current density of 1242 mA/cm2, an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 2.28%, a current efficiency (CE) of 7.20 cd/A, and a power efficiency (PE) of 5.28 lm/W. The efficiency was enhanced by Lmax 17.2%/EQE 0.89%/CE 42.1%/PE 41.9%. The CIE coordinates of 0.32, 0.54 were all green OLED elements with wavelengths of 532 nm. The shear strain and leakage test gave results of 16 kgf and 8.92 × 10−9 mbar/s, respectively. The reliability test showed that the standard of MIL-STD-883 was obtained. Full article
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11 pages, 25164 KiB  
Article
High Performance Near-Infrared Emitters with Methylated Triphenylamine and Thiadiazolo[3,4-g]quinoxaline-Based Fluorophores
Molecules 2021, 26(21), 6386; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26216386 - 22 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1803
Abstract
Three near-infrared emitters (2TPA-QBT, 2MeTPA-BT and TPA-QBT-MeTPA) were rationally designed and synthesized. Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations showed that the introduction of mono- or di-methyl groups between the donors and acceptor could result in [...] Read more.
Three near-infrared emitters (2TPA-QBT, 2MeTPA-BT and TPA-QBT-MeTPA) were rationally designed and synthesized. Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations showed that the introduction of mono- or di-methyl groups between the donors and acceptor could result in the spatial configuration changing greatly for 2MeTPA-QBT and TPA-QBT-MeTPA compared to their parent compound 2TPA-QBT. The emission of TPA-QBT-MeTPA had a more obvious hybridized local and charge transfer feature (HLCT) based on the influence of the steric hindrance of the methyl substituent. Attributed to their different spatial configurations and luminescence mechanisms, different emission wavelengths with photoluminescent quantum yields of 26%, 38% and 34% in toluene, as well as 24%, 27% and 31% in 4,4′-bis(N-carbazolyl)-1,1′-biphenyl (CBP) doped film, were observed for 2TPA-QBT, 2MeTPA-QBT and TPA-QBT-MeTPA, respectively. The constructed organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) displayed electroluminescence with emission peaks at 728, 693 and 710 nm, with maximum external quantum efficiencies of 1.58%, 1.33% and 3.02% for the 2TPA-QBT, 2MeTPA-QBT and TPA-QBT-MeTPA-doped OLEDs, respectively. This work illustrated the effect of spatial configuration changes on the luminescence properties of donor-acceptor-type organic emitters. Full article
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13 pages, 2693 KiB  
Article
Effects of Side-Chain Engineering with the S Atom in Thieno[3,2-b]thiophene-porphyrin to Obtain Small-Molecule Donor Materials for Organic Solar Cells
Molecules 2021, 26(20), 6134; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26206134 - 11 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1877
Abstract
To explore the effect of the introduction of heteroatoms on the properties of porphyrin materials, a new porphyrin-based derivative small-molecule donor named as PorTT-T was designed and synthesized based on alkyl-thieno[3,2-b]thiophene(TT)-substituted porphyrins. The linker bridge and end groups of PorTT-T were [...] Read more.
To explore the effect of the introduction of heteroatoms on the properties of porphyrin materials, a new porphyrin-based derivative small-molecule donor named as PorTT-T was designed and synthesized based on alkyl-thieno[3,2-b]thiophene(TT)-substituted porphyrins. The linker bridge and end groups of PorTT-T were the same as those of XLP-II small-molecule donor materials, while the side-chain attached to the core of thieno[3,2-b]thiophene(TT)-substituted porphyrin was different. Measurements of intrinsic properties showed that PorTT-T has wide absorption and appropriate energy levels in the UV-visible range. A comparison of the morphologies of the two materials using atomic force microscopy showed that PorTT-T has a better surface morphology with a smaller root-mean-square roughness, and can present closer intermolecular stacking as compared to XLP-II. The device characterization results showed that PorTT-T with the introduced S atom has a higher open circuit voltage of 0.886 eV, a higher short circuit current of 12.03 mAcm−2, a fill factor of 0.499, a high photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 5.32%, better external quantum efficiency in the UV-visible range, and higher hole mobility. Full article
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11 pages, 2715 KiB  
Article
Efficient Exciplex-Based Deep-Blue Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Employing a Bis(4-fluorophenyl)amine-Substituted Heptazine Acceptor
Molecules 2021, 26(18), 5568; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26185568 - 13 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1944
Abstract
The realization of a deep-blue-emitting exciplex system is a herculean task in the field of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) on account of a large red-shifted and broadened exciplex emission spectrum in comparison to those of the corresponding single compounds. Herein, 2,5,8-tris(di(4-fluorophenyl)amine)-1,3,4,6,7,9,9b-heptaazaphenalene (HAP-3FDPA) was [...] Read more.
The realization of a deep-blue-emitting exciplex system is a herculean task in the field of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) on account of a large red-shifted and broadened exciplex emission spectrum in comparison to those of the corresponding single compounds. Herein, 2,5,8-tris(di(4-fluorophenyl)amine)-1,3,4,6,7,9,9b-heptaazaphenalene (HAP-3FDPA) was designed as an electron acceptor by integrating three bis(4-fluorophenyl)amine groups into a heptazine core, while 1,3-di(9H-carbazol-9-yl)benzene (mCP) possessing two electron-donating carbazole moieties was chosen as the electron donor. Excitingly, the exciplex system of 8 wt% HAP-3FDPA:mCP exhibited deep-blue emission and a high photoluminescence quantum yield of 53.2%. More importantly, an OLED containing this exciplex system as an emitting layer showed deep-blue emission with Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage coordinates of (0.16, 0.12), a peak luminance of 15,148 cd m−2, and a rather high maximum external quantum efficiency of 10.2% along with a low roll-off. This study not only reports an efficient exciplex-based deep-blue emitter but also presents a feasible pathway to construct highly efficient deep-blue OLEDs based on exciplex systems. Full article
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9 pages, 2726 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Oxygen Plasma on Methylammonium Lead Iodide (MAPbI3) Film Doped with Lead Cesium Triiodide (CsPbI3)
Molecules 2021, 26(17), 5133; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26175133 - 24 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2103
Abstract
In recent years, the study of organic–inorganic halide perovskite as an optoelectronics material has been a significant line of research, and the power conversion efficiency of solar cells based on these materials has reached 25.5%. However, defects on the surface of the film [...] Read more.
In recent years, the study of organic–inorganic halide perovskite as an optoelectronics material has been a significant line of research, and the power conversion efficiency of solar cells based on these materials has reached 25.5%. However, defects on the surface of the film are still a problem to be solved, and oxygen plasma is one of the ways to passivate surface defects. In order to avoid destroying the methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3), the influence of plasma powers on film was investigated and the cesium triiodide (CsPbI3) quantum dots (QDs) were doped into the film. In addition, it was found that oxygen plasma can enhance the mobility and carrier concentration of the MAPbI3 film. Full article
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10 pages, 1812 KiB  
Article
Pyridinyl-Carbazole Fragments Containing Host Materials for Efficient Green and Blue Phosphorescent OLEDs
Molecules 2021, 26(15), 4615; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26154615 - 30 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2476
Abstract
Pyridinyl-carbazole fragments containing low molar mass compounds as host derivatives H1 and H2 were synthesized, investigated, and used for the preparation of electro-phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices (PhOLEDs). The materials demonstrated high stability against thermal decomposition with the decomposition temperatures of 361–386 °C and [...] Read more.
Pyridinyl-carbazole fragments containing low molar mass compounds as host derivatives H1 and H2 were synthesized, investigated, and used for the preparation of electro-phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices (PhOLEDs). The materials demonstrated high stability against thermal decomposition with the decomposition temperatures of 361–386 °C and were suitable for the preparation of thin amorphous and homogeneous layers with very high values of glass transition temperatures of 127–139 °C. It was determined that triplet energy values of the derivatives are, correspondingly, 2.82 eV for the derivative H1 and 2.81 eV for the host H2. The new derivatives were tested as hosts of emitting layers in blue, as well as in green phosphorescent OLEDs. The blue device with 15 wt.% of the iridium(III)[bis(4,6-difluorophenyl)-pyridinato-N,C2′]picolinate (FIrpic) emitter doping ratio in host material H2 exhibited the best overall characteristics with a power efficiency of 24.9 lm/W, a current efficiency of 23.9 cd/A, and high value of 10.3% of external quantum efficiency at 100 cd/m2. The most efficient green PhOLED with 10 wt% of Ir(ppy)3 {tris(2-phenylpyridine)iridium(III)} in the H2 host showed a power efficiency of 34.1 lm/W, current efficiency of 33.9 cd/A, and a high value of 9.4% for external quantum efficiency at a high brightness of 1000 cd/m2, which is required for lighting applications. These characteristics were obtained in non-optimized PhOLEDs under an ordinary laboratory atmosphere and could be improved in the optimization process. The results demonstrate that some of the new host materials are very promising components for the development of efficient phosphorescent devices. Full article
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9 pages, 1772 KiB  
Article
Effect of Growth Temperature on the Characteristics of CsPbI3-Quantum Dots Doped Perovskite Film
Molecules 2021, 26(15), 4439; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26154439 - 23 Jul 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2515
Abstract
In this study, adding CsPbI3 quantum dots to organic perovskite methylamine lead triiodide (CH3NH3PbI3) to form a doped perovskite film filmed by different temperatures was found to effectively reduce the formation of unsaturated metal Pb. Doping [...] Read more.
In this study, adding CsPbI3 quantum dots to organic perovskite methylamine lead triiodide (CH3NH3PbI3) to form a doped perovskite film filmed by different temperatures was found to effectively reduce the formation of unsaturated metal Pb. Doping a small amount of CsPbI3 quantum dots could enhance thermal stability and improve surface defects. The electron mobility of the doped film was 2.5 times higher than the pristine film. This was a major breakthrough for inorganic quantum dot doped organic perovskite thin films. Full article
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12 pages, 2704 KiB  
Article
Phosphine Sulfide-Based Bipolar Host Materials for Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes
Molecules 2021, 26(13), 4079; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26134079 - 03 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2263
Abstract
Three phosphine sulfide-based bipolar host materials, viz CzPhPS, DCzPhPS, and TCzPhPS, were facilely prepared through a one-pot synthesis in excellent yields. The developed hosts exhibit superior thermal stabilities with the decomposition temperatures (Td) all exceeding 350 °C [...] Read more.
Three phosphine sulfide-based bipolar host materials, viz CzPhPS, DCzPhPS, and TCzPhPS, were facilely prepared through a one-pot synthesis in excellent yields. The developed hosts exhibit superior thermal stabilities with the decomposition temperatures (Td) all exceeding 350 °C and the melting temperatures (Tm) over 200 °C. In addition, their triplet energy (ET) levels are estimated to be higher than 3.0 eV, illustrating that they are applicable to serve as hosts for blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs). The maxima luminance, current efficiency (CE), power efficiency (PE), and external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 17,223 cd m−2, 36.7 cd A−1, 37.5 lm W−1, and 17.5% are achieved for the blue PhOLEDs hosted by CzPhPS. The PhOLEDs based on DCzPhPS and TCzPhPS show inferior device performance than that of CzPhPS, which might be ascribed to the deteriorated charge transporting balance as the increased number of the constructed carbazole units in DCzPhPS and TCzPhPS molecules would enhance the hole-transporting ability of the devices to a large extent. Our study demonstrates that the bipolar hosts derived from phosphine sulfide have enormous potential applications in blue PhOLEDs, and the quantity of donors should be well controlled to exploit highly efficient phosphine sulfide-based hosts. Full article
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9 pages, 2945 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Stability of Methylammonium Lead Iodide (MAPbI3) Film Doped with Lead Cesium Triiodide (CsPbI3) Quantum Dots under an Oxygen Plasma Atmosphere
Molecules 2021, 26(9), 2678; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26092678 - 03 May 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2287
Abstract
In this study, we describe composited perovskite films based on the doping of lead cesium triiodide (CsPbI3) quantum dots (QDs) into methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3). CsPbI3 QDs and MAPbI3 were prepared by ligand-assisted re-precipitation and solution mixing, [...] Read more.
In this study, we describe composited perovskite films based on the doping of lead cesium triiodide (CsPbI3) quantum dots (QDs) into methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3). CsPbI3 QDs and MAPbI3 were prepared by ligand-assisted re-precipitation and solution mixing, respectively. These films were optimized by oxygen plasma treatment, and the effect of powers from 0 to 80 W on the structural properties of the composited perovskite films is discussed. The experimental results showed that the light-harvesting ability of the films was enhanced at 20 W. The formation of the metastable state (lead(II) oxide and lead tetroxide) was demonstrated by peak differentiation-imitating. A low power enhanced the quality of the films due to the removal of organic impurities, whereas a high power caused surface damage in the films owing to the severe degradation of MAPbI3. Full article
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12 pages, 2000 KiB  
Article
Simple Synthesis of Red Iridium(III) Complexes with Sulfur-Contained Four-Membered Ancillary Ligands for OLEDs
Molecules 2021, 26(9), 2599; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26092599 - 29 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2324
Abstract
Phosphorescent iridium(III) complexes have been widely researched for the fabrication of efficient organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). In this work, three red Ir(III) complexes named Ir-1, Ir-2, and Ir-3, with Ir-S-C-S four-membered framework rings, were synthesized efficiently at room temperature within 5 min using [...] Read more.
Phosphorescent iridium(III) complexes have been widely researched for the fabrication of efficient organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). In this work, three red Ir(III) complexes named Ir-1, Ir-2, and Ir-3, with Ir-S-C-S four-membered framework rings, were synthesized efficiently at room temperature within 5 min using sulfur-containing ancillary ligands with electron-donating groups of 9,10-dihydro-9,9-dimethylacridine, phenoxazine, and phenothiazine, respectively. Due to the same main ligand of 4-(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)quinazoline, all Ir(III) complexes showed similar photoluminescence emissions at 622, 619, and 622 nm with phosphorescence quantum yields of 35.4%, 50.4%, and 52.8%, respectively. OLEDs employing these complexes as emitters with the structure of ITO (indium tin oxide)/HAT-CN (dipyra-zino[2,3-f,2′,3′-h]quinoxaline-2,3,6,7,10,11-hexacarbonitrile, 5 nm)/TAPC (4,4′-cyclohexylidenebis[N,N-bis-(4-methylphenyl)aniline], 40 nm)/TCTA (4,4″,4″-tris(carbazol-9-yl)triphenylamine, 10 nm)/Ir(III) complex (10 wt%): 2,6DCzPPy (2,6-bis-(3-(carbazol-9-yl)phenyl)pyridine, 10 nm)/TmPyPB (1,3,5-tri(mpyrid-3-yl-phenyl)benzene, 50 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (100 nm) achieved good performance. In particular, the device based on complex Ir-3 with the phenothiazine unit showed the best performance with a maximum brightness of 22,480 cd m−2, a maximum current efficiency of 23.71 cd A−1, and a maximum external quantum efficiency of 18.1%. The research results suggest the Ir(III) complexes with a four-membered ring Ir-S-C-S backbone provide ideas for the rapid preparation of Ir(III) complexes for OLEDs. Full article
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9 pages, 2863 KiB  
Article
Efficient Red Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Emitters Based on a Dibenzonitrile-Substituted Dipyrido[3,2-a:2′,3′-c]phenazine Acceptor
Molecules 2021, 26(9), 2427; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26092427 - 22 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2532
Abstract
How to construct efficient red-emitting thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) materials is a challenging task in the field of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Herein, an electron acceptor moiety, 3,6-DCNB-DPPZ, with high rigidity and strong acceptor strength was designed by introducing two cyanobenzene groups [...] Read more.
How to construct efficient red-emitting thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) materials is a challenging task in the field of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Herein, an electron acceptor moiety, 3,6-DCNB-DPPZ, with high rigidity and strong acceptor strength was designed by introducing two cyanobenzene groups into the 3,6-positions of a dipyrido[3,2-a:2′,3′-c]phenazine unit. A red-emitting compound, 3,6_R, has been designed and synthesized by combining the rigid acceptor unit with two triphenylamine donors. Due to high molecular rigidity and strong intramolecular charge transfer characteristic in donor–acceptor–donor skeleton, 3,6_R exhibited a red emission with a high photoluminescence quantum yield of 86% and distinct TADF nature with short delayed fluorescence lifetime of about 1 microsecond. Accordingly, the OLED using 3,6_R as the guest emitter gained a high external quantum efficiency of 12.0% in the red region with an electroluminescence peak of 619 nm and favorable Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage coordinates of (0.62, 0.38). Full article
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11 pages, 1233 KiB  
Article
New Electroactive Polymers with Electronically Isolated 4,7-Diarylfluorene Chromophores as Positive Charge Transporting Layer Materials for OLEDs
Molecules 2021, 26(7), 1936; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26071936 - 30 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1568
Abstract
A group of polyethers containing electroactive pendent 4,7-diarylfluorene chromophores have been prepared by the multi-step synthetic route. Full characterization of their structures has been presented. The polymeric materials represent derivatives of high thermal stability with initial thermal degradation temperatures in a range of [...] Read more.
A group of polyethers containing electroactive pendent 4,7-diarylfluorene chromophores have been prepared by the multi-step synthetic route. Full characterization of their structures has been presented. The polymeric materials represent derivatives of high thermal stability with initial thermal degradation temperatures in a range of 392–397 °C. Glass transition temperatures of the amorphous polymers range from 28 °C to 63 °C and depend on structures of the 4,7-diarylfluorene chromophores. Electron photoemission spectra of thin layers of the electroactive derivatives showed ionization potentials in the range of 5.8–6.0 eV. Hole injecting/transporting properties of the prepared polymeric materials were confirmed during formation of organic light-emitting diodes with tris(quinolin-8-olato)aluminium (Alq3) as a green emitter, which also serves as an electron transporting layer. The device using hole-transporting polymer with electronically isolated 2,7-di(4-biphenyl)fluorene chromophores demonstrated the best overall performance with low turn on voltage of 3 V, high current efficiency exceeding 1.7 cd/A, and with maximum brightness over 200 cd/m2. The organic light-emitting diode (OLED) characteristics were measured in non-optimized test devices. The efficiencies could be further improved by an optimization of device structure, formation conditions, and encapsulation of the devices. Full article
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10 pages, 2878 KiB  
Communication
Improved Efficiency Roll-Off and Operational Lifetime of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with a Tetradentate Platinum(II) Complex by Using an n-Doped Electron-Transporting Layer
Molecules 2021, 26(7), 1835; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26071835 - 24 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2333
Abstract
The efficiency roll-off and operational lifetime of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with a tetradentate Pt(II) emitter is improved by engaging an n-doped electron-transporting layer (ETL). Compared to those devices with non-doped ETL, the driving voltage is lowered, the charged carrier is balanced, and [...] Read more.
The efficiency roll-off and operational lifetime of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with a tetradentate Pt(II) emitter is improved by engaging an n-doped electron-transporting layer (ETL). Compared to those devices with non-doped ETL, the driving voltage is lowered, the charged carrier is balanced, and the exciton density in the emissive layer (EML) is decreased in the device with n-doped ETL with 8-hydroxyquinolinolatolithium (Liq). High luminance of almost 70,000 cd m−2 and high current efficiency of 40.5 cd A−1 at high luminance of 10,000 cd m−2 is achieved in the device with 50 wt%-Liq-doped ETL. More importantly, the extended operational lifetime of 1945 h is recorded at the initial luminance of 1000 cd m−2 in the 50 wt%-Liq-doped device, which is longer than that of the device with non-doped ETL by almost 10 times. This result manifests the potential application of tetradentate Pt(II) complexes in the OLED industry. Full article
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9 pages, 676 KiB  
Article
Perovskite Light-Emitting Devices with Doped Hole Transporting Layer
Molecules 2021, 26(6), 1670; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26061670 - 17 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2731
Abstract
Perovskite quantum dots (PQDs) have drawn global attention in recent years and have been used in a range of semiconductor devices, especially for light-emitting diodes (LEDs). However, because of the nature of low-conductive ligands of PQDs and surface and bulk defects in the [...] Read more.
Perovskite quantum dots (PQDs) have drawn global attention in recent years and have been used in a range of semiconductor devices, especially for light-emitting diodes (LEDs). However, because of the nature of low-conductive ligands of PQDs and surface and bulk defects in the devices, charge injection and transport should be carefully managed in order to maximize the electroluminescent performances. In this study, we employed three p-dopants, i.e., 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4-TCNQ), 1,3,4,5,7,8-hexafluoro-11,11,12,12-tetracyanonaphtho-2,6-quinodimethane (F6-TCNNQ), and 11,11,12,12-tetracyanonaphtho-2,6-quinodimethane (TCNH14), respectively doped into the commonly used hole transporting layer (HTL) poly[bis(4-phenyl)(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)amine] (PTAA). Compared with the devices with the neat PTAA, those with the doped PTAA as the HTLs achieved the improved electroluminescent performances. In particular, the device with the strong oxidant F4-TCNQ exhibited an improvement factor of 27% in the peak external quantum efficiency compared with the control device with the neat PTAA. The capacitance and transient electroluminescent measurements were carried out to identify the imperceptible interactions in the doped HTL and at the interface between the HTL and PQDs. Full article
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12 pages, 2386 KiB  
Article
Solution-Processed OLEDs Based on Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Copper(I) Complexes with Intraligand Charge-Transfer Excited State
Molecules 2021, 26(4), 1125; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26041125 - 20 Feb 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2516
Abstract
A new series of tetrahedral heteroleptic copper(I) complexes exhibiting efficient thermally-activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) in green to orange electromagnetic spectral regions has been developed by using D-A type N^N ligand and P^P ligands. Their structures, electrochemical, photophysical, and electroluminescence properties have been characterized. [...] Read more.
A new series of tetrahedral heteroleptic copper(I) complexes exhibiting efficient thermally-activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) in green to orange electromagnetic spectral regions has been developed by using D-A type N^N ligand and P^P ligands. Their structures, electrochemical, photophysical, and electroluminescence properties have been characterized. The complexes exhibit high photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQYs) of up to 0.71 at room temperature in doped film and the lifetimes are in a wide range of 4.3–24.1 μs. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations on the complexes reveal the lowest-lying intraligand charge-transfer excited states that are localized on the N^N ligands. Solution-processed organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on one of the new emitters show a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 7.96%. Full article
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