New Advances in Condensed Matter Physics

A special issue of Condensed Matter (ISSN 2410-3896). This special issue belongs to the section "Condensed Matter Theory".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 January 2024) | Viewed by 10782

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Department of Theoretical Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University Canberra, Canberra, ACT 6201, Australia
Interests: superconductivity; Bose Einstein condensation; density functional theory
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Dear Colleagues,

Condensed matter physics is a discipline in physics which has a specific goal of understanding the structure and properties of all kinds of solids and liquids. It is a very broad and a lively area of research in physical sciences, and new ideas and novel materials are created every now and then. This Special Issue aims to provide an exchange platform for the latest achievements in the intensively developing field of condensed matter physics.

Prof. Dr. Mukunda Das
Guest Editor

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Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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10 pages, 2716 KiB  
Article
Universal Short-Time Conductance Behavior Emerges between Two Adjacent Reservoirs
by Er’el Granot
Condens. Matter 2024, 9(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat9010015 - 26 Feb 2024
Viewed by 844
Abstract
When a shutter, which differentiates between two adjacent particles’ reservoirs with a voltage gap, is lifted, a current emerges. In this paper, the temporal dynamics of this emerging current is analyzed. The main results are as follows: (A) the current’s prefactor in the [...] Read more.
When a shutter, which differentiates between two adjacent particles’ reservoirs with a voltage gap, is lifted, a current emerges. In this paper, the temporal dynamics of this emerging current is analyzed. The main results are as follows: (A) the current’s prefactor in the short-time behavior is related to the long-time frequencies, by which the current converges to its equilibrium value (the conductance quantum unit 2e2/h). (B) In the short-time regime, the current is proportional to the square root of the time. (C) The maximum overshoot conductance is bounded by Gmax = ζe2/h, where ζ is a universal value which is very close to Euler’s number. (D) Most of these results are valid for a thin wire in 3D, even in the presence of electron–electron interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Condensed Matter Physics)
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11 pages, 3342 KiB  
Article
Search for Novel Phases in Y-Ba-Cu-O Family
by Danijel Djurek
Condens. Matter 2024, 9(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat9010010 - 17 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1023
Abstract
In order to search for possible residual minor phases in the Y-Ba-Cu-O family, powdered mixtures of Y2O3 + BaCO3 + CuO and, independently, superconducting compound YBa2Cu3O7−x have been treated in evacuated cells and elevated [...] Read more.
In order to search for possible residual minor phases in the Y-Ba-Cu-O family, powdered mixtures of Y2O3 + BaCO3 + CuO and, independently, superconducting compound YBa2Cu3O7−x have been treated in evacuated cells and elevated temperatures. YBa2Cu3O7−x was reduced to YBa2Cu3O5 by use of the special home-designed Taconis–Knudsen vacuum device. Subsequent doping by oxygen converts produced insulator YBa2Cu3O5 to semiconductor or metal YBa2Cu3O5+x (0 < x < 0.3). In addition to YBa2Cu3O5, 0.05 volume percent of the minor delafossite phase Y2Cu2O4 was spotted in the powder mixture 1/2 Y2O3 + 2BaCO3 + 6Cu2O, heated up to 818 °C in an inert gas atmosphere. An attempt to prepare the insulating bulk delafossite samples was successful, and subsequent doping by oxygen produced novel metallic phases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Condensed Matter Physics)
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14 pages, 2823 KiB  
Article
A Positron Implantation Profile Estimation Approach for the PALS Study of Battery Materials
by Xin Li, Bernardo Barbiellini, Vito Di Noto, Gioele Pagot, Meiying Zheng and Rafael Ferragut
Condens. Matter 2023, 8(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat8020048 - 22 May 2023
Viewed by 1265
Abstract
Positron annihilation spectroscopy is a powerful probe to investigate the interfaces in materials relevant for energy storage such as Li-ion batteries. The key to the interpretation of the results is the positron implantation profile, which is a spatial function related to the characteristics [...] Read more.
Positron annihilation spectroscopy is a powerful probe to investigate the interfaces in materials relevant for energy storage such as Li-ion batteries. The key to the interpretation of the results is the positron implantation profile, which is a spatial function related to the characteristics of the materials forming the battery. We provide models for the positron implantation profile in a cathode of a Li-ion battery coin cell. These models are the basis for a reliable visualization of multilayer geometries and their interfaces in thin cathodes of lithium-ion batteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Condensed Matter Physics)
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13 pages, 577 KiB  
Article
Study of Interacting Heisenberg Antiferromagnet Spin-1/2 and 1 Chains
by Debasmita Maiti, Dayasindhu Dey and Manoranjan Kumar
Condens. Matter 2023, 8(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat8010017 - 29 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1702
Abstract
Haldane conjectures the fundamental difference in the energy spectrum of the Heisenberg antiferromagnetic (HAF) of the spin S chain is that the half-integer and the integer S chain have gapless and gapped energy spectrums, respectively. The ground state (gs) of the HAF spin-1/2 [...] Read more.
Haldane conjectures the fundamental difference in the energy spectrum of the Heisenberg antiferromagnetic (HAF) of the spin S chain is that the half-integer and the integer S chain have gapless and gapped energy spectrums, respectively. The ground state (gs) of the HAF spin-1/2 and spin-1 chains have a quasi-long-range and short-range correlation, respectively. We study the effect of the exchange interaction between an HAF spin-1/2 and an HAF spin-1 chain forming a normal ladder system and its gs properties. The inter-chain exchange interaction J can be either ferromagnetic (FM) or antiferromagnetic (AFM). Using the density matrix renormalization group method, we show that in the weak AFM/FM coupling limit of J, the system behaves like two decoupled chains. However, in the large AFM J limit, the whole system can be visualized as weakly coupled spin-1/2 and spin-1 pairs which behave like an effective spin-1/2 HAF chain. In the large FM J limit, coupled spin-1/2 and spin-1 pairs can form pseudo spin-3/2 and the whole system behaves like an effective spin-3/2 HAF chain. We also derive the effective model Hamiltonian in both strong FM and AFM rung exchange coupling limits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Condensed Matter Physics)
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20 pages, 8483 KiB  
Article
Physicochemical Properties of Ti3+ Self-Doped TiO2 Loaded on Recycled Fly-Ash Based Zeolites for Degradation of Methyl Orange
by Iván Supelano García, Carlos Andrés Palacio Gómez, Marc H. Weber, Indry Milena Saavedra Gaona, Claudia Patricia Castañeda Martínez, José Jobanny Martínez Zambrano, Hugo Alfonso Rojas Sarmiento, Julian Andrés Munevar Cagigas, Marcos A. Avila, Carlos Rettori, Carlos Arturo Parra Vargas and Julieth Alexandra Mejía Gómez
Condens. Matter 2022, 7(4), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat7040069 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1794
Abstract
The extensive production of coal fly ash by coal combustion is an issue of concern due to its environmental impact. TiO2-zeolite composites were synthesized, at low cost, using recycled coal fly ash from a local thermoelectric power plant to produce the [...] Read more.
The extensive production of coal fly ash by coal combustion is an issue of concern due to its environmental impact. TiO2-zeolite composites were synthesized, at low cost, using recycled coal fly ash from a local thermoelectric power plant to produce the zeolite using the hydrothermal method. TiO2 was loaded by means of the impregnation method using ethanol and titanium isopropoxide between 8.7 and 49.45 wt% TiO2. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman, electron spin resonance, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption, doppler broadening of annihilation radiation, and diffuse reflectance techniques, and the photocatalytic activity of the composites was evaluated according to the degradation of methyl orange under UV light. The results show that TiO2 crystallizes in the anatase phase with a Ti3+ oxidation state, without post-treatment. TiO2 particles were located within the pores of the substrate and on its surface, increasing the surface area of the composites in comparison with that of the substrates. Samples with TiO2 at 8.7 and 25 wt% immobilized on hydroxysodalite show the highest degradation of methyl orange among all studied materials, including the commercial TiO2 Degussa P25 under UV light. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Condensed Matter Physics)
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11 pages, 340 KiB  
Article
On Three “Anomalous” Measurements of Nonlinear QPC Conductance
by Mukunda P. Das and Frederick Green
Condens. Matter 2022, 7(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat7030049 - 10 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1346
Abstract
Practical mesoscopic devices based on quantum point contacts (QPCs) must function at operating point involving large internal driving fields. Experimental evidence has accumulated to display anomalous nonlinear features of QPC response beyond the capacities of accepted tunnelling-based models of nonlinear quantum transport. Here, [...] Read more.
Practical mesoscopic devices based on quantum point contacts (QPCs) must function at operating point involving large internal driving fields. Experimental evidence has accumulated to display anomalous nonlinear features of QPC response beyond the capacities of accepted tunnelling-based models of nonlinear quantum transport. Here, we recall the physical setting of three anomalous QPC experiments and review how, for two of them, a microscopically based nonequilibrium quantum kinetic description—the correct physical boundary conditions being crucial—has already overcome the predictive limitations of standard nonequilibrium mesoscopic models. The third experiment remains a significant challenge to all theorists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Condensed Matter Physics)
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Review

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33 pages, 9786 KiB  
Review
Advances in P(VDF-TrFE) Composites: A Methodical Review on Enhanced Properties and Emerging Electronics Applications
by Lekshmi Priya P S, Biswaranjan Swain, Shailendra Rajput, Saubhagyalaxmi Behera and Sabyasachi Parida
Condens. Matter 2023, 8(4), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat8040105 - 01 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1784
Abstract
Piezoelectric polymers are a class of material that belong to carbon–hydrogen-based organic materials with a long polymer chain. They fill the void where single crystals and ceramics fail to perform. This characteristic of piezoelectric polymers made them unique. Their piezoelectric stress constant is [...] Read more.
Piezoelectric polymers are a class of material that belong to carbon–hydrogen-based organic materials with a long polymer chain. They fill the void where single crystals and ceramics fail to perform. This characteristic of piezoelectric polymers made them unique. Their piezoelectric stress constant is higher than ceramics and the piezoelectric strain is lower compared to ceramics. This study’s goal is to present the most recent information on poly(vinylidene fluoride) with trifluoroethylene P(VDF-TrFE), a major copolymer of poly(vinylidene fluoride) PVDF with piezoelectric, pyroelectric, and ferroelectric characteristics. The fabrication of P(VDF-TrFE) composites and their usage in a variety of applications, including in actuators, transducers, generators, and energy harvesting, are the primary topics of this work. The report provides an analysis of how the addition of fillers improves some of the features of P(VDF-TrFE). Commonly utilized polymer composite preparation techniques, including spinning, Langmuir–Blodgett (LB), solution casting, melt extrusion, and electrospinning are described, along with their effects on the pertinent characteristics of the polymer composite. A brief discussion on the literature related to different applications (such as bio-electronic devices, sensors and high energy-density piezoelectric generators, low mechanical damping, and easy voltage rectifiers of the polymer composite is also presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Condensed Matter Physics)
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