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Condens. Matter, Volume 9, Issue 1 (March 2024) – 20 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The effective manipulation of antiferromagnetic domain walls (AFM DWs) is central to the emerging field of antiferromagnetic spintronics. Robust control over AFM DWs remains a significant challenge. Caso et al. have investigated changes in magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and in the 2M magnon-related mode in Raman spectroscopy in AFM NiO films under a microwave pump. They observed a suppression of the magnon-related Raman mode and removal of magnetic textures in MFM images after the films were exposed to microwave excitation. This effect appears to be caused by the suppression of large antiferromagnetic domain walls due to the excitation of antiferromagnetic spin oscillations localized at the DWs within the AFM, and could reveal a new method to controlling AFM-DWs in antiferromagnetic spintronics. View this paper
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10 pages, 2123 KiB  
Article
Topological Phase Diagram of an Interacting Kitaev Chain: Mean Field versus DMRG Study
by Giovanni Nunziante, Alfonso Maiellaro, Claudio Guarcello and Roberta Citro
Condens. Matter 2024, 9(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat9010020 - 20 Mar 2024
Viewed by 746
Abstract
In this work, we study the topological phase transitions of a Kitaev chain generalized by the addition of nearest-neighbor Coulomb interaction. We show the presence of a robust topological phase as a function of the interaction strength and of the on-site energy with [...] Read more.
In this work, we study the topological phase transitions of a Kitaev chain generalized by the addition of nearest-neighbor Coulomb interaction. We show the presence of a robust topological phase as a function of the interaction strength and of the on-site energy with associated non-zero energy Majorana states localized at the chain edges. We provide an effective mean-field model that allows for the self-consistent computation of the mean value of the local particle number operator, and we also perform Density Matrix Renormalization Group numerical simulations based on a tensor network approach. We find that the two methods show a good agreement in reporting the phase transition between trivial and topological superconductivity. Temperature robustness within a physically relevant threshold has also been demonstrated. These findings shed light on an entire class of topological interacting one-dimensional systems in which the effects of residual Coulomb interactions play a relevant role. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multicomponent Superconductivity and Superfluidity)
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9 pages, 1169 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Performances of the VOXES Bragg Spectrometer for XES Investigations
by Simone Manti, Fabrizio Napolitano, Alberto Clozza, Catalina Curceanu, Gabriel Moskal, Kristian Piscicchia, Diana Sirghi and Alessandro Scordo
Condens. Matter 2024, 9(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat9010019 - 07 Mar 2024
Viewed by 777
Abstract
Utilizing a dispersive crystal for X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (XES) significantly enhances the energy resolution when compared with spectroscopy performed with just silicon drift detectors. This high resolution is particularly valuable for studying metals, as it offers essential insights into their electronic structures and [...] Read more.
Utilizing a dispersive crystal for X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (XES) significantly enhances the energy resolution when compared with spectroscopy performed with just silicon drift detectors. This high resolution is particularly valuable for studying metals, as it offers essential insights into their electronic structures and chemical environments. Conducting such experiments in the laboratory, as opposed to synchrotron light sources, presents challenges due to the reduced intensities of X-ray tubes and, consequently, low signal rates, with the effect of increasing the acquisition time. In this study, we demonstrate that XES spectra can be acquired within a few hours for a CuNiZn metallic sample alloy while still maintaining a good energy resolution and a large dynamic range. This is achieved with the VOXES spectrometer, developed at INFN National Laboratories of Frascati (LNF), along with a background reduction procedure that enhances the signal from emission lines under study. This study is a showcase for improving the efficiency of XES in tabletop setup experiments. Full article
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15 pages, 5862 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study on Coefficient of Restitution of Small-Sized Spherical Particles during Low-Speed Impact
by Tuo Li, Ran Li, Zhipeng Chi, Yuting Zhang and Hui Yang
Condens. Matter 2024, 9(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat9010018 - 05 Mar 2024
Viewed by 743
Abstract
This study presents experimental investigations on the normal restitution coefficients of a titanium bead (Ti), zirconia bead (ZrO2), and amorphous zirconium alloy sphere (Amor). The research explores the influence of particle diameter and collision velocity on the normal restitution coefficient between [...] Read more.
This study presents experimental investigations on the normal restitution coefficients of a titanium bead (Ti), zirconia bead (ZrO2), and amorphous zirconium alloy sphere (Amor). The research explores the influence of particle diameter and collision velocity on the normal restitution coefficient between two independent, identical spherical particles of different materials. The experimental findings demonstrate that increasing the particle diameter results in more effective plastic deformation, leading to higher energy losses and, subsequently, smaller coefficients of restitution. Similarly, higher particle velocities cause more energy dissipation during collisions, resulting in smaller restitution coefficients. Comparing particles of different materials, those with larger yield strengths exhibit more elastic behavior, experience less initial energy loss due to deformation, and reach the maximum restitution coefficient (elastic state) with fewer collisions. This finding suggests that material properties significantly influence the overall energy dissipation and elastic response in the particles. To validate the experimental results, existing models are compared and discussed. Furthermore, potential physical mechanisms responsible for the observed behavior are explored, providing valuable insights into the collision dynamics in spherical particle interactions. Overall, this study contributes to a better understanding of the factors affecting the normal restitution coefficient in particle collisions, enabling the design and optimization of particle systems for diverse applications in condensed matter and related fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Granular Materials Research in the Asia-Pacific Region)
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15 pages, 5612 KiB  
Article
Design and Optimization of Potentially Low-Cost and Efficient MXene/InP Schottky Barrier Solar Cells via Numerical Modeling
by Mohammad Saleh N Alnassar
Condens. Matter 2024, 9(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat9010017 - 03 Mar 2024
Viewed by 848
Abstract
This paper uses numerical modeling to describe the design and comprehensive analysis of cost-effective MXene/n-InP Schottky barrier solar cells. The proposed design utilizes Ti3C2Tx thin film, a 2D solution-processible MXene material, as a Schottky transparent conductive electrode (TCE). [...] Read more.
This paper uses numerical modeling to describe the design and comprehensive analysis of cost-effective MXene/n-InP Schottky barrier solar cells. The proposed design utilizes Ti3C2Tx thin film, a 2D solution-processible MXene material, as a Schottky transparent conductive electrode (TCE). The simulation results suggest that these devices can achieve power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) exceeding 20% in metal–semiconductor (MS) and metal–interlayer–semiconductor (MIS) structures. Combining the proposed structures with low-cost InP growth methods can reduce the gap between InP and other terrestrial market technologies. This is useful for specific applications that require lightweight and radiation-hard solar photovoltaics. Full article
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11 pages, 2811 KiB  
Article
Characterization of the SIDDHARTA-2 Setup via the Kaonic Helium Measurement
by Francesco Sgaramella, Francesco Clozza, Leonardo Abbene, Francesco Artibani, Massimiliano Bazzi, Giacomo Borghi, Mario Bragadireanu, Antonino Buttacavoli, Michael Cargnelli, Marco Carminati, Alberto Clozza, Griseld Deda, Raffaele Del Grande, Luca De Paolis, Kamil Dulski, Carlo Fiorini, Carlo Guaraldo, Mihail Iliescu, Masahiko Iwasaki, Aleksander Khreptak, Simone Manti, Johann Marton, Marco Miliucci, Paweł Moskal, Fabrizio Napolitano, Szymon Niedźwiecki, Hiroaki Ohnishi, Kristian Piscicchia, Fabio Principato, Alessandro Scordo, Michal Silarski, Diana Sirghi, Florin Sirghi, Magdalena Skurzok, Antonio Spallone, Kairo Toho, Marlene Tüchler, Johann Zmeskal and Catalina Curceanuadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Condens. Matter 2024, 9(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat9010016 - 28 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1418
Abstract
The aim of the SIDDHARTA-2 experiment is to perform the first measurement ever of the width and shift induced by the strong interaction to the 2p1s energy transition of kaonic deuterium. This ambitious goal implies a challenging task due [...] Read more.
The aim of the SIDDHARTA-2 experiment is to perform the first measurement ever of the width and shift induced by the strong interaction to the 2p1s energy transition of kaonic deuterium. This ambitious goal implies a challenging task due to the very low X-ray yield of kaonic deuterium, which is why an accurate and thorough characterization of the experimental apparatus is mandatory before starting the data-taking campaign. Helium-4 is an excellent candidate for this characterization since it exhibits a high yield in particular for the 3d2p transition, roughly 100 times greater than that of the kaonic deuterium. The ultimate goal of the work reported in this paper is to study the performances of the full experimental setup in view of the kaonic deuterium measurement. This is carried out by measuring the values of the shift and the width for the 3d2p energy transition of kaonic helium-4, induced by the strong interaction. The values obtained for these quantities, for a total integrated luminosity of ∼31/pb, are ε2p=2.0±1.2(stat)±1.5(syst)eV and Γ2p=1.9±5.7(stat)±0.7(syst)eV. The results, compared to the value of the shift measured by the SIDDHARTA experiment ε2p=0±6(stat)±2(syst)eV, show a net enhancement of the resolution of the apparatus, providing strong evidence of the potential to perform the challenging measurement of the kaonic deuterium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Precision X-ray Measurements 2023)
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10 pages, 2716 KiB  
Article
Universal Short-Time Conductance Behavior Emerges between Two Adjacent Reservoirs
by Er’el Granot
Condens. Matter 2024, 9(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat9010015 - 26 Feb 2024
Viewed by 849
Abstract
When a shutter, which differentiates between two adjacent particles’ reservoirs with a voltage gap, is lifted, a current emerges. In this paper, the temporal dynamics of this emerging current is analyzed. The main results are as follows: (A) the current’s prefactor in the [...] Read more.
When a shutter, which differentiates between two adjacent particles’ reservoirs with a voltage gap, is lifted, a current emerges. In this paper, the temporal dynamics of this emerging current is analyzed. The main results are as follows: (A) the current’s prefactor in the short-time behavior is related to the long-time frequencies, by which the current converges to its equilibrium value (the conductance quantum unit 2e2/h). (B) In the short-time regime, the current is proportional to the square root of the time. (C) The maximum overshoot conductance is bounded by Gmax = ζe2/h, where ζ is a universal value which is very close to Euler’s number. (D) Most of these results are valid for a thin wire in 3D, even in the presence of electron–electron interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Condensed Matter Physics)
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13 pages, 674 KiB  
Article
The Shrinking Fermi Liquid Scenario for Strange-Metal Behavior from Overdamped Optical Phonons
by Giovanni Mirarchi, Marco Grilli, Götz Seibold and Sergio Caprara
Condens. Matter 2024, 9(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat9010014 - 06 Feb 2024
Viewed by 917
Abstract
We discuss how the interaction of electrons with an overdamped optical phonon can give rise to a strange-metal behavior over extended temperature and frequency ranges. Although the mode has a finite frequency, an increasing damping shifts spectral weight to progressively lower energies so [...] Read more.
We discuss how the interaction of electrons with an overdamped optical phonon can give rise to a strange-metal behavior over extended temperature and frequency ranges. Although the mode has a finite frequency, an increasing damping shifts spectral weight to progressively lower energies so that despite the ultimate Fermi liquid character of the system at the lowest temperatures and frequencies, the transport and optical properties of the electron system mimic a marginal Fermi liquid behavior. Within this shrinking Fermi liquid scenario, we extensively investigate the electron self-energy in all frequency and temperature ranges, emphasizing similarities and differences with respect to the marginal Fermi liquid scenario. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superstripes Physics, 2nd Edition)
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11 pages, 543 KiB  
Article
A Theoretical Study of Doping Evolution of Phonons in High-Temperature Cuprate Superconductors
by Saheli Sarkar
Condens. Matter 2024, 9(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat9010013 - 06 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1096
Abstract
Hole-doped high-temperature copper oxide-based superconductors (cuprates) exhibit complex phase diagrams where electronic orders like a charge density wave (CDW) and superconductivity (SC) appear at low temperatures. The origins of these electronic orders are still open questions due to their complex interplay and correlated [...] Read more.
Hole-doped high-temperature copper oxide-based superconductors (cuprates) exhibit complex phase diagrams where electronic orders like a charge density wave (CDW) and superconductivity (SC) appear at low temperatures. The origins of these electronic orders are still open questions due to their complex interplay and correlated nature. These electronic orders can modify the phonons in the system, which has also been experimentally found in several cuprates as a softening in the phonon frequency at the CDW vector. Recent experiments have revealed that the softening in phonons in cuprates due to CDW shows intriguing behavior with increasing hole doping. Hole doping can also change the underlying Fermi surface. Therefore, it is an interesting question whether the doping-induced change in the Fermi surface can affect the softening of phonons, which in turn can reveal the nature of the electronic orders present in the system. In this work, we investigate this question by studying the softening of phonons in the presence of CDW and SC within a perturbative approach developed in an earlier work. We compare the results obtained within the working model to some experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superstripes Physics, 2nd Edition)
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11 pages, 1687 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Correlations in Disordered Systems: Implications for High-Temperature Superconductivity
by Takeshi Egami
Condens. Matter 2024, 9(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat9010012 - 03 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1072
Abstract
Liquids and gases are distinct in their extent of dynamic atomic correlations; in gases, atoms are almost uncorrelated, whereas they are strongly correlated in liquids. This distinction applies also to electronic systems. Fermi liquids are actually gas-like, whereas strongly correlated electrons are liquid-like. [...] Read more.
Liquids and gases are distinct in their extent of dynamic atomic correlations; in gases, atoms are almost uncorrelated, whereas they are strongly correlated in liquids. This distinction applies also to electronic systems. Fermi liquids are actually gas-like, whereas strongly correlated electrons are liquid-like. Doped Mott insulators share characteristics with supercooled liquids. Such distinctions have important implications for superconductivity. We discuss the nature of dynamic atomic correlations in liquids and a possible effect of strong electron correlations and Bose–Einstein condensation on the high-temperature superconductivity of the cuprates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superstripes Physics, 2nd Edition)
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12 pages, 2165 KiB  
Article
X-ray Technologies for Astrophysics Missions Supported by the Italian Space Agency
by Marco Miliucci, Angela Volpe, Sergio Fabiani, Marco Feroci, Luca Latronico, Claudio Macculi, Luigi Piro, Matteo D’Andrea, Flavio Gatti, Simonetta Puccetti, Paolo Soffitta and Elisabetta Cavazzuti
Condens. Matter 2024, 9(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat9010011 - 19 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1114
Abstract
The Italian Space Agency plays a key role in the fulfillment of space missions, contributing to the scientific, technological and economic progress in Italy. The agency accomplishes space experiments by collaborating with scientific and industrial entities, supporting them in the realization of new [...] Read more.
The Italian Space Agency plays a key role in the fulfillment of space missions, contributing to the scientific, technological and economic progress in Italy. The agency accomplishes space experiments by collaborating with scientific and industrial entities, supporting them in the realization of new projects able to achieve, over the last two decades, unprecedented results and obtention of fundamental information on the birth and evolution of the universe. The paper describes a selection of X-ray technologies developed by the synergy between the Italian Space Agency and its principal collaborators which contributed to the main scientific results achieved over the years, together with the latest advances addressed to the next astrophysics missions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Precision X-ray Measurements 2023)
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11 pages, 3342 KiB  
Article
Search for Novel Phases in Y-Ba-Cu-O Family
by Danijel Djurek
Condens. Matter 2024, 9(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat9010010 - 17 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1026
Abstract
In order to search for possible residual minor phases in the Y-Ba-Cu-O family, powdered mixtures of Y2O3 + BaCO3 + CuO and, independently, superconducting compound YBa2Cu3O7−x have been treated in evacuated cells and elevated [...] Read more.
In order to search for possible residual minor phases in the Y-Ba-Cu-O family, powdered mixtures of Y2O3 + BaCO3 + CuO and, independently, superconducting compound YBa2Cu3O7−x have been treated in evacuated cells and elevated temperatures. YBa2Cu3O7−x was reduced to YBa2Cu3O5 by use of the special home-designed Taconis–Knudsen vacuum device. Subsequent doping by oxygen converts produced insulator YBa2Cu3O5 to semiconductor or metal YBa2Cu3O5+x (0 < x < 0.3). In addition to YBa2Cu3O5, 0.05 volume percent of the minor delafossite phase Y2Cu2O4 was spotted in the powder mixture 1/2 Y2O3 + 2BaCO3 + 6Cu2O, heated up to 818 °C in an inert gas atmosphere. An attempt to prepare the insulating bulk delafossite samples was successful, and subsequent doping by oxygen produced novel metallic phases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Condensed Matter Physics)
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12 pages, 4080 KiB  
Article
FL* Approach to the Coexistence of Fermi Arcs with Metal–Insulator Crossover in Strongly Underdoped Cuprates
by Pieralberto Marchetti
Condens. Matter 2024, 9(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat9010009 - 15 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1089
Abstract
We propose that one can explain the coexistence in the same range of doping and temperature of gapless Fermi arcs with the metal–insulator crossover of in-plane resistivity in strongly underdoped cuprates in terms of the FL* fractionalized Fermi liquid nature of these systems, [...] Read more.
We propose that one can explain the coexistence in the same range of doping and temperature of gapless Fermi arcs with the metal–insulator crossover of in-plane resistivity in strongly underdoped cuprates in terms of the FL* fractionalized Fermi liquid nature of these systems, and that such coexistence is not due simply to disorder effects in the resistivity. The particle excitations of this FL* system derived from variants of the t-J model are the gapless holon carrying charge with small Fermi momentum proportional to the doping, the gapful spinon carrying spin 1/2, and an emergent gauge field coupling them and the hole as a spinon–holon bound state, or more precisely resonance, due to gauge binding, with a Fermi surface respecting the topological Luttinger theorem. In our proposal, Fermi arcs are determined by the hole resonance, whereas the metal–insulator crossover is dominated by spinon–spinon (with subleading holon–holon) gauge interactions, and this dichotomy is able to explain their coexistence. Full article
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11 pages, 2347 KiB  
Article
Fully Microscopic Treatment of Magnetic Field Using Bogoliubov–De Gennes Approach
by Vyacheslav D. Neverov, Alexander Kalashnikov, Alexander E. Lukyanov, Andrey V. Krasavin, Mihail D. Croitoru and Alexei Vagov
Condens. Matter 2024, 9(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat9010008 - 15 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1338
Abstract
This work introduces an algorithm designed to solve the Bogoliubov–de Gennes equations of superconductivity theory. What sets this algorithm apart is its remarkable ability to precisely and consistently consider the impact of an external magnetic field, all within the microscopic approach. The computation [...] Read more.
This work introduces an algorithm designed to solve the Bogoliubov–de Gennes equations of superconductivity theory. What sets this algorithm apart is its remarkable ability to precisely and consistently consider the impact of an external magnetic field, all within the microscopic approach. The computation scheme’s convergence is guaranteed by addressing the Biot–Savart equation for the field where the vector potential appears on both of its sides. To showcase the capabilities of this approach, we provide several key examples: the Abrikosov lattice, vortex core states, and the vortex structure in the intermediate mixed state of a superconductor. This method promises to offer valuable insights into the microscopic physics of intertype superconductivity. Full article
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14 pages, 4996 KiB  
Article
Microwave Field-Induced Changes in Raman Modes and Magnetic Force Images of Antiferromagnetic NiO Films
by Diego Caso, Aida Serrano, Miriam Jaafar, Pilar Prieto, Akashdeep Kamra, César González-Ruano and Farkhad G. Aliev
Condens. Matter 2024, 9(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat9010007 - 15 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1333
Abstract
Effective control of domain walls or magnetic textures in antiferromagnets promises to enable robust, fast, and nonvolatile memories. The lack of net magnetic moment in antiferromagnets implies the need for creative ways to achieve such a manipulation. We conducted a study to investigate [...] Read more.
Effective control of domain walls or magnetic textures in antiferromagnets promises to enable robust, fast, and nonvolatile memories. The lack of net magnetic moment in antiferromagnets implies the need for creative ways to achieve such a manipulation. We conducted a study to investigate changes in magnetic force microscopy (MFM) imaging and in the magnon-related mode in Raman spectroscopy of virgin NiO films under a microwave pump. After MFM and Raman studies were conducted, a combined action of broadband microwave (0.01–20 GHz, power scanned from 20 to 5 dBm) and magnetic field (up to 3 kOe) were applied to virgin epitaxial (111) NiO and (100) NiO films grown on (0001) Al2O3 and (100) MgO substrates, following which the MFM and Raman studies were repeated. We observed a suppression of the magnon-related Raman mode subsequent to the microwave exposure. Based on MFM imaging, this effect appeared to be caused by the suppression of large antiferromagnetic domain walls due to the possible excitation of antiferromagnetic spin oscillations localized within the antiferromagnetic domain walls. Full article
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13 pages, 1477 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Short-Range (Gaussian) Disorder Correlations on Superconducting Characteristics
by Vyacheslav D. Neverov, Alexander E. Lukyanov, Andrey V. Krasavin, Alexei Vagov and Mihail D. Croitoru
Condens. Matter 2024, 9(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat9010006 - 12 Jan 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1174
Abstract
The pursuit of enhanced superconducting device performance has historically focused on minimizing disorder in materials. Recent research, however, challenges this conventional wisdom by exploring the unique characteristics of disordered materials. Following the studies, disorder is currently viewed as a design parameter that can [...] Read more.
The pursuit of enhanced superconducting device performance has historically focused on minimizing disorder in materials. Recent research, however, challenges this conventional wisdom by exploring the unique characteristics of disordered materials. Following the studies, disorder is currently viewed as a design parameter that can be tuned. This shift in the paradigm has sparked an upsurge in research efforts, which demonstrates that disorder can significantly augment the superconductivity figures of merit. While almost all previous studies attended to the effects related to disorder strength, this article focuses on the impact of short-range disorder correlations that in real materials takes place, for example, due to lattice defects. The study shows that the degree of such correlations can strongly influence the superconducting characteristics. Full article
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11 pages, 1505 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Different Methods for Evaluating Quantitative X-ray Fluorescence Data in Copper-Based Artefacts
by Eleni Konstantakopoulou, Annalaura Casanova Municchia, Loredana Luvidi and Marco Ferretti
Condens. Matter 2024, 9(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat9010005 - 11 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1599
Abstract
Handheld X-ray Fluorescence devices (HH-XRF) have given archaeologists and conservators the opportunity to study a wide range of materials encountered in their work with great accessibility and flexibility. The investigation of copper-based artefacts is a frequent application of these instruments in the field [...] Read more.
Handheld X-ray Fluorescence devices (HH-XRF) have given archaeologists and conservators the opportunity to study a wide range of materials encountered in their work with great accessibility and flexibility. The investigation of copper-based artefacts is a frequent application of these instruments in the field of cultural heritage as it gives direct and rapid quantitative results that can provide very important information about them, such as their fabrication technology. This paper discusses the comparison of quantitative results, obtained by a commercial handheld XRF device “Bruker Tracer 5g” on certified standards, compositionally significant in copper-based alloys of interest in the field of cultural heritage. The measured elemental concentrations were derived using three different calibrations, which were examined for their accuracy. Two of them were based on the empirical coefficients approach, performed by the built-in calibration/software (copper alloy calibrations provided by Bruker manufacturer and the Bruker EasyCal software), while the third one was performed off-line by processing the spectra with an independent fundamental parameters (FP) software (PyMca version 5.9.2., a X-ray fluorescence analysis software developed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility). The results highlight that although HH-XRF devices simplify data collection, for optimal quantitative results, the correct choice of analysis conditions and calibration method still requires a detailed understanding of the principles of X-ray spectrometry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Precision X-ray Measurements 2023)
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8 pages, 252 KiB  
Article
On the Importance of Future, Precise, X-ray Measurements in Kaonic Atoms
by Sławomir Wycech and Kristian Piscicchia
Condens. Matter 2024, 9(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat9010004 - 11 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1119
Abstract
Progress in the construction of precise X-ray detectors allows measurements of energies and widths of “upper levels” in K mesic atoms. These can be used to determine sub-threshold Kaon-nucleon amplitudes, which are important in investigations of nuclear states of these mesons. The [...] Read more.
Progress in the construction of precise X-ray detectors allows measurements of energies and widths of “upper levels” in K mesic atoms. These can be used to determine sub-threshold Kaon-nucleon amplitudes, which are important in investigations of nuclear states of these mesons. The special case of the 2P state in Kaonic Helium is discussed and used to check the properties of the K proton quasi-bound state. Similar attempts in other elements indicate a need for new, precise measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Precision X-ray Measurements 2023)
10 pages, 3016 KiB  
Article
SrTiO3: Thoroughly Investigated but Still Good for Surprises
by Annette Bussmann-Holder, Reinhard K. Kremer, Krystian Roleder and Ekhard K. H. Salje
Condens. Matter 2024, 9(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat9010003 - 06 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1242
Abstract
For decades, SrTiO3 has been in the focus of research with seemingly never-ending new insights regarding its ground state properties, application potentials, its surface and interface properties, the superconducting state, the twin boundaries, domain functionalities, etc. Here, we focus on the already [...] Read more.
For decades, SrTiO3 has been in the focus of research with seemingly never-ending new insights regarding its ground state properties, application potentials, its surface and interface properties, the superconducting state, the twin boundaries, domain functionalities, etc. Here, we focus on the already well-investigated lattice dynamics of STO and show that four different temperature regimes can be identified which dominate the elastic properties, the thermal conductivity, and the birefringence. These regimes are a low-temperature quantum fluctuation-dominated one, followed by an intermediate regime, a region of structural phase transition at ~105 K and its vicinity, and at high temperatures, a regime characterized by precursor and saturation effects. They can all be elucidated by lattice dynamical aspects. The relevant temperature dependences of the soft modes are discussed and their relationship to lattice polarizability is emphasized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Complexity in Quantum Materials: In Honor of Prof. K.A. Muller)
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25 pages, 7992 KiB  
Review
Influence of Energetic Particles and Electron Injection on Minority Carrier Transport Properties in Gallium Oxide
by Sushrut Modak, Arie Ruzin, Alfons Schulte and Leonid Chernyak
Condens. Matter 2024, 9(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat9010002 - 06 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1198
Abstract
The influence of various energetic particles and electron injection on the transport of minority carriers and non-equilibrium carrier recombination in Ga2O3 is summarized in this review. In Ga2O3 semiconductors, if robust p-type material and bipolar structures become [...] Read more.
The influence of various energetic particles and electron injection on the transport of minority carriers and non-equilibrium carrier recombination in Ga2O3 is summarized in this review. In Ga2O3 semiconductors, if robust p-type material and bipolar structures become available, the diffusion lengths of minority carriers will be of critical significance. The diffusion length of minority carriers dictates the functionality of electronic devices such as diodes, transistors, and detectors. One of the problems in ultrawide-bandgap materials technology is the short carrier diffusion length caused by the scattering on extended defects. Electron injection in n- and p-type gallium oxide results in a significant increase in the diffusion length, even after its deterioration, due to exposure to alpha and proton irradiation. Furthermore, post electron injection, the diffusion length of an irradiated material exceeds that of Ga2O3 prior to irradiation and injection. The root cause of the electron injection-induced effect is attributed to the increase in the minority carrier lifetime in the material due to the trapping of non-equilibrium electrons on native point defects. It is therefore concluded that electron injection is capable of “healing” the adverse impact of radiation in Ga2O3 and can be used for the control of minority carrier transport and, therefore, device performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide-Band-Gap Semiconductors for Energy and Electronics)
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10 pages, 2379 KiB  
Article
Design and Use of Portable X-ray Fluorescence Devices for the Analysis of Heritage Materials
by Maurizio Chiti, Daniele Chiti, Federico Chiarelli, Raffaella Donghia, Adolfo Esposito, Marco Ferretti and Astrik Gorghinian
Condens. Matter 2024, 9(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat9010001 - 06 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1145
Abstract
X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is a successful technique often used for the elemental analysis of cultural heritage artefacts. It is non-invasive, the equipment can be miniaturized and made portable and it allows addressing crucial issues such as the fabrication technology, authenticity and provenance of [...] Read more.
X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is a successful technique often used for the elemental analysis of cultural heritage artefacts. It is non-invasive, the equipment can be miniaturized and made portable and it allows addressing crucial issues such as the fabrication technology, authenticity and provenance of the artefacts. Depending on the components’ selection (e.g., the primary source, the detector and the focusing optics, if present), the analytical performance and the consequent suitability to investigate a given class of materials may vary significantly. The present paper discusses the analytical performance—with special regard to the limits of detection and the quantification uncertainty—of two portable XRF spectrometers developed within a collaboration between INFN-LNF-FISMEL and CNR-ISPC. The devices are expressly designed for heritage materials. In particular, one is equipped with focusing optics and it is intended to analyze small details on glasses and pigmented surfaces, whereas the other has a 70 kV X-ray tube, which greatly improves sensitivity for medium-Z elements, which is important in copper-based artefacts. Finally, this paper discusses two case studies to highlight the features of the instruments: one concerns Etruscan vitreous material beads and the other pre- and proto-historic copper-based artefacts from Tyrrhenian Central Italy. Thanks to the small size of the equipment, both investigations could easily be carried out in situ, namely, at the Museo Nazionale Etrusco in Rome and the Museo della Preistoria della Tuscia e della Rocca Farnese at Valentano. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Precision X-ray Measurements 2023)
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