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Children, Volume 11, Issue 5 (May 2024) – 109 articles

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18 pages, 2929 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Autoregulation of the Cerebral Circulation during Acute Lung Injury in a Neonatal Porcine Model
by Asli Memisoglu, Martha Hinton, Yasser Elsayed, Ruth Graham and Shyamala Dakshinamurti
Children 2024, 11(5), 611; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11050611 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 85
Abstract
In neonates with acute lung injury (ALI), targeting lower oxygenation saturations is suggested to limit oxygen toxicity while maintaining vital organ function. Although thresholds for cerebral autoregulation are studied for the management of premature infants, the impact of hypoxia on hemodynamics, tissue oxygen [...] Read more.
In neonates with acute lung injury (ALI), targeting lower oxygenation saturations is suggested to limit oxygen toxicity while maintaining vital organ function. Although thresholds for cerebral autoregulation are studied for the management of premature infants, the impact of hypoxia on hemodynamics, tissue oxygen consumption and extraction is not well understood in term infants with ALI. We examined hemodynamics, cerebral autoregulation and fractional oxygen extraction, as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and blood gases, in a neonatal porcine oleic acid injury model of moderate ALI. We hypothesized that in ALI animals, cerebral oxygen extraction would be increased to a greater degree than kidney or gut oxygen extraction as indicative of the brain’s adaptive efforts to increase cerebral oxygen extraction at the expense of splanchnic end organs. Fifteen anesthetized, ventilated 5-day-old neonatal piglets were divided into moderate lung injury by treatment with oleic acid or control (sham injection). The degree of lung injury was quantified at baseline and after establishment of ALI by blood gases, ventilation parameters and calculated oxygenation deficit, hemodynamic indices by echocardiography and lung injury score by ultrasound. PaCO2 was maintained constant during ventilation. Cerebral, renal and gut oxygenation was determined by NIRS during stepwise decreases in inspired oxygen from 50% to 21%, correlated with PaO2 and PvO2; changes in fractional oxygen extraction (ΔFOE) were calculated from NIRS and from regional blood gas samples. The proportion of cerebral autoregulation impairment attributable to blood pressure, and to hypoxemia, was calculated from autoregulation nomograms. ALI manifested as hypoxemia with increasing intrapulmonary shunt fraction, decreased lung compliance and increased resistance, and marked increase in lung ultrasound score. Brain, gut and renal NIRS, obtained from probes placed over the anterior skull, central abdomen and flank, respectively, correlated with concurrent SVC (brain) or IVC (gut, renal) PvO2 and SvO2. Cerebral autoregulation was impaired after ALI as a function of blood pressure at all FiO2 steps, but predominantly by hypoxemia at FiO2 < 40%. Cerebral ΔFOE was higher in ALI animals at all FiO2 steps. We conclude that in an animal model of neonatal ALI, cerebrovascular blood flow regulation is primarily dependent on oxygenation. There is not a defined oxygenation threshold below which cerebral autoregulation is impaired in ALI. Cerebral oxygen extraction is enhanced in ALI, reflecting compensation for exhausted cerebral autoregulation due to the degree of hypoxemia and/or hypotension, thereby protecting against tissue hypoxia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Neonatology)
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13 pages, 514 KiB  
Article
Furosemide and Ductus Arteriosus Closure in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Preterm Infants: A Comprehensive Retrospective Study
by Chi-Mei Kuo, Pin-Chun Su, Shu-Ting Yang, Hao-Wei Chung and Hsiu-Lin Chen
Children 2024, 11(5), 610; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11050610 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 115
Abstract
Ductus arteriosus closure may be delayed in preterm infants, and prostaglandin, a vasodilator, can affect ductal patency. Furosemide can increase renal prostaglandin synthesis, so its net effect on patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is uncertain. Our goal is to explore the relationship between furosemide [...] Read more.
Ductus arteriosus closure may be delayed in preterm infants, and prostaglandin, a vasodilator, can affect ductal patency. Furosemide can increase renal prostaglandin synthesis, so its net effect on patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is uncertain. Our goal is to explore the relationship between furosemide and spontaneous ductal closure in very-low-birth-weight preterm infants. Our treatment for PDA involves fluid restriction initially and furosemide administration for hemodynamically significant PDA until closure is confirmed by the echocardiogram. We enrolled 105 infants from 1 January 2019 to 30 June 2022 and evaluated the impact of furosemide on ductal closure, including exposure duration and cumulative dose. There is no correlation between furosemide exposure and spontaneous ductal closure (p = 0.384). Furosemide exposure does not delay the postmenstrual age at which spontaneous ductal closure occurs (p = 0.558). The time for spontaneous ductal closure is positively associated with furosemide prescription days (coefficient value = 0.547, p = 0.026) and negatively with gestational age (coefficient value = −0.384, p = 0.062). The prescription of furosemide does not impact the probability or time duration of ductus arteriosus spontaneous closure. The cumulative dose of furosemide has minimal impact on ductal closure. The correlation between furosemide exposure duration and ductal patency duration is likely due to our treatment protocol, with gestational age being a significant factor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Neonatology)
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12 pages, 1426 KiB  
Article
Prevalence and Characteristics of Sleep Disorders in Children Aged 7–17: Insights from Parental Observations at the Dental Office
by Montserrat Diéguez-Pérez, Laura Burgueño-Torres, Guillermo Reichard-Monefeldt, Fanny Esther Tapia-Sierra and Jesús Miguel Ticona-Flores
Children 2024, 11(5), 609; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11050609 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 140
Abstract
Sleep disorders (SD) in children is a topic of great relevance due to their impact on a child’s general health. This has led us to study their prevalence and the factors that disturb them in the developing population. Using a validated Likert-type questionnaire, [...] Read more.
Sleep disorders (SD) in children is a topic of great relevance due to their impact on a child’s general health. This has led us to study their prevalence and the factors that disturb them in the developing population. Using a validated Likert-type questionnaire, different behaviors observed by the parents during the different phases of their children’s sleep were evaluated during the last 6 months. A total of 206 children between the ages of 7 and 17 who attended a dental office participated in the study. The prevalence of SD was 47.6%. There were no significant differences regarding the SD in relation to sex (p = 0.796). The mean total score for children aged 7 to 11 years old was 42.3 (±14.25) compared to 45.44 (±15.51) for the group consisting of children aged 12 to 17 years old, reporting a statistically significant difference among both age groups (p = 0.01). The most frequent disorder was related to initiating and maintaining sleep (64.9%) while the least prevalent were the respiratory sleep disorders (27.2%). Given the high prevalence of these disorders, it is necessary to intercept them during childhood and establish educational guidelines in this regard throughout primary care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Dentistry)
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15 pages, 974 KiB  
Article
Play Nicely: Evaluation of a Brief Intervention to Reduce Physical Punishment and the Beliefs That Justify It
by Danna Valentina Nuñez-Talero, Martha Rocío González and Angela Trujillo
Children 2024, 11(5), 608; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11050608 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 140
Abstract
The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of the Play Nicely brief intervention in diminishing both the utilization of physical punishment and the beliefs that endorse such behavior among a sample of Colombian parents with children aged 2 to 6. [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of the Play Nicely brief intervention in diminishing both the utilization of physical punishment and the beliefs that endorse such behavior among a sample of Colombian parents with children aged 2 to 6. Utilizing a quasi-experimental design, the research included pretest and posttest evaluations and involved both an intervention group (n = 37) and a control group (n = 29). The assessment tools used were a scale to measure beliefs about the positive impacts of physical punishment and the Physical Assault subscale of the Spanish version of the Conflict Tactics Scale Parent–Child (CTSPC). Parents participated in a single online session, which offered eight interactive options and lasted 10 min. The results highlighted a high prevalence of physical punishment within the sample (81.8%) and established statistically significant correlations between the justification of physical punishment and its actual use. Approximately one month following the intervention, there was a significant reduction in the employment of physical punishment among the intervention group (p = 0.009), and a notable decrease in the belief that “Punishment is the best alternative to control children’s behavior” (p = 0.010) was observed. Consequently, the Play Nicely intervention proved effective in curtailing the use of physical punishment among parents of young children, demonstrating both efficacy and cost-effectiveness within a brief timeframe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Abuse and Neglect Volume II)
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10 pages, 14877 KiB  
Case Report
Clinical Consequences of Unreconstructed Pelvic Defect Caused by Osteosarcoma with Subsequent Progressive Scoliosis in a Pediatric Patient—Case Report
by Sławomir Zacha, Katarzyna Kotrych, Wojciech Zacha, Jowita Biernawska, Arkadiusz Ali, Dawid Ciechanowicz, Paweł Ziętek and Daniel Kotrych
Children 2024, 11(5), 607; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11050607 - 19 May 2024
Viewed by 227
Abstract
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. The standard and most effective treatment is wide resection of the tumor combined with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a genetically determined three-dimensional spinal deformity, which occurs in [...] Read more.
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. The standard and most effective treatment is wide resection of the tumor combined with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a genetically determined three-dimensional spinal deformity, which occurs in teenage patients and is mostly progressive. The basic management strategy is surgical treatment when the curve exceeds 50 degrees. However, the indications are different in oncologic patients. The aim of this study was to describe a case of adolescent scoliosis with osteosarcoma of the pelvis. The authors conducted a scoping review using PubMed and Embase to analyze the state of knowledge. The presented paper is the first report of pelvis osteosarcoma coexisting with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Treatment for this complex case finished with very good results, with no recurrence observed during the nine-year follow-up. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Paediatric Spine Surgery)
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12 pages, 237 KiB  
Commentary
Early Childhood Development Is Not Enough: In Defense of Children with Developmental Delays and Disabilities and Their Right to Family-Centered Early Childhood Intervention (In the Global South)
by Claudine Störbeck
Children 2024, 11(5), 606; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11050606 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 185
Abstract
The international recognition of the critical importance of the early childhood phase has been firmly established through decades of rigorous research, evidence-based practices, and undeniable evidence of the returns on investment made during this formative period. Consequently, early childhood development has emerged as [...] Read more.
The international recognition of the critical importance of the early childhood phase has been firmly established through decades of rigorous research, evidence-based practices, and undeniable evidence of the returns on investment made during this formative period. Consequently, early childhood development has emerged as a top priority on both national and international agendas. This momentum reached a pinnacle in 2015 with the unanimous adoption of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by the United Nations, which placed a particular emphasis on children under the age of five within the education-focused SDG 4, notably target 4.2, centered on ensuring that all girls and boys are ready for primary education through the provision of accessible “quality early childhood development, care and pre-primary education”. However, the Global South reflects the glaring omission of addressing the needs of children at risk of poor development due to disabilities. This paper underscores the imperative for specialized early childhood intervention tailored to young children with disabilities and their families, commencing as early as possible following birth. It advocates for Early Childhood Intervention (ECI) as a service distinct from general Early Childhood Development (ECD), emphasizing the crucial role of families as active partners from the outset. Furthermore, the paper strengthens the case for Family-Centered Early Childhood Intervention (Fc-ECI) through the integration of evidence-based practices and an in-depth description of one such program in South Africa with specific reference to deaf and hard-of-hearing infants and their families. This model will be guided by core concepts outlined in WHO and UNICEF Early Childhood Intervention frameworks. Through this exploration, the paper aims to shed light on the urgent need for inclusive approaches to early childhood development, particularly for children with disabilities, and to advocate for the adoption of Family-Centered Early Childhood Intervention as a cornerstone of global efforts to ensure the holistic well-being and development of all children. Full article
14 pages, 1218 KiB  
Article
Prognostic Factors of Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients with t(8;21) (q22;q22): A Single-Center Retrospective Study
by Jiapeng Yang, Xiaohua Zhu, Honghong Zhang, Yang Fu, Zifeng Li, Ziping Xing, Yi Yu, Ping Cao, Jun Le, Junye Jiang, Jun Li, Hongsheng Wang and Xiaowen Zhai
Children 2024, 11(5), 605; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11050605 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 275
Abstract
This retrospective study aimed to analyze the treatment effect and prognostic factors of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with t(8;21). A total of 268 newly diagnosed pediatric AML (pAML) enrolled from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2022 were retrospectively reviewed, and [...] Read more.
This retrospective study aimed to analyze the treatment effect and prognostic factors of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with t(8;21). A total of 268 newly diagnosed pediatric AML (pAML) enrolled from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2022 were retrospectively reviewed, and 50 (18.7%) patients harbored t(8;21) translocation. CR rate, OS, EFS, and RFS were assessed by multivariate Logistic and Cox regression models in these patients. Of the 50 patients, 2 patients abandoned treatment during the first induction course. Of the remaining 48 patients who received double-induction therapy and were included in the final analyses, CR1 and CR2 were 75.0% (36/48) and 95.8% (46/48), respectively. The overall three-year OS, EFS, and RFS were 68.4% (95% CI, 55.0–85.1), 64.2% (95% CI, 50.7–81.4), and 65.5% (95% CI, 51.9–82.8), respectively. The presence of loss of sex chromosome (LOS) at diagnosis (n = 21) was associated with a better 3-year OS [87.5% (95% CI, 72.7–100) vs. 52.7% (95% CI, 35.1–79.3), p = 0.0089], 3-year EFS [81.6% (95% CI, 64.7–100) vs. 49.7% (95% CI, 32.4–76.4), p = 0.023], and 3-year RFS [81.6% (95% CI, 64.7–100) vs. 51.7% (95% CI, 33.9–78.9), p = 0.036] than those without LOS (n = 27), and it was also an independent good prognostic factor of OS (HR, 0.08 [95% CI, 0.01–0.48], p = 0.005), EFS (HR, 0.22 [95% CI, 0.05–0.85], p = 0.029), and RFS (HR, 0.21 [95% CI, 0.05–0.90], p = 0.035). However, extramedullary leukemia (EML) featured the independent risk factors of inferior OS (HR, 10.99 [95% CI, 2.08–58.12], p = 0.005), EFS (HR, 4.75 [95% CI, 1.10–20.61], p = 0.037), and RFS (HR, 6.55 [95% CI, 1.40–30.63], p = 0.017) in pediatric individuals with t(8;21) AML. Further analysis of combining LOS with EML indicated that the EML+LOS− subgroup had significantly inferior OS (92.9%, [95% CI, 80.3–100]), EFS (86.2%, [95% CI, 70.0–100]), and RFS (86.2%, [95% CI, 80.3–100]) compared to the other three subgroups (all p < 0.001). LOS and EML are independent prognostic factors of OS, EFS, and RFS with t(8;21) pAML patients. LOS combined with EML may help improve risk stratification. Full article
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18 pages, 1143 KiB  
Systematic Review
Dynamic Gait Analysis in Paediatric Flatfeet: Unveiling Biomechanical Insights for Diagnosis and Treatment
by Harald Böhm, Julie Stebbins, Alpesh Kothari and Chakravarthy Ughandar Dussa
Children 2024, 11(5), 604; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11050604 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 230
Abstract
Background: Flatfeet in children are common, causing concern for parents due to potential symptoms. Technological advances, like 3D foot kinematic analysis, have revolutionized assessment. This review examined 3D assessments in paediatric idiopathic flexible flat feet (FFF). Methods: Searches focused on paediatric idiopathic FFF [...] Read more.
Background: Flatfeet in children are common, causing concern for parents due to potential symptoms. Technological advances, like 3D foot kinematic analysis, have revolutionized assessment. This review examined 3D assessments in paediatric idiopathic flexible flat feet (FFF). Methods: Searches focused on paediatric idiopathic FFF in PubMed, Web of Science, and SCOPUS. Inclusion criteria required 3D kinematic and/or kinetic analysis during posture or locomotion, excluding non-idiopathic cases, adult feet, and studies solely on pedobarography or radiographs. Results: Twenty-four studies met the criteria. Kinematic and kinetic differences between FFF and typical feet during gait were outlined, with frontal plane deviations like hindfoot eversion and forefoot supination, alongside decreased second peak vertical GRF. Dynamic foot classification surpassed static assessments, revealing varied movement patterns within FFF. Associations between gait characteristics and clinical measures like pain symptoms and quality of life were explored. Interventions varied, with orthoses reducing ankle eversion and knee and hip abductor moments during gait, while arthroereisis normalized calcaneal alignment and hindfoot eversion. Conclusions: This review synthesises research on 3D kinematics and kinetics in paediatric idiopathic FFF, offering insights for intervention strategies and further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Gait Analysis in Children: Progress and Relevance)
10 pages, 498 KiB  
Article
Participation as a Predictor of Quality of Life among Japanese Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders Analyzed Using a Machine Learning Algorithm
by Hiroyasu Shiozu, Daisuke Kimura, Ryoichiro Iwanaga and Shigeki Kurasawa
Children 2024, 11(5), 603; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11050603 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 301
Abstract
Participation is important for children’s quality of life (QOL). This study aimed to identify participation factors that influence QOL among Japanese children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Ninety-two Japanese parents of children with neurodevelopmental disorders participated in this study. The parents completed the parent version [...] Read more.
Participation is important for children’s quality of life (QOL). This study aimed to identify participation factors that influence QOL among Japanese children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Ninety-two Japanese parents of children with neurodevelopmental disorders participated in this study. The parents completed the parent version of the Kid- and Kiddo-KINDL health-related QOL questionnaire and the Participation and Environment Measure for Children and Youth. The data were examined using the random forest algorithm to analyze the participation factors that affected the children’s QOL. The analyses revealed that school and community environmental factors that affected participation were the most important predictors of QOL among children. As school and community environments can significantly impact the QOL of children with neurodevelopmental disorders, greater focus should be placed on participation in environmental contexts. Full article
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15 pages, 1192 KiB  
Review
Obesogens in Adolescence: Challenging Aspects and Prevention Strategies
by Marina Nicolaou, Meropi Toumba, Alexandros Kythreotis, Habib Daher and Nicos Skordis
Children 2024, 11(5), 602; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11050602 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 328
Abstract
Childhood obesity has become a global epidemic, with significant increases in prevalence over recent decades. While excessive calorie consumption and physical inactivity are known factors, emerging research highlights the role of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), particularly obesogens, in obesity’s pathogenesis. This review explores the [...] Read more.
Childhood obesity has become a global epidemic, with significant increases in prevalence over recent decades. While excessive calorie consumption and physical inactivity are known factors, emerging research highlights the role of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), particularly obesogens, in obesity’s pathogenesis. This review explores the historical context of the environmental obesogens hypothesis, their sources, mechanism of action, impact on prenatal and postnatal development, and epigenetics. Additionally, it discusses the long-term consequences of childhood obesity and proposes prevention strategies that will mitigate negative health effects. Obesogens were found to disrupt hormonal balance and metabolic processes through various mechanisms such as altering gene expression, hormonal interference, and inflammation. Especially significant was exposure during critical windows of development, which correlates with an increased risk of obesity in childhood or adolescence. Long-term effects of childhood obesity include chronic health conditions and psychosocial issues. A comprehensive approach is necessary to address childhood obesity encompassing genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Prevention strategies should focus on reducing obesogen exposure, promoting healthy lifestyles, and implementing regulatory policies. Future research should investigate obesogens–diet interactions, microbiome impacts, and combined obesogens effects. Long-term human studies are also crucial for validating findings from animal models and allowing for informed decision-making to combat the obesity pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent Weight Management: Advances and Future Challenges)
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12 pages, 244 KiB  
Article
Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction in Pediatric Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: Diagnostic and Management Concerns
by Maria Laura Sollini, Chiara Pellegrino, Giulia Barone, Maria Luisa Capitanucci, Antonio Maria Zaccara, Leonardo Crescentini, Enrico Castelli, Gessica Della Bella, Federico Scorletti, Laura Papetti, Gabriele Monte, Michela Ada Noris Ferilli, Massimiliano Valeriani and Giovanni Mosiello
Children 2024, 11(5), 601; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11050601 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 225
Abstract
Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is increasing in the pediatric population and, as in adults, symptoms vary among patients. In children the first manifestations can sometimes overlap with acute neurological symptoms. Urological symptoms have not been much studied in childhood. We shared our experience [...] Read more.
Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is increasing in the pediatric population and, as in adults, symptoms vary among patients. In children the first manifestations can sometimes overlap with acute neurological symptoms. Urological symptoms have not been much studied in childhood. We shared our experience with MS urological manifestation in children. Methods: This article is a retrospective evaluation of all children with MS, according to the Krupp criteria, who also present with urological symptoms. We collected demographic and clinical history, the MR localization of demyelinating lesions, urological symptoms, and exams. Results: We report on six MS pediatric cases with urological manifestation. Urinary symptoms, characterized by urinary incontinence in five patients and urinary retention in one patient, appeared in a different time frame from MS diagnosis. Urodynamic exams showed both overactive and underactive bladder patterns. Treatment was defined according to lower urinary tract dysfunction, using clean intermittent catheterization, oxybutynin, and intradetrusor Onabotulinum Toxin-A injection. A low acceptance rate of invasive evaluation and urological management was observed. Conclusions: The MS diagnosis was traumatic for all our patients. We believe it is important to address urological care in young people from the time of diagnosis for prompt management; it could be useful to include a pediatric urologist in multidisciplinary teams. Full article
15 pages, 420 KiB  
Article
Pre-Rheumatology Referral Consultation and Investigation Pattern in Children with Joint Complaints: Focus on Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis
by Achille Marino, Paola Baldassarre, Cristina Ferrigno, Andrea Biuso, Martina Minutoli, Francesco Baldo, Stefania Costi, Maurizio Virgilio Gattinara, Roberto Felice Caporali and Cecilia Beatrice Chighizola
Children 2024, 11(5), 600; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11050600 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 249
Abstract
The diagnosis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is often entrusted to the pediatric rheumatologist specialist. Timely referral to a specialized center is crucial. This study aims to assess the consultation and investigation patterns of patients with joint complaints before rheumatology referral. This longitudinal [...] Read more.
The diagnosis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is often entrusted to the pediatric rheumatologist specialist. Timely referral to a specialized center is crucial. This study aims to assess the consultation and investigation patterns of patients with joint complaints before rheumatology referral. This longitudinal cohort study included patients with joint complaints who were referred to the Pediatric Rheumatology Unit. The cohort included 301 patients (58% female), 50 of them (17%) diagnosed with JIA. Compared to patients with orthopedic conditions or functional diseases, JIA patients had seen more specialists (p < 0.01) and received a quicker diagnosis (p < 0.01). Patients with early JIA diagnosis (within 3 months from symptoms onset) were younger (8.46 vs. 11.5 years old; p = 0.04), more frequently female (78% vs. 47%, p = 0.03), and with higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) values (37 vs. 9 mm/h; p = 0.02) than those diagnosed later. Patients with a late diagnosis of JIA had a significantly longer median time between the first healthcare visit and the PR referral (25 vs. 101 days; p < 0.01). The main contributor to diagnostic delay in JIA was the time required for PR referral after the first healthcare consult. Younger age, female sex, and higher ESR values were associated with earlier diagnosis of JIA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rheumatic Diseases in Children: 2nd Edition)
11 pages, 813 KiB  
Article
Lessons Learned from Telemedicine in Adolescent Obesity: Results of a Pilot Study
by Lenka Veselá, Aneta Klímová Rych, Anna Vážná, Markéta Kotrbatá, Kristina Rücklová and Irena Aldhoon-Hainerová
Children 2024, 11(5), 599; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11050599 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 289
Abstract
The rising prevalence of obesity in children calls for new strategies for the provision of effective care by a multidisciplinary team. Telemedicine has overall proven to be an effective tool for promoting a healthy lifestyle. The main objective of the current paper is [...] Read more.
The rising prevalence of obesity in children calls for new strategies for the provision of effective care by a multidisciplinary team. Telemedicine has overall proven to be an effective tool for promoting a healthy lifestyle. The main objective of the current paper is to present the protocol of our ongoing CardioMetabolic Prevention (CAMP) study and compare its design with published studies on telemedicine in paediatric obesity. Additionally, we analysed the preliminary anthropometric and laboratory data to test the efficacy of our 12-week intensive program that combines in-person and telemedicine support. The program demonstrated a positive impact on body mass index (BMI) and its z-scores in 21 adolescents, and BMI in 18 participating parents. However, we found no effect on body composition, waist circumference, cardiometabolic parameters, or fitness evaluated via a 6-min walk test in adolescents. In conclusion, the combination of in-person and telemedicine intensive support over 35 h delivered by a multidisciplinary team can be beneficial not only for adolescents with obesity but also for their parents. The ongoing CAMP study serves as a platform for precision medicine in future decisions regarding anti-obesity medication in adolescents with obesity. Full article
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13 pages, 413 KiB  
Article
Comparison of the Predictors of Smoking Cessation Plans between Adolescent Conventional Cigarette Smokers and E-Cigarette Smokers Using the Transtheoretical Model
by Min-Hee Park and Bomi An
Children 2024, 11(5), 598; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11050598 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 166
Abstract
Recently, there has been a shift in smoking patterns among adolescents, with a decrease in the prevalence of conventional cigarette smoking and an increase in the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). The harmful effects of e-cigarettes are remarkable, highlighting the need for proactive [...] Read more.
Recently, there has been a shift in smoking patterns among adolescents, with a decrease in the prevalence of conventional cigarette smoking and an increase in the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). The harmful effects of e-cigarettes are remarkable, highlighting the need for proactive interventions for adolescent users and smoking cessation that consider the characteristics of both conventional cigarette smokers and e-cigarette users. This study aims to investigate the smoking status of adolescent conventional cigarette and e-cigarette smokers and to analyze the predictors of their smoking cessation plans (SCPs) based on the transtheoretical model. Self-rated health, prior smoking cessation education, consciousness-raising, and dramatic relief as types of experiential processes of change, and formation of helping relationships as a type of behavioral process of change significantly differed according to the type of cigarette behavior among adolescents. The predictors of SCP among adolescents were perceived pros of smoking and academic performance among conventional cigarette smokers and behavioral process of change, perceived pros of smoking, and economic status among e-cigarette users. This study identified differences in the characteristics and predictors of SCP. Strategies tailored to each specific adolescent smoking population are further required to promote smoking cessation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Global and Public Health)
9 pages, 222 KiB  
Article
Survey of Thai Physicians’ Practice in Pediatric Septic Shock
by Sirapoom Niamsanit, Teerapat Saengthongpitag, Rattapon Uppala, Phanthila Sitthikarnkha, Leelawadee Techasatian and Suchaorn Saengnipanthkul
Children 2024, 11(5), 597; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11050597 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 201
Abstract
(1) Background: Sepsis management in children is crucial, especially in emergency services. This study aims to evaluate Thai physicians’ knowledge gaps in the emergency management of sepsis in children and to evaluate their adherence to the current sepsis clinical practice guidelines. (2) Methods: [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Sepsis management in children is crucial, especially in emergency services. This study aims to evaluate Thai physicians’ knowledge gaps in the emergency management of sepsis in children and to evaluate their adherence to the current sepsis clinical practice guidelines. (2) Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey of Thai physicians’ management of septic shock in children. The survey was conducted through online questionnaires from March 2019–April 2019. (3) Results: Of the 366 responders, 362 (98.9%) were completed. Most of the responders were general practitioners (89.2%) and pediatricians (10.8%). The time from positive sepsis screening to being evaluated by physicians within 15 min was reported by 83.9%. The most common choice of fluid resuscitation was normal saline solution (77.3%). The practice of a fluid loading dose (20 mL/kg) consistent with the guidelines was 56.3%. The selection of the first vasoactive agent in warm shock (norepinephrine) and cold shock (epinephrine) according to recommendations in the guidelines was 74.3% and 36.2%, respectively. There was a significant difference between general practitioners and pediatricians in terms of knowledge about initial fluid resuscitation and the optimal vasoactive agent in cold shock (p-value < 0.001). In the multivariate model, factors associated with the guideline-based decision-making of vasoactive agent choice for cold shock were specialist training (pediatrician) and the completion of sepsis management training certification, with adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of 7.81 and 2.96, but working experience greater than ten years was inconsistent with the guideline-based decision-making (AOR 0.14). (4) Conclusions: Thai clinicians were unfamiliar with pediatric sepsis therapy standards, specifically the quantity of early fluid resuscitation and the appropriate vasoactive medications for cold shock. To encourage adherence to the guidelines, we propose a regularly required training course on pediatric sepsis management. Full article
12 pages, 267 KiB  
Review
Chronic Pediatric Headache as a Manifestation of Shunt Over-Drainage and Slit Ventricle Syndrome in Patients Harboring a Cerebrospinal Fluid Diversion System: A Narrative Literature Review
by Dimitrios Panagopoulos, Maro Gavra, Efstathios Boviatsis, Stefanos Korfias and Marios Themistocleous
Children 2024, 11(5), 596; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11050596 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 257
Abstract
The main subject of the current review is a specific subtype of headache, which is related to shunt over-drainage and slit ventricle syndrome, in pediatric patients harboring an implanted shunt device for the management of hydrocephalus. This clinical entity, along with its impairment [...] Read more.
The main subject of the current review is a specific subtype of headache, which is related to shunt over-drainage and slit ventricle syndrome, in pediatric patients harboring an implanted shunt device for the management of hydrocephalus. This clinical entity, along with its impairment regarding the quality of life of the affected individuals, is generally underestimated. This is partly due to the absence of universally agreed-upon diagnostic criteria, as well as due to a misunderstanding of the interactions among the implicated pathophysiological mechanisms. A lot of attempts have been performed to propose an integrative model, aiming at the determination of all the offending mechanisms of the shunt over-drainage syndrome, as well as the determination of all the clinical characteristics and related symptomatology that accompany these secondary headaches. This subcategory of headache, named postural dependent headache, can be associated with nausea, vomiting, and/or radiological signs of slim ventricles and/or subdural collections. The ultimate goal of our review is to draw clinicians’ attention, especially that of those that are managing pediatric patients with permanent, long-standing, ventriculoperitoneal, or, less commonly, ventriculoatrial shunts. We attempted to elucidate all clinical and neurological characteristics that are inherently related to this type of headache, as well as to highlight the current management options. This specific subgroup of patients may eventually suffer from severe, intractable headaches, which may negatively impair their quality of daily living. In the absence of any other clinical condition that could be incriminated as the cause of the headache, shunt over-drainage should not be overlooked. On the contrary, it should be seriously taken into consideration, and its management should be added to the therapeutic armamentarium of such cases, which are difficult to be handled. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Headaches: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Issues)
16 pages, 1033 KiB  
Review
Exploring the Complex Interplay of Obesity, Allergic Diseases, and Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Children
by Chiara Voltan, Francesca Concer, Luca Pecoraro, Angelo Pietrobelli, Giorgio Piacentini and Marco Zaffanello
Children 2024, 11(5), 595; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11050595 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 275
Abstract
This narrative review study investigates the correlations between obesity, allergies, and sleep-disordered breathing in pediatric populations. Searches for pertinent articles were conducted on the Medline PubMed Advanced Search Builder, Scopus, and Web of Science databases from unlimited to April 2024. Sleep-disordered breathing causes [...] Read more.
This narrative review study investigates the correlations between obesity, allergies, and sleep-disordered breathing in pediatric populations. Searches for pertinent articles were conducted on the Medline PubMed Advanced Search Builder, Scopus, and Web of Science databases from unlimited to April 2024. Sleep-disordered breathing causes repeated upper airway obstructions, leading to apneas and restless sleep. Childhood obesity, which affects around 20% of children, is often associated with sleep-disordered breathing and allergies such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. It is distinguished between diet-induced obesity (resulting from excess of diet and physical inactivity) and genetic obesity (such as is seen in Down syndrome and Prader–Willi syndrome). In children with diet-induced obesity, chronic inflammation linked to weight can worsen allergies and increase the risk and severity of asthma and rhinitis. Furthermore, the nasal congestion typical of rhinitis can contribute to upper respiratory tract obstruction and obstructive sleep apnea. A vicious circle is created between asthma and sleep-disordered breathing: uncontrolled asthma and sleep-disordered breathing can worsen each other. In children with genetic obesity, despite alterations in the immune system, fewer allergies are observed compared to the broader population. The causes of this reduced allergenicity are unclear but probably involve genetic, immunological, and environmental factors. Additional research is necessary to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. The present narrative review study emphasizes the importance of jointly evaluating and managing allergies, obesity, and obstructive sleep apnea in children considering their close interconnection. Full article
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9 pages, 227 KiB  
Article
Presepsin Levels in Pediatric Patients with Fever and Suspected Sepsis: A Pilot Study in an Emergency Department
by Antonio Gatto, Lucia Mantani, Caterina Gola, Valeria Pansini, Lorenzo Di Sarno, Lavinia Capossela, Serena Ferretti, Benedetta Graglia and Antonio Chiaretti
Children 2024, 11(5), 594; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11050594 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 275
Abstract
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that affects 1.2 million children annually. Although there are several criteria for diagnosing this condition, signs are often nonspecific, and identifying sepsis is challenging. In this context, presepsin (P-SEP) seems to be a promising new biomarker since its [...] Read more.
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that affects 1.2 million children annually. Although there are several criteria for diagnosing this condition, signs are often nonspecific, and identifying sepsis is challenging. In this context, presepsin (P-SEP) seems to be a promising new biomarker since its plasma levels increase earlier than other sepsis-related proteins and its measurement is faster. We enrolled 157 minors who presented to the Pediatric Emergency Department of Agostino Gemelli Hospital with fever and suspected sepsis. Biochemical, anamnestic, and clinical data were collected. Viral agents were identified as the causative factor in 64 patients, who had an average P-SEP value of 309.04 pg/mL (SD ± 273.2), versus an average P-SEP value of 526.09 pg/mL (SD ± 657) found in 27 bacterial cases (p value: 0.0398). Four cases of overt sepsis had an average P-SEP value of 3328.5 pg/mL (SD ± 1586.6). The difference in P-SEP levels in viral versus bacterial infections was found to be statistically significant; therefore, P-SEP may have a central role in the evaluation of febrile children, helping clinicians distinguish between these two etiologies. Furthermore, amongst the cases of confirmed sepsis, P-SEP was always greater than 2000 pg/mL, while C-reactive protein and procalcitonin values appeared lower than what was considered significant. Full article
14 pages, 1027 KiB  
Article
Predictive Value of Inflammatory Markers NLR, PLR, APRI, SII, and Liver Function Tests in Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome Detection in Full-Term Newborns
by Manuela Pantea, Daniela Iacob, Mirabela Dima, Mihaela Prodan, Oana Belei, Rodica Anamaria Negrean and Adrian Cosmin Ilie
Children 2024, 11(5), 593; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11050593 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 326
Abstract
Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in full-term newborns. This study aimed to evaluate the predictive value of the Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR), Derived Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio (dNLR), Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Ratio (PLR), Neutrophil, Lymphocyte, and Platelet Ratio (NLPR), AST-to-Platelet Ratio [...] Read more.
Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in full-term newborns. This study aimed to evaluate the predictive value of the Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR), Derived Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio (dNLR), Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Ratio (PLR), Neutrophil, Lymphocyte, and Platelet Ratio (NLPR), AST-to-Platelet Ratio Index (APRI), and Systemic Immune–Inflammation Index (SII) in identifying the risk for SIRS development in full-term newborns. Conducted between January 2023 and January 2024, this observational cohort study compared full-term newborns diagnosed with SIRS with newborns without SIRS, measuring the inflammatory markers within the first day of life and three days post-birth. The study included 229 newborns, 81 with SIRS and 148 controls without SIRS. Statistically significant differences were observed in NLR (3.81 vs. 2.20, p < 0.0001), PLR (68.12 vs. 52.30, p < 0.0001), and liver enzymes (AST 40.96 U/L vs. 31.58 U/L, ALT 34.66 U/L vs. 22.46 U/L, both p < 0.0001) between the groups. The NLPR demonstrated substantial diagnostic value, with a sensitivity of 78.36% and specificity of 83.52% at 72 h (p < 0.0001). Regression analysis highlighted that the NLPR and SII were strongly predictive of SIRS, with the NLPR showing over three-times higher SIRS risk (HR 3.29, p < 0.0001) and SII indicating nearly 3.5 times the risk (HR 3.47, p < 0.0001). The NLPR, APRI, and SII showed similar prediction values to CRP levels measured on the first and third days of life (HR 3.16). Inflammatory markers like NLR, PLR, and systemic indices such as NLPR and SII, alongside liver function tests, are significant predictors of SIRS in full-term newborns. These findings support the integration of these markers into routine neonatal care, allowing for early identification and potentially improved management of newborns at risk for SIRS, thereby enhancing clinical outcomes. Full article
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14 pages, 883 KiB  
Article
The Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score Combined with Procalcitonin and Lung Ultrasound (CPIS-PLUS), a Good Tool for Ventilator Associated Pneumonia Early Diagnosis in Pediatrics
by Judit Becerra-Hervás, Carmina Guitart, Aina Covas, Sara Bobillo-Pérez, Javier Rodríguez-Fanjul, Josep L. Carrasco-Jordan, Francisco José Cambra Lasaosa, Iolanda Jordan and Mònica Balaguer
Children 2024, 11(5), 592; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11050592 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 387
Abstract
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is common in Pediatric Intensive Care Units. Although early detection is crucial, current diagnostic methods are not definitive. This study aimed to identify lung ultrasound (LUS) findings and procalcitonin (PCT) values in pediatric patients with VAP to create a new [...] Read more.
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is common in Pediatric Intensive Care Units. Although early detection is crucial, current diagnostic methods are not definitive. This study aimed to identify lung ultrasound (LUS) findings and procalcitonin (PCT) values in pediatric patients with VAP to create a new early diagnosis score combined with the Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score (CPIS), the CPIS-PLUS score. Prospective longitudinal and interventional study. Pediatric patients with suspected VAP were included and classified into VAP or non-VAP groups, based on Centers of Disease Control (CDC) criteria for the final diagnosis. A chest-X-ray (CXR), LUS, and blood test were performed within the first 12 h of admission. CPIS score was calculated. A total of 108 patients with VAP suspicion were included, and VAP was finally diagnosed in 51 (47%) patients. CPIS-PLUS showed high accuracy in VAP diagnosis with a sensitivity (Sn) of 80% (95% CI 65–89%) and specificity (Sp) of 73% (95% CI 54–86%). The area under the curve (AUC) resulted in 0.86 for CPIS-PLUS vs. 0.61 for CPIS. In conclusion, this pilot study showed that CPIS-PLUS could be a potential and reliable tool for VAP early diagnosis in pediatric patients. Internal and external validations are needed to confirm the potential value of this score to facilitate VAP diagnosis in pediatric patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Pulmonary Ultrasonography in Children)
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13 pages, 289 KiB  
Review
Ultrasound Diagnosis and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in the Study of Encephalopathy in Neonates Born under Asphyxia: Narrative Review
by Simeon N. Lavrentev, Anastasia S. Petrova, Olga F. Serova, Polina Vishnyakova, Maxim V. Kondratev, Anastasia S. Gryzunova, Nina I. Zakharova, Victor V. Zubkov and Denis N. Silachev
Children 2024, 11(5), 591; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11050591 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 459
Abstract
Brain injury resulting from adverse events during pregnancy and delivery is the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and disability. Surviving neonates often suffer long-term motor, sensory, and cognitive impairments. Birth asphyxia is among the most common causes of neonatal encephalopathy. The integration of [...] Read more.
Brain injury resulting from adverse events during pregnancy and delivery is the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and disability. Surviving neonates often suffer long-term motor, sensory, and cognitive impairments. Birth asphyxia is among the most common causes of neonatal encephalopathy. The integration of ultrasound, including Doppler ultrasound, and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) offers a promising approach to understanding the pathology and diagnosis of encephalopathy in this special patient population. Ultrasound diagnosis can be very helpful for the assessment of structural abnormalities associated with neonatal encephalopathy such as alterations in brain structures (intraventricular hemorrhage, infarcts, hydrocephalus, white matter injury) and evaluation of morphologic changes. Doppler sonography is the most valuable method as it provides information about blood flow patterns and outcome prediction. NIRS provides valuable insight into the functional aspects of brain activity by measuring tissue oxygenation and blood flow. The combination of ultrasonography and NIRS may produce complementary information on structural and functional aspects of the brain. This review summarizes the current state of research, discusses advantages and limitations, and explores future directions to improve applicability and efficacy. Full article
5 pages, 212 KiB  
Case Report
Onasemnogene Abeparvovec Administration via Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter: A Case Report
by Inmaculada Pitarch Castellano, Eduardo López Briz, Eugenia Ibáñez Albert, Cristina Aguado Codina, Teresa Sevilla and José L. Poveda Andrés
Children 2024, 11(5), 590; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11050590 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 331
Abstract
Onasemnogene abeparvovec (OA) is the approved intravenous gene therapy for the treatment of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). A functional copy of the human SMN1 gene was inserted into the target motor neuron cells via a viral vector, AAV9. In clinical trials, OA was [...] Read more.
Onasemnogene abeparvovec (OA) is the approved intravenous gene therapy for the treatment of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). A functional copy of the human SMN1 gene was inserted into the target motor neuron cells via a viral vector, AAV9. In clinical trials, OA was infused through a peripheral venous catheter, and no data are available on central catheter use. Recently, we had a case where OA was administered directly into the right atrium via a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) instead of a peripheral line, as recommended. The patient was a female child aged 4 months, diagnosed as SMA type I. For practical reasons, a dose of OA according to the weight of the patient (1.1 × 1014 vectorial genomes/kg) was administered via PICC in 1 h, as the product information recommends. The drug was well tolerated, with no hypersensitivity reactions or initial elevation of transaminases or other adverse effects. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported where OA was administered via a central line. This type of administration is not contraindicated, but it is not specifically contemplated or recommended. It is unknown whether central line administration could have any implications for transduction efficiency and immunogenicity. Future studies should clarify these aspects, as each gene therapy has a specific optimal dose recorded that depends on the site and route of administration of the drug, the AAV variant and the transgene. Full article
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19 pages, 618 KiB  
Article
Comparative Health Behaviour of Young People with Disabilities in Hungary: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Agota Barabas, Attila C. Nagy, Viktoria Pazmany, Anita K. Grestyak Molnarne, Agnes Nemeth, György Jona, Agnes Santha, Peter Takacs, Emil Toldy-Schedel and Renata Javorne Erdei
Children 2024, 11(5), 589; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11050589 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 317
Abstract
The health status of Hungary’s population is unfavorable, with significant differences in health indicators not only compared to the EU15 but also to the Visegrad countries. Unfavorable health indicators can be disproportionate and particularly affect vulnerable groups, such as people with disabilities. In [...] Read more.
The health status of Hungary’s population is unfavorable, with significant differences in health indicators not only compared to the EU15 but also to the Visegrad countries. Unfavorable health indicators can be disproportionate and particularly affect vulnerable groups, such as people with disabilities. In this study, we set out to compare the health behavior of disabled youth and youth with typical development in Hungary. We also aimed to compare the health behavior of adolescents in the Visegrad countries. The eating habits of both groups of young people we examined are unfavorable. Adolescents with disabilities experience a significantly higher rate of school stress than children with typical development in Hungary. The prevalence of somatic complaints and parameters of poor mental well-being are significantly higher in Hungary than in the other Visegrad countries. The results indicate that additional interventions are needed in Hungary and that differentiated, professional health promotion is needed for young people with disabilities. The researchers recommend extending the study to disabled adolescents living in Visegrad countries, on the basis of which an injury-specific health promotion methodology could be developed with international interprofessional cooperation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Behaviour, Health Literacy and Mental Health in Children)
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11 pages, 1106 KiB  
Article
Bowel Management in Hirschsprung Disease—Pre-, Peri- and Postoperative Care for Primary Pull-Through
by Judith Lindert, Felix Schulze and Stefanie Märzheuser
Children 2024, 11(5), 588; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11050588 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 314
Abstract
(1) Background: Bowel management contributes throughout the pathway of care for children with Hirschsprung. Preoperative bowel management prepares the child and family for the pull-through surgery. Perioperative bowel management supports early recovery and tailored bowel management in the follow-up supports the achievement of [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Bowel management contributes throughout the pathway of care for children with Hirschsprung. Preoperative bowel management prepares the child and family for the pull-through surgery. Perioperative bowel management supports early recovery and tailored bowel management in the follow-up supports the achievement of social continence. (2) Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional assessment of our institutional bowel management program to illustrate the pre-, peri- and postoperative bowel management strategies. (3) Results: A total of 31 children underwent primary pull-through, 23 without a stoma and 8 with a stoma, at a median age of 9 months. All children without a stoma were prepared for surgery by using rectal irrigations. Children with a stoma were prepared for surgery with a transfer of stoma effluent. Transanal irrigation supported early recovery. (4) Conclusions: Bowel management is a key pillar of the management of children with Hirschsprung disease. Incorporating bowel management in the pathway of care facilitates primary pull-through and supports perioperative recovery. Full article
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5 pages, 795 KiB  
Opinion
Hirschsprung Disease: The Role of the Clinical Nurse Specialist
by Julie-Ann Milbery and Joe Curry
Children 2024, 11(5), 587; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11050587 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 267
Abstract
Hirschsprung disease is a life-long condition that can have a significant impact on both children and their families. This article explores the role of the clinical nurse specialist and the support they can provide from initial diagnosis through the patient’s surgical journey and [...] Read more.
Hirschsprung disease is a life-long condition that can have a significant impact on both children and their families. This article explores the role of the clinical nurse specialist and the support they can provide from initial diagnosis through the patient’s surgical journey and right through to transition into adult services. Through the provision of education, training, signposting of social and psychological support, and linking in with community-based services, the clinical nurse specialist can help the child and family to limit that impact of the disease. Full article
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18 pages, 6425 KiB  
Review
An Update to Biomechanical and Biochemical Principles of Retinal Injury in Child Abuse
by Kourosh Shahraki and Donny W. Suh
Children 2024, 11(5), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11050586 - 12 May 2024
Viewed by 370
Abstract
Abusive head trauma (AHT) is an extreme form of physical child abuse, a subset of which is shaken baby syndrome (SBS). While traumatic injury in children is most readily observed as marks of contusion on the body, AHT/SBS may result in internal injuries [...] Read more.
Abusive head trauma (AHT) is an extreme form of physical child abuse, a subset of which is shaken baby syndrome (SBS). While traumatic injury in children is most readily observed as marks of contusion on the body, AHT/SBS may result in internal injuries that can put the life of the child in danger. One pivotal sign associated with AHT/SBS that cannot be spotted with the naked eye is retinal injury (RI), an early sign of which is retinal hemorrhage (RH) in cases with rupture of the retinal vasculature. If not addressed, RI can lead to irreversible outcomes, such as visual loss. It is widely assumed that the major cause of RI is acceleration–deceleration forces that are repeatedly imposed on the patient during abusive shaking. Still, due to the controversial nature of this type of injury, few investigations have ever sought to delve into its biomechanical and/or biochemical features using realistic models. As such, our knowledge regarding AHT-/SBS-induced RI is significantly lacking. In this mini-review, we aim to provide an up-to-date account of the traumatology of AHT-/SBS-induced RI, as well as its biomechanical and biochemical features, while focusing on some of the experimental models that have been developed in recent years for studying retinal hemorrhage in the context of AHT/SBS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Global and Public Health)
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15 pages, 1921 KiB  
Article
Lagged Effect of Parental Warmth on Child-to-Parent Violence through Moral Disengagement Strategies
by Nazaret Bautista-Aranda, Lourdes Contreras and M. Carmen Cano-Lozano
Children 2024, 11(5), 585; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11050585 - 11 May 2024
Viewed by 431
Abstract
Empirical evidence supports the simultaneous relationship between parental warmth and child-to-parent violence (CPV). However, no studies analyze the lagged effects of perceived parental warmth and the potential impact of cognitive mechanisms legitimizing immoral behavior on this relationship. This study aimed to examine the [...] Read more.
Empirical evidence supports the simultaneous relationship between parental warmth and child-to-parent violence (CPV). However, no studies analyze the lagged effects of perceived parental warmth and the potential impact of cognitive mechanisms legitimizing immoral behavior on this relationship. This study aimed to examine the mediating role of moral disengagement strategies (reconstruction of immoral behavior, obscuring personal responsibility, misrepresenting injurious consequences, and blaming the victim) in the relationship between the perceived paternal and maternal warmth dimensions (warmth-communication and criticism-rejection) during childhood and CPV towards the father and mother. The sample included 2122 Spanish adolescents (57.7% female) aged 13 to 18 years. The Child-to-Parent Violence Questionnaire (CPV-Q), the Mechanisms of Moral Disengagement Scale (MMDS-S), and the Warmth Scale were used as assessment instruments. The results indicate that paternal and maternal warmth-communication is negatively associated with CPV, whereas paternal and maternal criticism-rejection and moral disengagement strategies are positively related to CPV. The mediation models show that the reconstruction of immoral behavior plays a crucial mediation role in the relationship between paternal and maternal warmth-communication and CPV as well as in the relationship between maternal criticism-rejection and CPV. The results emphasize the necessity of early prevention programs for parents promoting positive parenting practices, including parental warmth, to foster children’s adaptive socio-cognitive development. In addition, addressing moral disengagement in adolescents could help prevent or stop a pattern of violent behavior toward parents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Trauma and Psychology)
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14 pages, 1183 KiB  
Review
Well-Established and Traditional Use of Vegetal Extracts as an Approach to the “Deep Roots” of Cough
by Luca Pecoraro, Enrico Peterle, Elisa Dalla Benetta, Michele Piazza, Grigorios Chatziparasidis and Ahmad Kantar
Children 2024, 11(5), 584; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11050584 - 11 May 2024
Viewed by 384
Abstract
Cough is a common presenting symptom for patients in a primary care setting and significantly impacts a patient’s quality of life. Cough involves a complex reflex arc beginning with the stimulation of sensory nerves that function as cough receptors that stimulate the cough [...] Read more.
Cough is a common presenting symptom for patients in a primary care setting and significantly impacts a patient’s quality of life. Cough involves a complex reflex arc beginning with the stimulation of sensory nerves that function as cough receptors that stimulate the cough center in the brain. This “cough center” functions to receive these impulses and produce a cough by activating efferent nervous pathways to the diaphragm and laryngeal, thoracic, and abdominal musculature. Drugs that suppress the neural activity of cough are non-specific as those treatments are not directed toward pathogenic causes such as inflammation and oxidative stress. Moreover, they block a reflex called the watchdog of the lung and have a defense mechanism. Acute respiratory infections of the upper and lower airways most commonly cause acute cough. In contrast, the most common causes of chronic cough are upper airway cough syndrome, asthma, and gastroesophageal reflux disease, all associated with an inflammatory reaction at the level of the cough receptors. The use of natural compounds or herbal drugs such as carob syrup, dry blackcurrant extract, dry extract of caraway fruit, dry extract of ginger rhizome, dry extract of marshmallow root, and dry extract of ivy leaves, to name a few, not only have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity, but also act as antimicrobials, bronchial muscle relaxants, and increase gastric motility and empty. For these reasons, these natural substances are widely used to control cough at its deep roots (i.e., contrasting its causes and not inhibiting the arch reflex). With this approach, the lung watchdog is not put to sleep, as with peripheral or central inhibition of the cough reflex, and by contrasting the causes, we may control cough that viruses use at self-advantage to increase transmission. Full article
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12 pages, 470 KiB  
Article
Fundamental Stability Skills: Reliability Analysis Using the Alfamov Assessment Tool
by Eva Santos-Miranda, Aida Carballo-Fazanes, Ezequiel Rey, Inés Piñeiro-García-Tuñón and Cristian Abelairas-Gómez
Children 2024, 11(5), 583; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11050583 - 11 May 2024
Viewed by 334
Abstract
Fundamental movement skills (FMS), considered as building blocks of movement, have received growing interest due to their significant impact on both present and future health. FMS are categorized into locomotor, object control and stability skills. While there has been extensive research on assessing [...] Read more.
Fundamental movement skills (FMS), considered as building blocks of movement, have received growing interest due to their significant impact on both present and future health. FMS are categorized into locomotor, object control and stability skills. While there has been extensive research on assessing the proficiency and reliability of locomotor and object control skills, stability skills have received comparatively less attention. For this reason, this study aimed to assess the test–retest, intrarater and interrater reliability of five stability skills included in the Alfamov app. The performance of eighty-four healthy primary school children (60.8% girls), aged 6 to 12 years (mean ± standard deviation of 8.7 ± 1.8 years), in five stability skills was evaluated and scored by four raters, including two experts and two novices. The Alfamov tool, integrating various process-oriented tests, was used for the assessment. Reliability analyses were conducted through the computation of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) along with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Good-to-excellent intrarater reliability, excellent interrater reliability and moderate-to-good reliability in the test–retest were achieved. The results proved that Alfamov is a robust test for evaluating stability skills and can be suitable for use by different professionals with less experience in assessing children’s motor competence. Full article
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14 pages, 2483 KiB  
Review
Congenital Long QT Syndrome in Children and Adolescents: A General Overview
by Elia Balestra, Marco Bobbo, Marco Cittar, Daniela Chicco, Biancamaria D’Agata Mottolese, Egidio Barbi and Thomas Caiffa
Children 2024, 11(5), 582; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11050582 - 11 May 2024
Viewed by 282
Abstract
Congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS) represents a disorder of myocardial repolarization characterized by a prolongation of QTc interval on ECG, which can degenerate into fast polymorphic ventricular arrhythmias. The typical symptoms of LQTS are syncope and palpitations, mainly triggered by adrenergic stimuli, but [...] Read more.
Congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS) represents a disorder of myocardial repolarization characterized by a prolongation of QTc interval on ECG, which can degenerate into fast polymorphic ventricular arrhythmias. The typical symptoms of LQTS are syncope and palpitations, mainly triggered by adrenergic stimuli, but it can also manifest with cardiac arrest. At least 17 genotypes have been associated with LQTS, with a specific genotype–phenotype relationship described for the three most common subtypes (LQTS1, -2, and -3). β-Blockers are the first-line therapy for LQTS, even if the choice of the appropriate patients needing to be treated may be challenging. In specific cases, interventional measures, such as an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) or left cardiac sympathetic denervation (LCSD), are useful. The aim of this review is to highlight the current state-of-the-art knowledge on LQTS, providing an updated picture of possible diagnostic algorithms and therapeutic management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosing and Treating Arrhythmias in Children)
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