Allergic Diseases and Type 2 Inflammation in Children

A special issue of Children (ISSN 2227-9067). This special issue belongs to the section "Pediatric Allergy and Immunology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (5 August 2022) | Viewed by 15065

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Humanitas University, Via Rita Levi Montalcini 4, 20090 Pieve Emanuele, MI, Italy
Interests: severe asthma; nasal polyps; airway inflammation; biomarkers; anaphylaxis
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Guest Editor
1. Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Paediatrics, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy
2. Department of Clinical Immunology and Allergology, IM Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Russia.
Interests: allergy; asthma; atopy; children; food allergy; immunotherapy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Allergy and Clinical Immunology Unit, Ospedale San Giovanni di Dio, Azienda USL Toscana Centro, via di Torregalli 1, 50143, Florence, Italy
Interests: allergy; asthma; atopy; food allergy; venom allergy; drug allergy; anaphylaxis; immunotherapy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Allergic diseases have a high prevalence in the population, and this is truer for the pediatric population. They can occur from very early childhood, as occurs in cow’s milk protein allergy, or later. They can remain stable until adulthood, or evolve into other forms, as occurs in the so-called “atopic march”.

In recent years, the treatment of allergic diseases—and in particular of more complicated conditions, such as severe asthma or severe atopic dermatitis—has been revolutionized by new therapies, largely based on biologics, initially used for the treatment of adult patients and then progressively used successfully also in pediatrics.

These are characterized by “type 2 inflammation”, which consists in the activation of Th2 cells, which secrete cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, which in turn stimulate the activation of eosinophils, mast cells, and basophils.

In all these conditions, the outcome is immune dysregulation and epithelial barrier dysfunction.

In this Special Issue of Children, we would like to offer the opportunity to share the latest advances in the field of allergic diseases in childhood, with a special focus on type 2 inflammation.

We welcome reviews and original research considering novel approaches, as well as identifying gaps in knowledge. We also encourage submissions that explore how quality of life is affected by these conditions, or how the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the organization of allergy care and the treatment of allergic children.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Enrico Marco Heffler
Dr. Pasquale Comberiati
Dr. Filippo Fassio
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Children is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Pediatric
  • Children
  • Allergy
  • Asthma
  • Component Resolved Diagnosis
  • Food Allergy
  • Drug Allergy
  • Venom Allergy
  • Allergic Rhinitis
  • Type 2 Inflammation
  • Immunotherapy

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 1127 KiB  
Article
Serum Allergen-Specific IgE among Pediatric Patients with Primary Immunodeficiency
by Karolina Pieniawska-Śmiech, Aleksandra Lewandowicz-Uszyńska, Magdalena Zemelka-Wiacek and Marek Jutel
Children 2022, 9(4), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9040466 - 25 Mar 2022
Viewed by 2264
Abstract
Background: Allergy is a clinical condition that reflects a deviated function of the immune system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate serum allergen-specific IgE (sIgE) along with clinical manifestations of allergy in patients with diagnosed primary immunodeficiency (PID). Methods: 72 patients, [...] Read more.
Background: Allergy is a clinical condition that reflects a deviated function of the immune system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate serum allergen-specific IgE (sIgE) along with clinical manifestations of allergy in patients with diagnosed primary immunodeficiency (PID). Methods: 72 patients, aged 1–17 years, diagnosed with PID and hospitalized between July 2020 and February 2021 were included in the study. Blood samples were obtained by venipuncture. sIgE (30 allergens), blood eosinophil count, as well as total IgE and IgG were measured and assessed in relation to a detailed medical examination. Results: Serum sIgE was detected in the blood of 50% of the patients in the study group, which significantly correlated (p < 0.0001) with clinical symptoms of allergy. During the period of the study, 61.1% of the patients showed symptoms of allergy, with 77.27% of them having tested positive for sIgE. The total IgE level was elevated in 18.06% of the patients and correlated with clinical symptoms of allergy (p = 0.004). An elevated total IgE level was not observed in children receiving immunoglobulin replacement therapy. Conclusion: The study showed that serum sIgE and total IgE together might be a plausible diagnostic tool for PID patients. However, for patients receiving immunoglobulin replacement therapy, the assessment of total IgE is not useful. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Allergic Diseases and Type 2 Inflammation in Children)
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10 pages, 4894 KiB  
Article
Early Bronchiolitis Contributes to Preschool Asthma
by Jih-Chin Chang, Jeng-Yuan Chiou, Jiunn-Liang Ko, Jing-Yang Huang and Ko-Huang Lue
Children 2021, 8(12), 1176; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8121176 - 13 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2159
Abstract
This study aims to analyze whether bronchiolitis in children younger than one-year-old contributes to subsequent asthma. Medical data were retrieved from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. Participants were divided into study (N = 65,559) and control (N = 49,656) groups, [...] Read more.
This study aims to analyze whether bronchiolitis in children younger than one-year-old contributes to subsequent asthma. Medical data were retrieved from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. Participants were divided into study (N = 65,559) and control (N = 49,656) groups, depending on whether they had early bronchiolitis. Incidences of asthma, potential comorbidities, and associated medical conditions were compared. The incidence of childhood asthma was significantly higher in the study group (aHR = 1.127, 95% CI: 1.063–1.195). Children with bronchiolitis hospitalization displayed higher asthma risk in the period between two and four years of age. The risk diminished as the children grew up. No relevant synergistic effects were found between bronchiolitis and atopic dermatitis. In conclusion, bronchiolitis before one year of age exhibits predictive value for development of preschool asthma, especially in children with bronchiolitis hospitalizations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Allergic Diseases and Type 2 Inflammation in Children)
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16 pages, 983 KiB  
Article
Adaptation, Translation and Validation of the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire-Parent Form (FAQLQ-PF): The Malay Version
by Izyana Syazlin Ibrahim, Noorhida Baharudin, Mohamad Rodi Isa, Intan Hakimah Ismail, Mohamed-Syarif Mohamed-Yassin, Intan Kartika Kamarudin, Amir Hamzah Abdul Latiff, Farah Dayana Zahedi, Adli Ali and Azuin Izzati Arshad
Children 2021, 8(11), 1050; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8111050 - 13 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2687
Abstract
Food allergy has a significant impact on the quality of life (QoL) of children and can be measured using The Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire-Parent Form (FAQLQ-PF). This study aimed to adapt, translate the FAQLQ-PF into Malay and determine the validity and [...] Read more.
Food allergy has a significant impact on the quality of life (QoL) of children and can be measured using The Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire-Parent Form (FAQLQ-PF). This study aimed to adapt, translate the FAQLQ-PF into Malay and determine the validity and reliability of the translated version. This cross-sectional questionnaire validation study was conducted among parents of children (0 to 12 years old) with food allergies across five sites in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The FAQLQ-PF-Malay underwent cross-cultural adaptation, translation, validation (content, face and construct) and reliability assessment. Exploratory factor analysis, internal consistency and test-retest reliability analyses were used to examine its construct validity and reliability. Out of 150 children, the majority were between the age of 7 to 12 years old (41%) and were female (81%). Three subscales were identified, which were: (i) social and dietary implication, (ii) food anxiety and (iii) emotional and physical impact. Four items were eliminated because of weak factor loadings. The Cronbach’s alpha for each subscale ranged from 0.88 to 0.94, with an overall Cronbach’s alpha of 0.95. The intra-class correlation coefficient ranged from 0.54 (95% CI: 0.10–0.77) to 0.97 (95% CI: 0.90–0.99). The 26-item FAQLQ-PF-Malay retained the three-factor structure of the original FAQLQ-PF. The FAQLQ-PF-Malay is a valid and reliable tool to assess the QoL of Malaysian children with food allergies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Allergic Diseases and Type 2 Inflammation in Children)
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Review

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16 pages, 712 KiB  
Review
Effects of Sepsis on Immune Response, Microbiome and Oxidative Metabolism in Preterm Infants
by Anna Parra-Llorca, Alejandro Pinilla-Gonzlez, Laura Torrejón-Rodríguez, Inmaculada Lara-Cantón, Julia Kuligowski, María Carmen Collado, María Gormaz, Marta Aguar, Máximo Vento, Eva Serna and María Cernada
Children 2023, 10(3), 602; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10030602 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1735
Abstract
This is a narrative review about the mechanisms involved in bacterial sepsis in preterm infants, which is an illness with a high incidence, morbidity, and mortality. The role of the innate immune response and its relationship with oxidative stress in the pathogenesis are [...] Read more.
This is a narrative review about the mechanisms involved in bacterial sepsis in preterm infants, which is an illness with a high incidence, morbidity, and mortality. The role of the innate immune response and its relationship with oxidative stress in the pathogenesis are described as well as their potential implementation as early biomarkers. Moreover, we address the impact that all the mechanisms triggered by sepsis have on the dysbiosis and the changes on neonatal microbiota. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Allergic Diseases and Type 2 Inflammation in Children)
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25 pages, 2351 KiB  
Review
Barrier Impairment and Type 2 Inflammation in Allergic Diseases: The Pediatric Perspective
by Michele Ghezzi, Elena Pozzi, Luisa Abbattista, Luisa Lonoce, Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti and Enza D’Auria
Children 2021, 8(12), 1165; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8121165 - 09 Dec 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4371
Abstract
Allergic diseases represent a global burden. Although the patho-physiological mechanisms are still poorly understood, epithelial barrier dysfunction and Th2 inflammatory response play a pivotal role. Barrier dysfunction, characterized by a loss of differentiation, reduced junctional integrity, and altered innate defence, underpins the pathogenesis [...] Read more.
Allergic diseases represent a global burden. Although the patho-physiological mechanisms are still poorly understood, epithelial barrier dysfunction and Th2 inflammatory response play a pivotal role. Barrier dysfunction, characterized by a loss of differentiation, reduced junctional integrity, and altered innate defence, underpins the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. Epithelial barrier impairment may be a potential therapeutic target for new treatment strategies Up now, monoclonal antibodies and new molecules targeting specific pathways of the immune response have been developed, and others are under investigation, both for adult and paediatric populations, which are affected by atopic dermatitis (AD), asthma, allergic rhinitis (AR), chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP), or eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). In children affected by severe asthma biologics targeting IgE, IL-5 and against IL-4 and IL-13 receptors are already available, and they have also been applied in CRSwNP. In severe AD Dupilumab, a biologic which inhibits both IL-4 and IL-13, the most important cytokines involved in inflammation response, has been approved for treatment of patients over 12 years. While a biological approach has already shown great efficacy on the treatment of severe atopic conditions, early intervention to restore epithelial barrier integrity, and function may prevent the inflammatory response and the development of the atopic march. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Allergic Diseases and Type 2 Inflammation in Children)
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