Flood and Drought Hazards under Extreme Climate

A special issue of Climate (ISSN 2225-1154).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 April 2023) | Viewed by 19645

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Hydrology and Water Resources Engineering, Institute of Technology of Cambodia, Phnom Penh 12156, Cambodia
Interests: climate change; hydrological; modeling; extreme events
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University, Kyoto 611-0011, Japan
Interests: climate change; extreme climate; flood modeling; flood forecasting
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Institute of Technology of Cambodia, Faculty of Hydrology and Water Resources Engineering, Phnom Penh 12150, Cambodia
Interests: hydrology; climate change; extreme climate; sediment transport
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recently, evaluation of the potential future vulnerability and impact of climate change on water resources have been widely studied on the regional and global scale using the most recent CMIP6 climate data simulations. Studies on climate change impacts on extreme climate such as flood and drought are able to adapt and reduce their potential damages. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) recently released a new climate simulation from The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6), which is an updated version of the general circulation model (GCM). This new CMIP6 GCM is expected to be an improvement of the projection of future climate. The CMIP6 has designed new scenarios called shared socioeconomic pathways (SSP) to include socioeconomic factors such as the growth of population, economics, urbanization, and other factors into climate simulation. This Special Issue aims to collect original studies and reviews as outcomes from CMIP6 climate datasets on water resources and extreme climate.

Dr. Oeurng Chantha
Dr. Try Sophal
Dr. Sok Ty
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • climate change
  • extreme precipitation
  • adaption and mitigation
  • flood
  • drought
  • CMIP6

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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23 pages, 20181 KiB  
Article
Spatiotemporal Application of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) in the Eastern Mediterranean
by Demetrios E. Tsesmelis, Ioanna Leveidioti, Christos A. Karavitis, Kleomenis Kalogeropoulos, Constantina G. Vasilakou, Andreas Tsatsaris and Efthimios Zervas
Climate 2023, 11(5), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11050095 - 28 Apr 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3252
Abstract
The ever-increasing need for water, the alteration in the climate, and its observed changes over recent years have triggered a lot of research studies associated with the phenomenon of drought. Within the wider geographical region of the Mediterranean, the relevant scientific subject seems [...] Read more.
The ever-increasing need for water, the alteration in the climate, and its observed changes over recent years have triggered a lot of research studies associated with the phenomenon of drought. Within the wider geographical region of the Mediterranean, the relevant scientific subject seems to be of great interest, since it is undoubtedly related to a number of severe socio-economic consequences. This present effort focuses on the evolution of this particular phenomenon over time, within the borders of nine different countries in the Eastern Mediterranean (Athens, Greece—Europe; Constantinople, Turkey—Asia; Nicosia, Cyprus—Europe; Jerusalem, Israel—Asia; Amman, Jordan—Asia; Damascus, Syria—Asia; Beirut, Lebanon—Asia; Cairo, Egypt—Africa; and Tripoli Libya—Africa). By applying the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI), examining precipitation data at the month level (January 1901 to December 2020), and utilizing the Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) method, the spatio–temporal variability of drought events in the Eastern Mediterranean area was studied. In Jerusalem, long-term droughts presented a higher than usual volume, in accordance with applying the 12- and 24-month SPI, starting from the mid-20th century. Similarly, the region of Damascus presented a similar pattern to those in Beirut, Amman, and Jerusalem. An upward trend in the frequency of extreme drought events was observed for the last thirty years. The same trend seems to be true in terms of the duration of dry periods. Drought events have also been observed in the central, southern, and eastern regions of Turkey. A downward trend was observed in Cairo based on a trend analysis of its monthly precipitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flood and Drought Hazards under Extreme Climate)
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18 pages, 6261 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the CMIP6 Performance in Simulating Precipitation in the Amazon River Basin
by Corrie Monteverde, Fernando De Sales and Charles Jones
Climate 2022, 10(8), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli10080122 - 22 Aug 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3622
Abstract
The Brazilian Amazon provides important hydrological cycle functions, including precipitation regimes that bring water to the people and environment and are critical to moisture recycling and transport, and represents an important variable for climate models to simulate accurately. This paper evaluates the performance [...] Read more.
The Brazilian Amazon provides important hydrological cycle functions, including precipitation regimes that bring water to the people and environment and are critical to moisture recycling and transport, and represents an important variable for climate models to simulate accurately. This paper evaluates the performance of 13 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) models. This is done by discussing results from spatial pattern mapping, Taylor diagram analysis and Taylor skill score, annual climatology comparison, cumulative distribution analysis, and empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis. Precipitation analysis shows: (1) This region displays higher rainfall in the north-northwest and drier conditions in the south. Models tend to underestimate northern values or overestimate the central to northwest averages. (2) The southern Amazon has a more defined dry season (June, July, and August) and wet season (December, January, and February) and models simulate this well. The northern Amazon dry season tends to occur in August, September, and October and the wet season occurs in March, April, and May, and models are not able to capture the climatology as well. Models tend to produce too much rainfall at the start of the wet season and tend to either over- or under-estimate the dry season, although ensemble means typically display the overall pattern more precisely. (3) Models struggle to capture extreme values of precipitation except when precipitation values are close to 0. (4) EOF analysis shows that models capture the dominant mode of variability, which was the annual cycle or South American Monsoon System. (5) When all evaluation metrics are considered, the models that perform best are CESM2, MIROC6, MRIESM20, SAM0UNICON, and the ensemble mean. This paper supports research in determining the most up-to-date CMIP6 model performance of precipitation regime for 1981–2014 for the Brazilian Amazon. Results will aid in understanding future projections of precipitation for the selected subset of global climate models and allow scientists to construct reliable model ensembles, as precipitation plays a role in many sectors of the economy, including the ecosystem, agriculture, energy, and water security. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flood and Drought Hazards under Extreme Climate)
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27 pages, 17543 KiB  
Article
Diagnosis of the Extreme Climate Events of Temperature and Precipitation in Metropolitan Lima during 1965–2013
by Lucy Giráldez, Yamina Silva, José L. Flores-Rojas and Grace Trasmonte
Climate 2022, 10(8), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli10080112 - 23 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2529
Abstract
The most extreme precipitation event in Metropolitan Lima (ML) occurred on 15 January 1970 (16 mm), this event caused serious damage, and the real vulnerability of this city was evidenced; the population is still not prepared to resist events of this nature. This [...] Read more.
The most extreme precipitation event in Metropolitan Lima (ML) occurred on 15 January 1970 (16 mm), this event caused serious damage, and the real vulnerability of this city was evidenced; the population is still not prepared to resist events of this nature. This research describes the local climate variability and extreme climate indices of temperature and precipitation. In addition, the most extreme precipitation event in ML is analyzed. Extreme climate indices were identified based on the methodology proposed by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI). Some extreme temperature indices highlight an initial trend toward warm conditions (1965–1998); this trend has changed towards cold conditions since 1999, consistent with the thermal cooling during the last two decades in ML (−0.5 °C/decade) and other coastal areas of Peru. The variations of extreme temperature indices are mainly modulated by sea-surface temperature (SST) alterations in the Niño 1 + 2 region (moderate to strong correlations were found). Extreme precipitation indices show trends toward wet conditions after the 1980s, the influence of the Pacific Ocean SST on the extreme precipitation indices in ML is weak and variable in sign. The most extreme precipitation event in ML is associated with a convergence process between moisture fluxes from the east (Amazon region) at high and mid levels and moisture fluxes from the west (Pacific Ocean) at low levels, and near the surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flood and Drought Hazards under Extreme Climate)
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Review

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15 pages, 2544 KiB  
Review
Flood Hazard and Management in Cambodia: A Review of Activities, Knowledge Gaps, and Research Direction
by Sophea Rom Phy, Ty Sok, Sophal Try, Ratboren Chan, Sovannara Uk, Chhordaneath Hen and Chantha Oeurng
Climate 2022, 10(11), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli10110162 - 27 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 8842
Abstract
Cambodia is located in one of the most severe flood-vulnerable zones in mainland Southeast Asia. Flooding is the country’s most recurrent and impactful hazard among other natural hazards. This hazard alone, observed in many river basins, has been inflicting huge damages on livelihoods, [...] Read more.
Cambodia is located in one of the most severe flood-vulnerable zones in mainland Southeast Asia. Flooding is the country’s most recurrent and impactful hazard among other natural hazards. This hazard alone, observed in many river basins, has been inflicting huge damages on livelihoods, social infrastructure, and the country’s economy. This study aims to review the current status of flood hazards, impacts, driving factors, management capacity, and future research directions on floods in Cambodia. The findings of this study suggested that there is still a lack of flood-related studies on flood hazard mapping, risk and damage assessment, and future flood analysis in Cambodia. The existing related studies mainly focused on the Tonle Sap Basin and its tributaries, the Lower Mekong Basin, the whole Mekong River Basin, and some of the tributaries of the Mekong River in Cambodia. The fundamental driving factors of the current flooding in Cambodia are impacts of climate change, land-use change, water infrastructure development, and weather extremes. The applications of mathematical and statistical tests and indices, conceptual and physically-based modeling, artificial intelligence and machine learning, and remote sensing are recommended to focus on future research directions on flood in Cambodia in the areas of land-use change, existing and planned operation of water infrastructure, flood hazard and damage assessment, and flood forecasting. The outcomes from these studies and applications would improve the understanding of flood hazard characteristics, reinforce flood management, and achieve flood damage reduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flood and Drought Hazards under Extreme Climate)
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