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Chronic Respiratory Diseases and Respiratory Care in Childhood

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Children's Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (3 April 2023) | Viewed by 21514

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Allergology Section, Paediatrics Unit, Pisa University Hospital, via Roma 67, 56126 Pisa, Italy
2. Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Lungarno Antonio Pacinotti, 43, 56126 Pisa PI, Italy
Interests: pediatric pulmonology; allergology

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Guest Editor
Department of Clinical-Surgical, Diagnostic and Pediatric Sciences, Section of Pediatrics, University of Pavia, Corso Str. Nuova, 65, 27100 Pavia, Italy
Interests: pediatric pulmonology; allergology

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Guest Editor
1. Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Paediatrics, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy
2. Department of Clinical Immunology and Allergology, IM Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Russia.
Interests: allergy; asthma; atopy; children; food allergy; immunotherapy
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Pediatric chronic respiratory diseases are quite common in clinical practice. Asthma is currently the most common chronic condition in childhood; however, other chronic diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, primary ciliary dyskinesia, and lung diseases in premature infants, should be known by pediatricians in order not to miss an early diagnosis and a timely and adequate therapeutic approach including pulmonary rehabilitation. Regarding pediatric asthma, biologicals are changing the narrative of the management of the disease with a more and more personalized treatment. Moreover, a growing body of evidence suggests that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may have its early origins in childhood, so that research is also currently focusing on such aspects. In the meanwhile, pediatricians are starting to face new challenges in the management of pediatric chronic respiratory conditions, such as climate change and the spreading use of e-cigarettes among youth. Last but not least, the SARS-Cov-2 pandemic has raised unexpected issues in respiratory care in childhood.

For an upcoming Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (PubMed indexed, IF 2.849), we invite investigators to contribute review articles focused on these issues. Potential topics may include, but are not limited to:

  • personalized treatment in pediatric asthma;
  • effects of e-cigarette smoke exposure;
  • the impacts of climate change on childhood respiratory disease;
  • early origins of COPD;
  • pulmonary rehabilitation in children;
  • the management of chronic cough;
  • lung diseases in premature infants;
  • rare respiratory diseases in childhood; and
  • impacts of COVID-19 on respiratory care in childhood.

Dr. Maria E. Di Cicco
Prof. Dr. Amelia Licari
Dr. Pasquale Comberiati
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • children
  • lungs
  • pediatric asthma
  • chronic lung diseases
  • pulmonary rehabilitation

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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9 pages, 1053 KiB  
Article
Health Effects of the Asthma Care Program under the Universal Coverage Scheme in Children and Young Adults in Thailand
by Phatthanawilai Namuenhong Inmai, Tippawan Liabsuetrakul, Nao Ichihara, Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Jutatip Thungthong, Virasakdi Chongsuvivatwong and Hiroaki Miyata
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(7), 4130; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19074130 - 31 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2046
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the asthma care program available under the Universal Coverage Scheme (UCS) in Thailand on hospital admissions per 100,000 population, its regional and seasonal variation, readmission within 28 days, and the asthma-specific fatality rate of patients [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the asthma care program available under the Universal Coverage Scheme (UCS) in Thailand on hospital admissions per 100,000 population, its regional and seasonal variation, readmission within 28 days, and the asthma-specific fatality rate of patients aged 0–29 years in 2009–2016 compared with those in 2007–2008. A retrospective study was conducted using data sources from the UCS register and in-patient databases from the National Health Security Office (NHSO), Thailand. Hospital admissions per 100,000 population was the highest among those aged 0–4 years, but the trends decreased from 470.8 to 288.1 per 100,000 population in 2010–2014. The hospital admission rates were high in Southern Thailand and common in rainy seasons. The readmission rates within 28 days slightly decreased in all age groups in 2016 compared to those in 2007. The case fatality rate of patients aged 20–29 years decreased from 0.40% in 2007 to 0.34% in 2016. The readmission rate within 28 days and case fatality rate were the highest in patients aged 20–29 years. In conclusion, the asthma hospital admission, readmission, and case fatality rates declined over time along with the investment in the asthma care program under the UCS in Thailand. The highest hospital admission rates in patients aged 0–4 years and the readmission and case fatality rates in patients aged 20–29 years should be given more attention. Recordings of individual service utilization data in asthma patients, including quality of care provided, should be monitored to improve the asthma care system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Respiratory Diseases and Respiratory Care in Childhood)
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13 pages, 1034 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Outdoor Aeroallergens on Asthma Hospitalizations in Children in North-Western Tuscany, Italy
by Maria Di Cicco, Ester Del Tufo, Salvatore Fasola, Serena Gracci, Maria Giovanna Marchi, Luca Fibbi, Giovanna Cilluffo, Giuliana Ferrante, Diego G. Peroni and Stefania La Grutta
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(6), 3586; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19063586 - 17 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1882
Abstract
Few data are currently available on the effects of aeroallergens in triggering respiratory symptoms in children. To evaluate the potential effects of daily outdoor aeroallergens loads on childhood admissions, in this case-crossover study, we analyzed data from 85 children hospitalized at the University [...] Read more.
Few data are currently available on the effects of aeroallergens in triggering respiratory symptoms in children. To evaluate the potential effects of daily outdoor aeroallergens loads on childhood admissions, in this case-crossover study, we analyzed data from 85 children hospitalized at the University Hospital of Pisa, Italy, for asthma or asthma-like symptoms without respiratory infection, between 2010 and 2019. Data were linked to outdoor allergens, temperature, nitrogen dioxide, and relative humidity observed during the same period. A 10-grains/m3 increase in the total aeroallergen concentration was associated with an increased risk of admission at lag 0 (OR = 1.054, 95% CI: 1.011–1.098), with a smaller effect at lag 1 (OR = 1.037, 95% CI: 1.008–1.067) and lag 2 (OR = 1.021, 95% CI: 1.003–1.039). Trends to larger effects were observed in children with sensitization to one or more aeroallergens (OR = 1.085, 95% CI: 1.004–1.173 at lag 0), in males (OR = 1.069, 95% CI: 1.009–1.132 at lag 0) and in older children (OR = 1.065, 95% CI: 1.007–1.127 at lag 0). Our study shows an association between increased outdoor allergens loads and asthma or asthma-like symptoms in children up to at least two days prior to hospitalization, suggesting that tracking aeroallergen counts may be useful to improve the management of respiratory allergic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Respiratory Diseases and Respiratory Care in Childhood)
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19 pages, 420 KiB  
Article
Management of Children with Acute Asthma Attack: A RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Approach
by Valentina Fainardi, Carlo Caffarelli, Barbara Maria Bergamini, Loretta Biserna, Paolo Bottau, Elena Corinaldesi, Arianna Dondi, Martina Fornaro, Battista Guidi, Francesca Lombardi, Maria Sole Magistrali, Elisabetta Marastoni, Alessandra Piccorossi, Maurizio Poloni, Sylvie Tagliati, Francesca Vaienti, Cristina Venturelli, Giampaolo Ricci, Susanna Esposito and on behalf of the Emilia-Romagna Asthma (ERA) Study Group
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(23), 12775; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182312775 - 03 Dec 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3715
Abstract
Bronchial asthma is the most frequent chronic disease in children and affects up to 20% of the pediatric population, depending on the geographical area. Asthma symptoms vary over time and in intensity, and acute asthma attack can resolve spontaneously or in response to [...] Read more.
Bronchial asthma is the most frequent chronic disease in children and affects up to 20% of the pediatric population, depending on the geographical area. Asthma symptoms vary over time and in intensity, and acute asthma attack can resolve spontaneously or in response to therapy. The aim of this project was to define the care pathway for pediatric patients who come to the primary care pediatrician or Emergency Room with acute asthmatic access. The project was developed in the awareness that for the management of these patients, broad coordination of interventions in the pre-hospital phase and the promotion of timely and appropriate assistance modalities with the involvement of all health professionals involved are important. Through the application of the RAND method, which obliges to discuss the statements derived from the guidelines, there was a clear increase in the concordance in the behavior on the management of acute asthma between primary care pediatricians and hospital pediatricians. The RAND method was found to be useful for the selection of good practices forming the basis of an evidence-based approach, and the results obtained form the basis for further interventions that allow optimizing the care of the child with acute asthma attack at the family and pediatric level. An important point of union between the primary care pediatrician and the specialist hospital pediatrician was the need to share spirometric data, also including the use of new technologies such as teleconsultation. Monitoring the progress of asthma through spirometry could allow the pediatrician in the area to intervene early by modifying the maintenance therapy and help the patient to achieve good control of the disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Respiratory Diseases and Respiratory Care in Childhood)
11 pages, 363 KiB  
Article
Infant Nasopharyngeal Microbiota Subphenotypes and Early Childhood Lung Function: Evidence from a Rural Ghanaian Pregnancy Cohort
by Kathryn Dubowski, Seyram Kaali, Darby Jack, Rebecca Kyerewaa Dwommoh Prah, Jose C. Clemente, Theresa Tawiah, Mohammed Mujtaba, Louisa Iddrisu, Daniel Carrión, Dennis Gyasi Konadu, Oscar Agyei, Francis Mensah Kornu, Samuel Osei-Owusu, Alison G. Lee and Kwaku Poku Asante
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7276; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147276 - 07 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1942
Abstract
Early life respiratory microbiota may increase risk for future pulmonary disease. Associations between respiratory microbiota and lung health in children from low- and middle-income countries are not well-described. Leveraging the Ghana Randomized Air Pollution and Health Study (GRAPHS) prospective pregnancy cohort in Kintampo, [...] Read more.
Early life respiratory microbiota may increase risk for future pulmonary disease. Associations between respiratory microbiota and lung health in children from low- and middle-income countries are not well-described. Leveraging the Ghana Randomized Air Pollution and Health Study (GRAPHS) prospective pregnancy cohort in Kintampo, Ghana, we collected nasopharyngeal swabs in 112 asymptomatic children aged median 4.3 months (interquartile range (IQR) 2.9, 7.1) and analyzed 22 common bacterial and viral pathogens with MassTag polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We prospectively followed the cohort and measured lung function at age four years by impulse oscillometry. First, we employed latent class analysis (LCA) to identify nasopharyngeal microbiota (NPM) subphenotypes. Then, we used linear regression to analyze associations between subphenotype assignment and lung function. LCA suggest that a two-class model best described the infant NPM. We identified a higher diversity subphenotype (N = 38, 34%) with more pathogens (median 4; IQR 3.25, 4.75) and a lower diversity subphenotype (N = 74, 66%) with fewer pathogens (median 1; IQR 1, 2). In multivariable linear regression models, the less diverse NPM subphenotype had higher small airway resistance (R5-R20 β = 17.9%, 95% CI 35.6, 0.23; p = 0.047) compared with the more diverse subphenotype. Further studies are required to understand the role of the microbiota in future lung health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Respiratory Diseases and Respiratory Care in Childhood)

Review

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22 pages, 1080 KiB  
Review
Early Origins of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Prenatal and Early Life Risk Factors
by Michela Deolmi, Nicola Mattia Decarolis, Matteo Motta, Heidi Makrinioti, Valentina Fainardi, Giovanna Pisi and Susanna Esposito
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(3), 2294; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20032294 - 27 Jan 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2705
Abstract
The main risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is active smoking. However, a considerable amount of people with COPD never smoked, and increasing evidence suggests that adult lung disease can have its origins in prenatal and early life. This article reviews [...] Read more.
The main risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is active smoking. However, a considerable amount of people with COPD never smoked, and increasing evidence suggests that adult lung disease can have its origins in prenatal and early life. This article reviews some of the factors that can potentially affect lung development and lung function trajectories throughout the lifespan from genetics and prematurity to respiratory tract infections and childhood asthma. Maternal smoking and air pollution exposure were also analyzed among the environmental factors. The adoption of preventive strategies to avoid these risk factors since the prenatal period may be crucial to prevent, delay the onset or modify the progression of COPD lung disease throughout life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Respiratory Diseases and Respiratory Care in Childhood)
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8 pages, 744 KiB  
Review
Impact of COVID-19 in Children with Chronic Lung Diseases
by Valentina Agnese Ferraro, Stefania Zanconato and Silvia Carraro
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(18), 11483; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191811483 - 13 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1921
Abstract
Background: since December 2019, the world has become victim of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The aim of our narrative review is to analyze the impact of COVID-19 in children suffering from chronic lung [...] Read more.
Background: since December 2019, the world has become victim of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The aim of our narrative review is to analyze the impact of COVID-19 in children suffering from chronic lung disease (CLD). Methods: we searched the MEDLINE/Pubmed database using the terms “SARS-CoV-2” or “COVID-19” or “Coronavirus Diseases 2019”; AND “chronic lung diseases” or “chronic respiratory diseases” or “asthma” or “cystic fibrosis” or “primary ciliary dyskinesia” or “bronchopulmonary dysplasia”; and limiting the search to the age range 0–18 years. Results and Conclusions: although COVID-19 rarely presents with a severe course in children, CLD may represent a risk factor; especially when already severe or poorly controlled before SARS-CoV-2 infection. On the other hand, typical features of children with CLD (e.g., the accurate adoption of prevention measures, and, in asthmatic patients, the regular use of inhaled corticosteroids and T2 inflammation) might have a role in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection. Moreover, from a psychological standpoint, the restrictions associated with the pandemic had a profound impact on children and adolescents with CLD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Respiratory Diseases and Respiratory Care in Childhood)
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16 pages, 1881 KiB  
Review
Lifelong Lung Sequelae of Prematurity
by Paola Di Filippo, Giulia Dodi, Francesca Ciarelli, Sabrina Di Pillo, Francesco Chiarelli and Marina Attanasi
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(9), 5273; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19095273 - 26 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2716
Abstract
The clinical, functional, and structural pattern of chronic lung disease of prematurity has changed enormously in last years, mirroring a better perinatal management and an increasing lung immaturity with the survival of increasingly premature infants. Respiratory symptoms and lung function impairment related to [...] Read more.
The clinical, functional, and structural pattern of chronic lung disease of prematurity has changed enormously in last years, mirroring a better perinatal management and an increasing lung immaturity with the survival of increasingly premature infants. Respiratory symptoms and lung function impairment related to prematurity seem to improve over time, but premature birth increases the likelihood of lung function impairment in late childhood, predisposing to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is mandatory to identify those individuals born premature who are at risk for developing long-term lung disease through a better awareness of physicians, the use of standardized CT imaging scores, and a more comprehensive periodic lung function evaluation. The aim of this narrative review was to provide a systematic approach to lifelong respiratory symptoms, lung function impairment, and lung structural anomalies in order to better understand the specific role of prematurity on lung health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Respiratory Diseases and Respiratory Care in Childhood)
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20 pages, 962 KiB  
Review
The Role of Gut and Lung Microbiota in Susceptibility to Tuberculosis
by Pasquale Comberiati, Maria Di Cicco, Francesco Paravati, Umberto Pelosi, Alessandro Di Gangi, Stefania Arasi, Simona Barni, Davide Caimmi, Carla Mastrorilli, Amelia Licari and Fernanda Chiera
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(22), 12220; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182212220 - 21 Nov 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3394
Abstract
Tuberculosis is one of the most common infectious diseases and infectious causes of death worldwide. Over the last decades, significant research effort has been directed towards defining the understanding of the pathogenesis of tuberculosis to improve diagnosis and therapeutic options. Emerging scientific evidence [...] Read more.
Tuberculosis is one of the most common infectious diseases and infectious causes of death worldwide. Over the last decades, significant research effort has been directed towards defining the understanding of the pathogenesis of tuberculosis to improve diagnosis and therapeutic options. Emerging scientific evidence indicates a possible role of the human microbiota in the pathophysiology of tuberculosis, response to therapy, clinical outcomes, and post-treatment outcomes. Although human studies on the role of the microbiota in tuberculosis are limited, published data in recent years, both from experimental and clinical studies, suggest that a better understanding of the gut–lung microbiome axis and microbiome–immune crosstalk could shed light on the specific pathogenetic mechanisms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and identify new therapeutic targets. In this review, we address the current knowledge of the host immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, the emerging evidence on how gut and lung microbiota can modulate susceptibility to tuberculosis, the available studies on the possible use of probiotic–antibiotic combination therapy for the treatment of tuberculosis, and the knowledge gaps and future research priorities in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Respiratory Diseases and Respiratory Care in Childhood)
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