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Climate, Volume 12, Issue 5 (May 2024) – 19 articles

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18 pages, 2641 KiB  
Article
The Machine Learning Attribution of Quasi-Decadal Precipitation and Temperature Extremes in Southeastern Australia during the 1971–2022 Period
by Milton Speer, Joshua Hartigan and Lance Leslie
Climate 2024, 12(5), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli12050075 - 17 May 2024
Abstract
Much of eastern and southeastern Australia (SEAUS) suffered from historic flooding, heat waves, and drought during the quasi-decadal 2010–2022 period, similar to that experienced globally. During the double La Niña of the 2010–2012 period, SEAUS experienced record rainfall totals. Then, severe [...] Read more.
Much of eastern and southeastern Australia (SEAUS) suffered from historic flooding, heat waves, and drought during the quasi-decadal 2010–2022 period, similar to that experienced globally. During the double La Niña of the 2010–2012 period, SEAUS experienced record rainfall totals. Then, severe drought, heat waves, and associated bushfires from 2013 to 2019 affected most of SEAUS, briefly punctuated by record rainfall over parts of inland SEAUS in the late winter/spring of 2016, which was linked to a strong negative Indian Ocean Dipole. Finally, from 2020 to 2022 a rare triple La Niña generated widespread extreme rainfall and flooding in SEAUS, resulting in massive property and environmental damage. To identify the key drivers of the 2010–2022 period’s precipitation and temperature extremes due to accelerated global warming (GW), since the early 1990s, machine learning attribution has been applied to data at eight sites that are representative of SEAUS. Machine learning attribution detection was applied to the 52-year period of 1971–2022 and to the successive 26-year sub-periods of 1971–1996 and 1997–2022. The attributes for the 1997–2022 period, which includes the quasi-decadal period of 2010–2022, revealed key contributors to the extremes of the 2010–2022 period. Finally, some drivers of extreme precipitation and temperature events are linked to significant changes in both global and local tropospheric circulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Addressing Climate Change with Artificial Intelligence Methods)
17 pages, 1552 KiB  
Article
Adaptation through Climate-Smart Agriculture: Examining the Socioeconomic Factors Influencing the Willingness to Adopt Climate-Smart Agriculture among Smallholder Maize Farmers in the Limpopo Province, South Africa
by Koketso Cathrine Machete, Mmapatla Precious Senyolo and Lungile Sivuyile Gidi
Climate 2024, 12(5), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli12050074 - 17 May 2024
Abstract
Agriculture contributes to the South African economy, but this sector is highly vulnerable to climate change risks. Smallholder maize farmers are specifically susceptible to climate change impacts. The maize crop plays a crucial role in the country’s food security as is considered a [...] Read more.
Agriculture contributes to the South African economy, but this sector is highly vulnerable to climate change risks. Smallholder maize farmers are specifically susceptible to climate change impacts. The maize crop plays a crucial role in the country’s food security as is considered a staple food and feed. The study aimed at examining the socioeconomic factors influencing smallholder maize farmers’ willingness to adopt climate-smart agriculture in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. It was conducted in three different areas due to their specific agro-ecological zones. A multipurpose research design was used to gather data, and multistage random sampling was used to choose the study areas. Subsequently, 209 purposefully selected farmers were interviewed face-to-face using structured questionnaires and focus discussion groups. Descriptive results revealed that 81%, 67%, and 63% farmers in Ga-Makanye, Gabaza, and Giyani were willing to adopt CSA. Using the double-hurdle model, the t-test was significant at 1%, Prob > chi2 = 0. 0000, indicating a good model. At a 5% confidence level, education, crop diversification, and information about climate-smart agriculture (CSA) positively influenced adoption, while household size and agricultural experience negatively influenced it. It is recommended that the Department of Agriculture, Land Reform, and Rural Development provide CSA workshops and educational programs to farmers to enhance their knowledge and decision-making processes regarding adaptation strategies. Full article
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14 pages, 522 KiB  
Article
People’s Perception of Climate Change Impacts on Subtropical Climatic Region: A Case Study of Upper Indus, Pakistan
by Bashir Ahmad, Muhammad Umar Nadeem, Saddam Hussain, Abid Hussain, Zeeshan Tahir Virik, Khalid Jamil, Nelufar Raza, Ali Kamran and Salar Saeed Dogar
Climate 2024, 12(5), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli12050073 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 89
Abstract
In developing countries like Pakistan, the preservation of the environment, as well as people’s economies, agriculture, and way of life, are believed to be hampered by climate change. Understanding how people perceive climate change and its signs is essential for creating a variety [...] Read more.
In developing countries like Pakistan, the preservation of the environment, as well as people’s economies, agriculture, and way of life, are believed to be hampered by climate change. Understanding how people perceive climate change and its signs is essential for creating a variety of adaptation solutions. In this study, we aim to bridge the gap in current research within this area, which predominantly relies on satellite data, by integrating qualitative assessments of people’s perceptions of climate change, thereby providing valuable ground-based observations of climate variability and its impacts on local communities. Field-based data were collected at different altitudes (upstream (US), midstream (MS), and downstream (DS)) of the Upper Indus Basin using both quantitative and qualitative assessments in 2017. The result shows that these altitudes are highly variable in many contexts: socioeconomic indicators of education, agriculture, income, women empowerment, health, access to basic resources, and livelihood diversifications are highly variable in the Indus Basin. The inhabitants of the Indus Basin perceive the climate changing around them and report impacts of this change as increase in overall temperatures (US 96.9%, MS 97%, DS 93.6%) and erratic rainfall patterns (US 44.1%, MS 73.3%, DS 51.0%) resulting in increased water availability for crops (US 38.6%, MS 39.7%, DS 54.8%) but also increasing number of dry days (US 56.7%, MS 85.5%, DS 67.1%). Communities at these altitudes said that agriculture was their primary source of income, making them particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change and the dangers that go along with it. The insights are useful for determining what information and actions are required to support local climate-related hazard management in subtropical climate regions. Moreover, it is vital to launch a campaign to raise awareness of potential hazards, as well as to provide training and an early warning system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthropogenic Climate Change: Social Science Perspectives - Volume II)
14 pages, 6042 KiB  
Article
Lake Kinneret and Hula Valley Ecosystems under Climate Change and Anthropogenic Involvement
by Moshe Gophen
Climate 2024, 12(5), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli12050072 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 170
Abstract
The long-term record of ecological, limnological and climatological parameters that were documented in the Kinneret drainage basin was statistically evaluated. The dependent relations between environmental parameters and a change in climate conditions open a consequence dispute between three optional definitions: long-term instability, climate [...] Read more.
The long-term record of ecological, limnological and climatological parameters that were documented in the Kinneret drainage basin was statistically evaluated. The dependent relations between environmental parameters and a change in climate conditions open a consequence dispute between three optional definitions: long-term instability, climate change impact and ecosystem resiliency. The Kinneret drainage basin during the Anthropocene era is marked by intensive anthropogenic involvement: Increase in population size, drainage of the wetlands and old lake Hula, agricultural development, enhancement of lake Kinneret utilization for water supply, hydrological management, fishery and recreation. Therefore, the impact of a combination of natural and anthropogenic environmental factors confounded each other, and the uniqueness of climate change is unclear. Full article
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18 pages, 3768 KiB  
Article
Quantifying Downstream Climate Impacts of Sea Surface Temperature Patterns in the Eastern Tropical Pacific Using Clustering
by Jason Finley, Boniface Fosu, Chris Fuhrmann, Andrew Mercer and Johna Rudzin
Climate 2024, 12(5), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli12050071 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 201
Abstract
El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phases and flavors, as well as off-equatorial climate modes, strongly influence sea surface temperature (SST) patterns in the eastern tropical Pacific and downstream climate. Prior studies rely on EOFs (which characterize fractional SST variance) to diagnose climate-scale SST structures, [...] Read more.
El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phases and flavors, as well as off-equatorial climate modes, strongly influence sea surface temperature (SST) patterns in the eastern tropical Pacific and downstream climate. Prior studies rely on EOFs (which characterize fractional SST variance) to diagnose climate-scale SST structures, limiting the ability to link individual ENSO flavors with downstream phenomena. Hierarchical and k-means clustering methods are used to construct Eastern Pacific patterns from the ERSST dataset spanning 1950 to 2021. Cluster analysis allows for the direct linkage of individual SST years/seasons to ENSO phase, providing insight into ENSO flavors and associated downstream impacts. In this study, four clusters are revealed, each depicting unique SST patterns influenced by ENSO and Pacific Meridional Mode (PMM) phases. A case study demonstrating the utility of the clusters was also carried out using accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) in the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific basins. Results showed that Eastern Pacific (EP) El Niño suppresses Atlantic tropical cyclone (TC) activity, while Central Pacific (CP) La Niña enhances it. Further, EP El Niño, coupled with positive PMM, amplifies ACE. Ultimately, the methods used herein offer a cleaner analysis tool for identifying dominant SSTA patterns and employing those patterns to diagnose downstream climatic effects. Full article
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16 pages, 1308 KiB  
Article
Classification of Rainfall Intensity and Cloud Type from Dash Cam Images Using Feature Removal by Masking
by Kodai Suemitsu, Satoshi Endo and Shunsuke Sato
Climate 2024, 12(5), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli12050070 - 12 May 2024
Viewed by 376
Abstract
Weather Report is an initiative from Weathernews Inc. to obtain sky images and current weather conditions from the users of its weather app. This approach can provide supplementary weather information to radar observations and can potentially improve the accuracy of forecasts However, since [...] Read more.
Weather Report is an initiative from Weathernews Inc. to obtain sky images and current weather conditions from the users of its weather app. This approach can provide supplementary weather information to radar observations and can potentially improve the accuracy of forecasts However, since the time and location of the contributed images are limited, gathering data from different sources is also necessary. This study proposes a system that automatically submits weather reports using a dash cam with communication capabilities and image recognition technology. This system aims to provide detailed weather information by classifying rainfall intensities and cloud formations from images captured via dash cams. In models for fine-grained image classification tasks, there are very subtle differences between some classes and only a few samples per class. Therefore, they tend to include irrelevant details, such as the background, during training, leading to bias. One solution is to remove useless features from images by masking them using semantic segmentation, and then train each masked dataset using EfficientNet, evaluating the resulting accuracy. In the classification of rainfall intensity, the model utilizing the features of the entire image achieved up to 92.61% accuracy, which is 2.84% higher compared to the model trained specifically on road features. This outcome suggests the significance of considering information from the whole image to determine rainfall intensity. Furthermore, analysis using the Grad-CAM visualization technique revealed that classifiers trained on masked dash cam images particularly focused on car headlights when classifying the rainfall intensity. For cloud type classification, the model focusing solely on the sky region attained an accuracy of 68.61%, which is 3.16% higher than that of the model trained on the entire image. This indicates that concentrating on the features of clouds and the sky enables more accurate classification and that eliminating irrelevant areas reduces misclassifications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extreme Weather Detection, Attribution and Adaptation Design)
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6 pages, 486 KiB  
Communication
Were the 2022 Summer Heatwaves a Strong Cause of Europe’s Excess Deaths?
by Jarle Aarstad
Climate 2024, 12(5), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli12050069 - 9 May 2024
Viewed by 502
Abstract
During the 2022 summer, Europe experienced heatwaves with record temperatures, and a study has argued that they caused about 62,000 deaths between 30 May and 4 September. The total number of excess deaths during the same period was about 137,000, indicating that the [...] Read more.
During the 2022 summer, Europe experienced heatwaves with record temperatures, and a study has argued that they caused about 62,000 deaths between 30 May and 4 September. The total number of excess deaths during the same period was about 137,000, indicating that the heatwaves were a substantial contributor. Not ruling out that explanation entirely, this paper argues that it was unlikely a strong cause. First, if the heatwaves were a strong cause of numerous deaths, one would assume that the older and deprived were relatively likely to die. However, during the 2022 summer heatwaves in England, which were claimed to have caused about 2900 deaths, the oldest age cohort did not have a higher excess death rate than the middle age cohort, and the excess death rate actually decreased with deprivation status. Moreover, Iceland had among Europe’s highest excess death rates during the summer, which cannot be attributed to heatwaves. During June, July, and August 2022, comparable southern hemisphere countries furthermore had high excess death rates, which cannot be attributed to heatwaves either, as it was during their winter. Also, Europe’s excess death rate was higher during the 2022–2023 winter than during the 2022 summer, and intuitively not attributed to heatwaves, but neither to cold weather, as that winter was abnormally mild. Finally, the paper discusses the puzzling issue that about 56% more women than men, relative to the population, presumably died from the heatwaves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Impact on Human Health)
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14 pages, 327 KiB  
Article
Climate Risks and Stock Market Volatility over a Century in an Emerging Market Economy: The Case of South Africa
by Kejin Wu, Sayar Karmakar, Rangan Gupta and Christian Pierdzioch
Climate 2024, 12(5), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli12050068 - 8 May 2024
Viewed by 411
Abstract
Because climate change broadcasts a large aggregate risk to the overall macroeconomy and the global financial system, we investigate how a temperature anomaly and/or its volatility affect the accuracy of forecasts of stock return volatility. To this end, we do not apply only [...] Read more.
Because climate change broadcasts a large aggregate risk to the overall macroeconomy and the global financial system, we investigate how a temperature anomaly and/or its volatility affect the accuracy of forecasts of stock return volatility. To this end, we do not apply only the classical GARCH and GARCHX models, but rather we apply newly proposed model-free prediction methods, and use GARCH-NoVaS and GARCHX-NoVaS models to compute volatility predictions. These two models are based on a normalizing and variance-stabilizing transformation (NoVaS transformation) and are guided by a so-called model-free prediction principle. Applying the new models to data for South Africa, we find that climate-related information is helpful in forecasting stock return volatility. Moreover, the novel model-free prediction method can incorporate such exogenous information better than the classical GARCH approach, as revealed by the the squared prediction errors. More importantly, the forecast comparison test reveals that the advantage of applying exogenous information related to climate risks in prediction of the South African stock return volatility is significant over a century of monthly data (February 1910–February 2023). Our findings have important implications for academics, investors, and policymakers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling and Forecasting of Climate Risks)
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17 pages, 509 KiB  
Review
Two Decades of Integrated Flood Management: Status, Barriers, and Strategies
by Neil S. Grigg
Climate 2024, 12(5), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli12050067 - 8 May 2024
Viewed by 522
Abstract
Losses from flood disasters are increasing globally due to climate-driven forces and human factors such as migration and land use changes. The risks of such floods involve multiple factors and stakeholders, and frameworks for integrated approaches have attracted a global community of experts. [...] Read more.
Losses from flood disasters are increasing globally due to climate-driven forces and human factors such as migration and land use changes. The risks of such floods involve multiple factors and stakeholders, and frameworks for integrated approaches have attracted a global community of experts. The paper reviews the knowledge base for integrated flood risk management frameworks, including more than twenty bibliometric reviews of their elements. The knowledge base illustrates how integrated strategies for the reduction of flood risk are required at different scales and involve responses ranging from climate and weather studies to the construction of infrastructure, as well as collective action for community resilience. The Integrated Flood Management framework of the Associated Programme on Flood Management of the World Meteorological Organization was developed more than twenty years ago and is explained in some detail, including how it fits within the Integrated Water Resources Management concept that is managed by the Global Water Partnership. The paper reviews the alignment of the two approaches and how they can be used in tandem to reduce flood losses. Success of both integrated management approaches depends on governance and institutional capacity as well as technological advances. The knowledge base for flood risk management indicates how technologies are advancing, while more attention must be paid to social and environmental concerns, as well as government measures to increase participation, awareness, and preparedness. Ultimately, integrated flood management will involve solutions tailored for individual situations, and implementation may be slow, such that perseverance and political commitment will be needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Flood Risk Assessment and Management)
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16 pages, 348 KiB  
Article
Developing a Drought Resilience Matrix to Evaluate Water Supply Alternatives
by Krystal Okpa, Zeinab Farahmandfar and Masoud Negahban-Azar
Climate 2024, 12(5), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli12050066 - 7 May 2024
Viewed by 423
Abstract
Cities around the world are facing increased sensitivity to drought effects. Climate-change-induced drought affects not only the natural hydrology of the broad macroclimate but also those in the urban microclimates. The increasing frequency and duration of droughts are creating challenges for urban water [...] Read more.
Cities around the world are facing increased sensitivity to drought effects. Climate-change-induced drought affects not only the natural hydrology of the broad macroclimate but also those in the urban microclimates. The increasing frequency and duration of droughts are creating challenges for urban water utilities to convey water through distribution systems to customers reliably and consistently. This has led many urban areas like San Francisco, California, to search for unique alternative water supply projects to help bolster the drought resilience of the coupled human and natural water system. This paper focuses on applying the features of resilience (i.e., plan, adapt, absorb, and recover) through a drought resilience matrix to water supply alternatives to analyze how the addition of these projects would increase the overall water system’s drought resilience. San Francisco, California, was used as the case study to test the use of this matrix. Three portfolios (modifying existing supply, recycling, and desalination, as well as local approaches) were created and tested in the matrix. Each portfolio is composed of various alternative water supply projects that the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) is considering for implementation. Results concluded that the local approaches portfolio provided the most drought resilience, with the recycling and desalination portfolio providing the least resilience. The study approach and the presented findings will provide guidance to water utility professionals in supply planning to enhance drought resilience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coping with Flooding and Drought)
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21 pages, 34085 KiB  
Article
A Survey of African Weather and Climate Extremes
by Mark R. Jury
Climate 2024, 12(5), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli12050065 - 5 May 2024
Viewed by 465
Abstract
A survey of African weather and climate extremes in the period 1970–2023 reveals spatial and temporal patterns of intense dry and wet spells, associated with meteorological conditions and consequences. Seasonal wind storms occur along coasts facing the Mozambique Channel, the Gulf of Guinea, [...] Read more.
A survey of African weather and climate extremes in the period 1970–2023 reveals spatial and temporal patterns of intense dry and wet spells, associated with meteorological conditions and consequences. Seasonal wind storms occur along coasts facing the Mozambique Channel, the Gulf of Guinea, the Mediterranean, and the Southern Ocean. Desiccating evaporation is found along the edge of the Sahara and Kalahari Deserts, as well as in lowland subtropical river valleys. The Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and net outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) reflect precipitation–evaporation balance and guide regional evaluation. Temporal fluctuations are dominated by inter-decadal oscillations and drying/moistening trends over Southeast/West Africa, respectively. Localized floods and droughts are frequent, but widespread impacts are rare, suggesting that the transfer of resources from surplus to deficit regions is possible. Various case studies focus on (i) tropical cyclone impacts, (ii) monsoon moisture flux, and (iii) coastal upwelling. African communities have become resilient in the face of extreme weather and have shown that adaptation is possible, but further mitigating efforts are needed so that macro-economic progress does not come with harmful secondary consequences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydroclimate Dynamics and Extreme Weather Events in Africa)
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16 pages, 7393 KiB  
Article
Evapotranspiration Analysis in Central Italy: A Combined Trend and Clustering Approach
by Fabio Di Nunno, Nazzareno Diodato, Gianni Bellocchi, Carla Tricarico, Giovanni de Marinis and Francesco Granata
Climate 2024, 12(5), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli12050064 - 3 May 2024
Viewed by 614
Abstract
Climate change is increasingly influencing the water cycle, hindering the effective management of water resources in various sectors. Lazio, central Italy, exhibits a wide range of climatic conditions, stretching from the Tyrrhenian coast to the Apennines. This study assessed a crucial aspect of [...] Read more.
Climate change is increasingly influencing the water cycle, hindering the effective management of water resources in various sectors. Lazio, central Italy, exhibits a wide range of climatic conditions, stretching from the Tyrrhenian coast to the Apennines. This study assessed a crucial aspect of climate change, focusing specifically on reference evapotranspiration (ETo) and its associated hydrological variables. The seasonal Mann–Kendall (MK) test was used to assess trends in gridded data. The K-means algorithm was then applied to divide Lazio into four homogeneous regions (clusters), each characterized by distinct trends in hydrological variables. The analysis revealed statistically significant increasing trends (p ≤ 0.01) in temperature, solar radiation, and ETo, with more marked effects observed in the coastal and hilly clusters. In contrast, statistically significant decreasing trends (p ≤ 0.01) were observed for relative humidity, while no statistically significant trends (p > 0.01) were observed for precipitation. This study’s methodology, combining trend analysis and clustering, provides a comprehensive view of ETo dynamics in Lazio, aiding in pattern recognition and identifying regions with similar trends. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regional Special Issue: Climate Change in Italy)
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19 pages, 4258 KiB  
Article
Investigating Road Ice Formation Mechanisms Using Road Weather Information System (RWIS) Observations
by Menglin Jin and Douglas G. McBroom
Climate 2024, 12(5), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli12050063 - 2 May 2024
Viewed by 702
Abstract
Ice formation on roads leads to a higher incidence of accidents and increases winter de-icing/anti-icing costs. This study analyzed 3 years (2019–2021) of Road Weather Information System (RWIS) sub-hourly measurements collected by the Montana Department of Transportation (MDT) to understand the first-order factors [...] Read more.
Ice formation on roads leads to a higher incidence of accidents and increases winter de-icing/anti-icing costs. This study analyzed 3 years (2019–2021) of Road Weather Information System (RWIS) sub-hourly measurements collected by the Montana Department of Transportation (MDT) to understand the first-order factors of road ice formation and its mechanisms. First, road ice is formed only when the road pavement surface temperature is equal to or below the freezing point (i.e., 32 °F (i.e., 0 °C)), while the corresponding 2 m air temperature could be above 32 °F. Nevertheless, when the road pavement was below 32 °F ice often did not form on the roads. Therefore, one challenge is to know under what conditions road ice forms. Second, the pavement surface temperature is critical for road ice formation. The clear road (i.e., with no ice or snow) surface pavement temperature is generally warmer than the air temperature during both day and night. This feature is different from a natural land surface, where the land skin temperature is lower than the air temperature on cloud-free nights due to radiative cooling. Third, subsurface temperature, measured using a RWIS subsurface sensor below a road surface, did not vary as much as the pavement temperature and, thus, may not be a good index for road ice formation. Fourth, urban heat island effects lead to black ice formation more frequently than roads located in other regions. Fifth, evaporative cooling from the water surface near a road segment further reduces the outlying air temperature, a mechanism that increases heat loss for bridges or lake-side roads in addition to radiative cooling. Additionally, mechanical lifting via mountains and hills is also an efficient mechanism that makes the air condense and, consequently, form ice on the roads. Forecasting road ice formation is in high demand for road safety. These observed features may help to develop a road ice physical model consisting of functions of hyper-local weather conditions, local domain knowledge, the road texture, and geographical environment. Full article
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22 pages, 13336 KiB  
Article
Perception and Reality: How the Depths of the High Waters in Venice Apparently Change with the Reference System
by Dario Camuffo
Climate 2024, 12(5), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli12050062 - 1 May 2024
Viewed by 567
Abstract
Over the centuries, the depths of the most severe storm surges that have flooded Venice have been measured using different reference frames, i.e., related to the algae belt (CM), mean sea level (MSL), local land (ZMPS), large-scale leveling (IGM), and satellite altimetry (SA). [...] Read more.
Over the centuries, the depths of the most severe storm surges that have flooded Venice have been measured using different reference frames, i.e., related to the algae belt (CM), mean sea level (MSL), local land (ZMPS), large-scale leveling (IGM), and satellite altimetry (SA). Some reference frames, i.e., IGM and SA, are absolute, while the others are relative and represent two different physical points of view, i.e., CM and MSL refer to the sea that is rising and ZMPS refers to the land that is subsiding. The perceptions derived from the different systems are contradictory. This paper discusses and compares surges from 1821 to 2021 measured with these frames, also including the commemorative plaques that report the flood depths on walls in Venice. The paper explains the consequences of a change in frame and zero reference, and it transforms the flooding depths from the original systems to make them homogeneous. The severity of flooding changes in terms of rating with the choice of frame. In the 19th century, five storm surges exceeded the famous level of 1966 and, if they were to recur today or in the future, the sea level rise and the local land subsidence that have occurred in the meantime would greatly exacerbate the situation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Importance of Long Climate Records)
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27 pages, 8333 KiB  
Article
A Critical Analysis of Morocco’s Green Hydrogen Roadmap: A Modelling Approach to Assess Country Readiness from the Energy Trilemma Perspective
by Amandine Caillard, Rudolf Yeganyan, Carla Cannone, Fernando Plazas-Niño and Mark Howells
Climate 2024, 12(5), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli12050061 - 29 Apr 2024
Viewed by 644
Abstract
Morocco, despite its heavy reliance on imported fossil fuels, which made up 68% of electricity generation in 2020, has recognised its significant renewable energy potential. The Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) commitment is to reduce emissions by 45.5% from baseline levels with international assistance [...] Read more.
Morocco, despite its heavy reliance on imported fossil fuels, which made up 68% of electricity generation in 2020, has recognised its significant renewable energy potential. The Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) commitment is to reduce emissions by 45.5% from baseline levels with international assistance and abstain from constructing new coal plants. Moreover, the Green Hydrogen Roadmap aims to export 10 TWh of green hydrogen by 2030, as well as use it for local electricity storage. This paper critically analyses this Roadmap and Morocco’s readiness to reach its ambitious targets, focusing specifically on an energy trilemma perspective and using OSeMOSYS (Open-Source energy Modelling System) for energy modelling. The results reveal that the NDC scenario is only marginally more expensive than the least-cost scenario, at around 1.3% (approximately USD 375 million), and facilitates a 23.32% emission reduction by 2050. An important note is the continued reliance on existing coal power plants across all scenarios, which challenges both energy security and emissions. The assessment of the Green Hydrogen Scenarios highlights that it could be too costly for the Moroccan government to fund the Green Hydrogen Roadmap at this scale, which leads to increased imports of polluting fossil fuels for cost reduction. In fact, the emission levels are 39% higher in the green hydrogen exports scenario than in the least-cost scenario. Given these findings, it is recommended that the Green Hydrogen Roadmap be re-evaluated, with a suggestion for a postponement and reduction in scope. Full article
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26 pages, 1741 KiB  
Systematic Review
Conceptualising the Link between Citizen Science and Climate Governance: A Systematic Review
by Gloria Freschi, Marialuisa Menegatto and Adriano Zamperini
Climate 2024, 12(5), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli12050060 - 25 Apr 2024
Viewed by 887
Abstract
Multilevel and decentralised governance approaches involving different social actors are increasingly relevant to collectively tackling climate-induced vulnerabilities. Among emergent governance experimentations, citizen science (CS) is a transversal scientific practice characterised by the involvement of citizens in various phases of the scientific process. We [...] Read more.
Multilevel and decentralised governance approaches involving different social actors are increasingly relevant to collectively tackling climate-induced vulnerabilities. Among emergent governance experimentations, citizen science (CS) is a transversal scientific practice characterised by the involvement of citizens in various phases of the scientific process. We performed a PRISMA systematic review of the scientific literature in order to conceptualise the interface between CS and climate governance. The included 44 studies were coded following the thematic analysis method. Information about temporal and geographical distribution, main research designs and methods, climate governance domains and levels of analysis was extracted. Among the most significant results, we stress the existence of a two-way link between CS and climate governance: CS beyond data gathering can facilitate climate change adaptation—namely, counteracting disaster risk, food insecurity and mental health distress due to changing climate, promoting health and wellbeing, and environmental conservation—until systemic changes are made. Conversely, inclusive governance structures and processes may provide support to initiate CS projects. We also discuss the role of psychosocial and justice issues—as well as digital CS—throughout the selected literature, and the implications for future lines of research and policy. Full article
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24 pages, 3485 KiB  
Article
The Effectiveness of Climate Adaptation Finance and Readiness on Vulnerability in African Economies
by Purity Maina and Anett Parádi-Dolgos
Climate 2024, 12(5), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli12050059 - 24 Apr 2024
Viewed by 764
Abstract
Addressing climate vulnerability remains a priority for economies globally. This study used the panel-corrected standard error (PCSE) methodology to investigate the impact of adaptation financing on climate vulnerability. This analysis examined 52 African countries from 2012 to 2021 while considering their climate adaptation [...] Read more.
Addressing climate vulnerability remains a priority for economies globally. This study used the panel-corrected standard error (PCSE) methodology to investigate the impact of adaptation financing on climate vulnerability. This analysis examined 52 African countries from 2012 to 2021 while considering their climate adaptation readiness. The impact was also assessed based on the Human Development Index (HDI) categories to reflect different levels of development. The findings showed that adaptation finance considerably influenced climate vulnerability reduction in Africa, particularly in nations with a moderate HDI. However, most countries still need higher levels of adaptation financing, resulting in a small impact on vulnerability reduction. Furthermore, the impact of readiness measures differed by HDI category. Economic and social climate readiness strongly impacted climate vulnerability in high-HDI nations, but governance preparedness was more critical in low-HDI countries. Based on the empirical facts, two policy proposals emerge. First, it is critical to reconsider the distribution of adaptation financing to reduce disparities and effectively alleviate climate vulnerability. Moreover, African economies should consider implementing innovative localized financing mechanisms to mobilize extra adaptation finance. Second, African governments should customize climate readiness interventions based on their HDI levels to improve the achievement of a positive impact on climate vulnerability. Full article
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25 pages, 606 KiB  
Article
Adapting to Climate Change in Vulnerable Areas: Farmers’ Perceptions in the Punjab, Pakistan
by Faisal Nadeem, Brent Jacobs and Dana Cordell
Climate 2024, 12(5), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli12050058 - 24 Apr 2024
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Abstract
Climate variability and change pose a substantial threat to agricultural practices and livelihoods in the Punjab province of Pakistan, a region of agricultural significance in South Asia. In particular, farmers residing in vulnerable parts of Punjab will be affected by a combination of [...] Read more.
Climate variability and change pose a substantial threat to agricultural practices and livelihoods in the Punjab province of Pakistan, a region of agricultural significance in South Asia. In particular, farmers residing in vulnerable parts of Punjab will be affected by a combination of high exposure to the impacts of climate events, the innate sensitivity of agricultural systems, and constraints on farmers’ adaptive capacity. The situation requires closer engagement with vulnerable farming communities of Punjab to assess their vulnerability and build their capacity for adaptation actions. Through qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews with farmers from four highly vulnerable districts of Punjab (Rajanpur, Muzaffargarh, Chakwal, Dera Ghazi Khan), we explored farmers’ perceptions of climate change, their adaptation strategies, and enablers and limitations on adaptation options imposed by the enabling environment. We found issues around water governance, knowledge exchange, and market arrangements for crops as key limitations to farmers’ local adaptation action in highly resource-constrained settings. Moreover, the results indicated the need to address equity issues for small-scale compared to large-scale farmers. Farmers valued their experience-based local knowledge and peer-to-peer sharing networks as pivotal resources in pursuit of their practice-based learning. The research findings highlighted the necessity of directed institutional assistance to empower adaptation by vulnerable small-scale farmers. This study emphasizes the critical significance of the enabling environment that facilitates vulnerable farmers to implement adaptation strategies, thereby promoting the adoption of Vulnerable-Smart Agriculture. Full article
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Article
Climate Change in Rural Australia: Natural Hazard Preparedness and Recovery Needs of a Rural Community
by Caitlin E. Pike, Amy D. Lykins, Warren Bartik, Phillip J. Tully and Suzanne M. Cosh
Climate 2024, 12(5), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli12050057 - 23 Apr 2024
Viewed by 757
Abstract
Climate change has resulted in a worldwide increase in intensity and frequency of extreme weather events including bushfires. Previous research has shown that communities often do not engage in disaster preparedness, even when sufficient education and resources are provided. With the projected increase [...] Read more.
Climate change has resulted in a worldwide increase in intensity and frequency of extreme weather events including bushfires. Previous research has shown that communities often do not engage in disaster preparedness, even when sufficient education and resources are provided. With the projected increase in natural disasters, preparedness is paramount, and more research is needed to gain an understanding into what impacts community preparedness in the face of climate change. This study investigated one rural Australian community’s preparedness for the 2019–2020 bushfires. Thirteen Australian adults who resided within a small rural community in New South Wales during the 2019–2020 bushfires participated in semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Participants reported being unprepared for the 2019–2020 bushfires and that the community has started to prepare for future bushfires. However, they also described a belief in ‘climate cycles’ rather than climate change, limiting engagement in preparedness for future hazards. Participants also reported that they did not talk about the 2019–2020 bushfires, although described experiencing residual anxiety. Recommendations included support needed for rural communities to help with future preparedness efforts and mental health symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Climate Change Impacts in Australia)
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