Research on Plant Functional Genomics and Stress Response

A special issue of Cells (ISSN 2073-4409). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant, Algae and Fungi Cell Biology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 30909

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica António Xavier, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2780-157 Oeiras, Portugal
Interests: plant development; plant–environment interactions; plant functional genomics; plant stress response
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica António Xavier, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2780-157 Oeiras, Portugal
Interests: plant functional genomics; plant abiotic stress; E3-ubiquitin ligases; protein–protein interactions; transcriptional regulation; drought; rice

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Understanding how the structure and function of the genome enables plant perception and response to the environment is not only increasingly relevant, but also dramatically urgent.

The growing number of sequenced genomes, from model plants to different crops and forest species, has paved the way to disclose evolutionary aspects and improve our understanding of the determination of morphophysiological traits, metabolic behaviour, and capacity to interact with other organisms and respond to stress conditions. New genes and alleles are being identified and their roles disclosed, bioinformatics tools are accelerating predictions, numerous strategies of forward and reverse genetics allow to test them, and diverse phenotyping platforms allow both lab and field assessments of plant behaviour and productivity.

All currently available tools allow us to better define breeding programs and to develop the improved plants that we need to face the ever-growing biotic and abiotic challenges imposed by climate change, the growing human population, and the limited resources available.

For this Special Issue, we welcome original research as well as review articles covering all aspects influencing plant response to stress, of either a biotic or abiotic nature. We welcome subjects extending from the plant genomics and epigenomics level, to genomics-assisted breeding, including the molecular uncovering of plant–microbe interactions that potentially benefit plant responses to stress.

Prof. Dr. M. Margarida Oliveira
Dr. Tiago Lourenço
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • abiotic stress
  • biotic stress
  • comparative evolution
  • functional characterization
  • genome sequence analyses
  • genomics-assisted breeding
  • omics strategies
  • phenotyping
  • plant–microbe interactions
  • signal perception and translation

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

22 pages, 7840 KiB  
Article
Systematic Investigation of TCP Gene Family: Genome-Wide Identification and Light-Regulated Gene Expression Analysis in Pepino (Solanum Muricatum)
by Cheng Si, Deli Zhan, Lihui Wang, Xuemei Sun, Qiwen Zhong and Shipeng Yang
Cells 2023, 12(7), 1015; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12071015 - 26 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1851
Abstract
Plant-specific transcription factors such as the TCP family play crucial roles in light responses and lateral branching. The commercial development of S. muricatum has been influenced by the ease with which its lateral branches can be germinated, especially under greenhouse cultivation during the [...] Read more.
Plant-specific transcription factors such as the TCP family play crucial roles in light responses and lateral branching. The commercial development of S. muricatum has been influenced by the ease with which its lateral branches can be germinated, especially under greenhouse cultivation during the winter with supplemented LED light. The present study examined the TCP family genes in S. muricatum using bioinformatics analysis (whole-genome sequencing and RNA-seq) to explore the response of this family to different light treatments. Forty-one TCP genes were identified through a genome-wide search; phylogenetic analysis revealed that the CYC/TB1, CIN and Class I subclusters contained 16 SmTCP, 11 SmTCP and 14 SmTCP proteins, respectively. Structural and conserved sequence analysis of SmTCPs indicated that the motifs in the same subcluster were highly similar in structure and the gene structure of SmTCPs was simpler than that in Arabidopsis thaliana; 40 of the 41 SmTCPs were localized to 12 chromosomes. In S. muricatum, 17 tandem repeat sequences and 17 pairs of SmTCP genes were found. We identified eight TCPs that were significantly differentially expressed (DETCPs) under blue light (B) and red light (R), using RNA-seq. The regulatory network of eight DETCPs was preliminarily constructed. All three subclusters responded to red and blue light treatment. To explore the implications of regulatory TCPs in different light treatments for each species, the TCP regulatory gene networks and GO annotations for A. thaliana and S. muricatum were compared. The regulatory mechanisms suggest that the signaling pathways downstream of the TCPs may be partially conserved between the two species. In addition to the response to light, functional regulation was mostly enriched with auxin response, hypocotyl elongation, and lateral branch genesis. In summary, our findings provide a basis for further analysis of the TCP gene family in other crops and broaden the functional insights into TCP genes regarding light responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Plant Functional Genomics and Stress Response)
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21 pages, 6508 KiB  
Article
Molecular Defense Response of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus to the Nematophagous Fungus Arthrobotrys robusta
by Xin Hao, Jie Chen, Yongxia Li, Xuefeng Liu, Yang Li, Bowen Wang, Jingxin Cao, Yaru Gu, Wei Ma and Ling Ma
Cells 2023, 12(4), 543; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12040543 - 8 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1916
Abstract
Bursaphelenchus xylophilus causes pine wilt disease, which poses a serious threat to forestry ecology around the world. Microorganisms are environmentally friendly alternatives to the use of chemical nematicides to control B. xylophilus in a sustainable way. In this study, we isolated a nematophagous [...] Read more.
Bursaphelenchus xylophilus causes pine wilt disease, which poses a serious threat to forestry ecology around the world. Microorganisms are environmentally friendly alternatives to the use of chemical nematicides to control B. xylophilus in a sustainable way. In this study, we isolated a nematophagous fungus—Arthrobotrys robusta—from the xylem of diseased Pinus massoniana. The nematophagous activity of A. robusta against the PWNs was observed after just 6 h. We found that B. xylophilus entered the trap of A. robusta at 24 h, and the nervous system and immunological response of B. xylophilus were stimulated by metabolites that A. robusta produced. At 30 h of exposure to A. robusta, B. xylophilus exhibited significant constriction, and we were able to identify xenobiotics. Bursaphelenchus xylophilus activated xenobiotic metabolism, which expelled the xenobiotics from their bodies, by providing energy through lipid metabolism. When PWNs were exposed to A. robusta for 36 h, lysosomal and autophagy-related genes were activated, and the bodies of the nematodes underwent disintegration. Moreover, a gene co-expression pattern network was constructed by WGCNA and Cytoscape. The gene co-expression pattern network suggested that metabolic processes, developmental processes, detoxification, biological regulation, and signaling were influential when the B. xylophilus specimens were exposed to A. robusta. Additionally, bZIP transcription factors, ankyrin, ATPases, innexin, major facilitator, and cytochrome P450 played critical roles in the network. This study proposes a model in which mobility improved whenever B. xylophilus entered the traps of A. robusta. The model will provide a solid foundation with which to understand the molecular and evolutionary mechanisms underlying interactions between nematodes and nematophagous fungi. Taken together, these findings contribute in several ways to our understanding of B. xylophilus exposed to microorganisms and provide a basis for establishing an environmentally friendly prevention and control strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Plant Functional Genomics and Stress Response)
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19 pages, 3039 KiB  
Article
Grapevine-Associated Lipid Signalling Is Specifically Activated in an Rpv3 Background in Response to an Aggressive P. viticola Pathovar
by Gonçalo Laureano, Catarina Santos, Catarina Gouveia, Ana Rita Matos and Andreia Figueiredo
Cells 2023, 12(3), 394; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12030394 - 21 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2136
Abstract
Vitis vinifera L. is highly susceptible to the biotrophic pathogen Plasmopara viticola. To control the downy mildew disease, several phytochemicals are applied every season. Recent European Union requirements to reduce the use of chemicals in viticulture have made it crucial to use [...] Read more.
Vitis vinifera L. is highly susceptible to the biotrophic pathogen Plasmopara viticola. To control the downy mildew disease, several phytochemicals are applied every season. Recent European Union requirements to reduce the use of chemicals in viticulture have made it crucial to use alternative and more sustainable approaches to control this disease. Our previous studies pinpoint the role of fatty acids and lipid signalling in the establishment of an incompatible interaction between grapevine and P. viticola. To further understand the mechanisms behind lipid involvement in an effective defence response we have analysed the expression of several genes related to lipid metabolism in three grapevine genotypes: Chardonnay (susceptible); Regent (tolerant), harbouring an Rpv3-1 resistance loci; and Sauvignac (resistant) that harbours a pyramid of Rpv12 and Rpv3-1 resistance loci. A highly aggressive P. viticola isolate was used (NW-10/16). Moreover, we have characterised the grapevine phospholipases C and D gene families and monitored fatty acid modulation during infection. Our results indicate that both susceptible and resistant grapevine hosts did not present wide fatty acid or gene expression modulation. The modulation of genes associated with lipid signalling and fatty acids seems to be specific to Regent, which raises the hypothesis of being specifically linked to the Rpv3 loci. In Sauvignac, the Rpv12 may be dominant concerning the defence response, and, thus, this genotype may present the activation of other pathways rather than lipid signalling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Plant Functional Genomics and Stress Response)
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21 pages, 4456 KiB  
Article
Primary Investigation of Phenotypic Plasticity in Fritillaria cirrhosa Based on Metabolome and Transcriptome Analyses
by Ye Wang, Huigan Xie, Tiechui Yang, Dan Gao and Xiwen Li
Cells 2022, 11(23), 3844; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11233844 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1321
Abstract
Phenotypic plasticity refers to the adaptability of an organism to a heterogeneous environment. In this study, the differential gene expression and compositional changes in Fritillaria cirrhosa during phenotypic plasticity were evaluated using transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses. The annotation profiles of 1696 differentially expressed [...] Read more.
Phenotypic plasticity refers to the adaptability of an organism to a heterogeneous environment. In this study, the differential gene expression and compositional changes in Fritillaria cirrhosa during phenotypic plasticity were evaluated using transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses. The annotation profiles of 1696 differentially expressed genes from the transcriptome between abnormal and normal phenotypes revealed that the main annotation pathways were related to the biosynthesis of amino acids, ABC transporters, and plant–pathogen interactions. According to the metabolome, the abnormal phenotype had 36 upregulated amino acids, including tryptophan, proline, and valine, which had a 3.77-fold higher relative content than the normal phenotype. However, saccharides and vitamins were found to be deficient in the abnormal phenotypes. The combination profiles demonstrated that phenotypic plasticity may be an effective strategy for overcoming potential stress via the accumulation of amino acids and regulation of the corresponding genes and transcription factors. In conclusion, a pathogen attack on F. cirrhosa may promote the synthesis of numerous amino acids and transport them into the bulbs through ABC transporters, which may further result in phenotypic variation. Our results provide new insights into the potential mechanism of phenotypic changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Plant Functional Genomics and Stress Response)
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26 pages, 5284 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Homologous Regions of Small RNAs MIR397 and MIR408 Reveals the Conservation of Microsynteny among Rice Crop-Wild Relatives
by Prasanta K. Dash, Payal Gupta, Sharat Kumar Pradhan, Ajit Kumar Shasany and Rhitu Rai
Cells 2022, 11(21), 3461; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11213461 - 2 Nov 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1820
Abstract
MIRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that play important roles in a wide range of biological processes in plant growth and development. MIR397 (involved in drought, low temperature, and nitrogen and copper (Cu) starvation) and MIR408 (differentially expressed in response to environmental stresses such [...] Read more.
MIRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that play important roles in a wide range of biological processes in plant growth and development. MIR397 (involved in drought, low temperature, and nitrogen and copper (Cu) starvation) and MIR408 (differentially expressed in response to environmental stresses such as copper, light, mechanical stress, dehydration, cold, reactive oxygen species, and drought) belong to conserved MIRNA families that either negatively or positively regulate their target genes. In the present study, we identified the homologs of MIR397 and MIR408 in Oryza sativa and its six wild progenitors, three non-Oryza species, and one dicot species. We analyzed the 100 kb segments harboring MIRNA homologs from 11 genomes to obtain a comprehensive view of their community evolution around these loci in the farthest (distant) relatives of rice. Our study showed that mature MIR397 and MIR408 were highly conserved among all Oryza species. Comparative genomics analyses also revealed that the microsynteny of the 100 kb region surrounding MIRNAs was only conserved in Oryza spp.; disrupted in Sorghum, maize, and wheat; and completely lost in Arabidopsis. There were deletions, rearrangements, and translocations within the 100 kb segments in Oryza spp., but the overall microsynteny of the region was maintained. The phylogenetic analyses of the precursor regions of all MIRNAs under study revealed a bimodal clade of common origin. This comparative analysis of miRNA involved in abiotic stress tolerance in plants provides a powerful tool for future Oryza research. Crop wild relatives (CWRs) offer multiple traits with potential to decrease the amount of yield loss owing to biotic and abiotic stresses. Using a comparative genomics approach, the exploration of CWRs as a source of tolerance to these stresses by understanding their evolution can be further used to leverage their yield potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Plant Functional Genomics and Stress Response)
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14 pages, 1871 KiB  
Article
Overexpression of acdS in Petunia hybrida Improved Flower Longevity and Cadmium-Stress Tolerance by Reducing Ethylene Production in Floral and Vegetative Tissues
by Aung Htay Naing, Jova Riza Campol, Mi Young Chung and Chang Kil Kim
Cells 2022, 11(20), 3197; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11203197 - 11 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1606
Abstract
The role of acdS, which encodes the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase enzyme, in extending flower longevity and improving tolerance to cadmium (Cd) stress was assessed using transgenic Petunia hybrida cv. ‘Mirage Rose’ overexpressing acdS and wild-type (WT) plants. The overexpression of acdS [...] Read more.
The role of acdS, which encodes the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase enzyme, in extending flower longevity and improving tolerance to cadmium (Cd) stress was assessed using transgenic Petunia hybrida cv. ‘Mirage Rose’ overexpressing acdS and wild-type (WT) plants. The overexpression of acdS reduced ethylene production in floral tissue via suppression of ethylene-related genes and improved flower longevity, approximately 2 to 4 days longer than WT flowers. Under Cd stress, acdS significantly reduced Cd-induced ethylene production in vegetable tissues of transgenic plants through suppression of ethylene-related genes. This resulted in a lower accumulation of ethylene-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the transgenic plants than in WT plants. In addition, expression of the genes involved in the activities of antioxidant and proline synthesis as well as the metal chelation process was also higher in the former than in the latter. Moreover, Cd accumulation was significantly higher in WT plants than in the transgenic plants. These results are linked to the greater tolerance of transgenic plants to Cd stress than the WT plants, which was determined based on plant growth and physiological performance. These results highlight the potential applicability of using acdS to extend flower longevity of ornamental bedding plants and also reveal the mechanism by which acdS improves Cd-stress tolerance. We suggest that acdS overexpression in plants can extend flower longevity and also help reduce the negative impact of Cd-induced ethylene on plant growth when the plants are unavoidably cultivated in Cd-contaminated soil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Plant Functional Genomics and Stress Response)
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16 pages, 2777 KiB  
Article
Systematic Annotation Reveals CEP Function in Tomato Root Development and Abiotic Stress Response
by Dan Liu, Zeping Shen, Keqing Zhuang, Ziwen Qiu, Huiming Deng, Qinglin Ke, Haoju Liu and Huibin Han
Cells 2022, 11(19), 2935; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11192935 - 20 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1864
Abstract
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is one of the most important vegetable crops worldwide; however, environmental stressors severely restrict tomato growth and yield. Therefore, it is of great interest to discover novel regulators to improve tomato growth and environmental stress adaptions. Here, we [...] Read more.
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is one of the most important vegetable crops worldwide; however, environmental stressors severely restrict tomato growth and yield. Therefore, it is of great interest to discover novel regulators to improve tomato growth and environmental stress adaptions. Here, we applied a comprehensive bioinformatics approach to identify putative tomato C-TERMINALLY ENCODED PEPTIDE (CEP) genes and to explore their potential physiological function in tomato root development and abiotic stress responses. A total of 17 tomato CEP genes were identified and grouped into two subgroups based on the similarity of CEP motifs. The public RNA-Seq data revealed that tomato CEP genes displayed a diverse expression pattern in tomato tissues. Additionally, CEP genes expression was differentially regulated by nitrate or ammonium status in roots and shoots, respectively. The differences in expression levels of CEP genes induced by nitrogen indicate a potential involvement of CEPs in tomato nitrogen acquisition. The synthetic CEP peptides promoted tomato primary root growth, which requires nitric oxide (NO) and calcium signaling. Furthermore, we also revealed that CEP peptides improved tomato root resistance to salinity. Overall, our work will contribute to provide novel genetic breeding strategies for tomato cultivation under adverse environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Plant Functional Genomics and Stress Response)
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20 pages, 3410 KiB  
Article
Elicitation of Roots and AC-DC with PEP-13 Peptide Shows Differential Defense Responses in Multi-Omics
by Marie Chambard, Mohamed Amine Ben Mlouka, Lun Jing, Carole Plasson, Pascal Cosette, Jérôme Leprince, Marie-Laure Follet-Gueye, Azeddine Driouich, Eric Nguema-Ona and Isabelle Boulogne
Cells 2022, 11(16), 2605; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11162605 - 21 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2201
Abstract
The root extracellular trap (RET) has emerged as a specialized compartment consisting of root AC-DC and mucilage. However, the RET’s contribution to plant defense is still poorly understood. While the roles of polysaccharides and glycoproteins secreted by root AC-DC have started to be [...] Read more.
The root extracellular trap (RET) has emerged as a specialized compartment consisting of root AC-DC and mucilage. However, the RET’s contribution to plant defense is still poorly understood. While the roles of polysaccharides and glycoproteins secreted by root AC-DC have started to be elucidated, how the low-molecular-weight exudates of the RET contribute to root defense is poorly known. In order to better understand the RET and its defense response, the transcriptomes, proteomes and metabolomes of roots, root AC-DC and mucilage of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr, var. Castetis) upon elicitation with the peptide PEP-13 were investigated. This peptide is derived from the pathogenic oomycete Phytophthora sojae. In this study, the root and the RET responses to elicitation were dissected and sequenced using transcriptional, proteomic and metabolomic approaches. The major finding is increased synthesis and secretion of specialized metabolites upon induced defense activation following PEP-13 peptide elicitation. This study provides novel findings related to the pivotal role of the root extracellular trap in root defense. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Plant Functional Genomics and Stress Response)
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15 pages, 2525 KiB  
Article
The Combined Effect of Heat and Osmotic Stress on Suberization of Arabidopsis Roots
by Ana Rita Leal, Joana Belo, Tom Beeckman, Pedro M. Barros and M. Margarida Oliveira
Cells 2022, 11(15), 2341; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11152341 - 29 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2082
Abstract
The simultaneous occurrence of heat stress and drought is becoming more regular as a consequence of climate change, causing extensive agricultural losses. The application of either heat or osmotic stress increase cell-wall suberization in different tissues, which may play a role in improving [...] Read more.
The simultaneous occurrence of heat stress and drought is becoming more regular as a consequence of climate change, causing extensive agricultural losses. The application of either heat or osmotic stress increase cell-wall suberization in different tissues, which may play a role in improving plant resilience. In this work, we studied how the suberization process is affected by the combination of drought and heat stress by following the expression of suberin biosynthesis genes, cell-wall suberization and the chemical composition in Arabidopsis roots. The Arabidopsis plants used in this study were at the onset of secondary root development. At this point, one can observe a developmental gradient in the main root, with primary development closer to the root tip and secondary development, confirmed by the suberized phellem, closer to the shoot. Remarkably, we found a differential response depending on the root zone. The combination of drought and heat stress increased cell wall suberization in main root segments undergoing secondary development and in lateral roots (LRs), while the main root zone, at primary development stage, was not particularly affected. We also found differences in the overall chemical composition of the cell walls in both root zones in response to combined stress. The data gathered showed that, under combined drought and heat stress, Arabidopsis roots undergo differential cell wall remodeling depending on developmental stage, with modifications in the biosynthesis and/or assembly of major cell wall components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Plant Functional Genomics and Stress Response)
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21 pages, 5551 KiB  
Article
Quantitative Succinyl-Proteome Profiling of Turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa) in Response to Cadmium Stress
by Xiong Li, Danni Yang, Yunqiang Yang, Guihua Jin, Xin Yin, Yan Zheng, Jianchu Xu and Yongping Yang
Cells 2022, 11(12), 1947; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11121947 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2684
Abstract
Protein post-translational modification (PTM) is an efficient biological mechanism to regulate protein structure and function, but its role in plant responses to heavy metal stress is poorly understood. The present study performed quantitative succinyl-proteome profiling using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis to explore the [...] Read more.
Protein post-translational modification (PTM) is an efficient biological mechanism to regulate protein structure and function, but its role in plant responses to heavy metal stress is poorly understood. The present study performed quantitative succinyl-proteome profiling using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis to explore the potential roles of lysine succinylation modification in turnip seedlings in response to cadmium (Cd) stress (20 μM) under hydroponic conditions over a short time period (0–8 h). A total of 547 succinylated sites on 256 proteins were identified in the shoots of turnip seedlings. These succinylated proteins participated in various biological processes (e.g., photosynthesis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, amino acid metabolism, and response to stimulation) that occurred in diverse cellular compartments according to the functional classification, subcellular localization, and protein interaction network analysis. Quantitative analysis showed that the intensities of nine succinylation sites on eight proteins were significantly altered (p < 0.05) in turnip shoots after 8 h of Cd stress. These differentially succinylated sites were highly conserved in Brassicaceae species and mostly located in the conserved domains of the proteins. Among them, a downregulated succinylation site (K150) in the glycolate oxidase protein (Gene0282600.1), an upregulated succinylation site (K396) in the catalase 3 protein (Gene0163880.1), and a downregulated succinylation site (K197) in the glutathione S-transferase protein (Gene0315380.1) may have contributed to the altered activity of the corresponding enzymes, which suggests that lysine succinylation affects the Cd detoxification process in turnip by regulating the H2O2 accumulation and glutathione metabolism. These results provide novel insights into understanding Cd response mechanisms in plants and important protein modification information for the molecular-assisted breeding of Brassica varieties with distinct Cd tolerance and accumulation capacities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Plant Functional Genomics and Stress Response)
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16 pages, 3775 KiB  
Article
Genome-Wide Analysis of HSP70s in Hexaploid Wheat: Tandem Duplication, Heat Response, and Regulation
by Yunze Lu, Peng Zhao, Aihua Zhang, Junzhe Wang and Mingran Ha
Cells 2022, 11(5), 818; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11050818 - 26 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1739
Abstract
HSP70s play crucial roles in plant growth and development, as well as in stress response. Knowledge of the distribution and heat response of HSP70s is important to understand heat adaptation and facilitate thermotolerance improvement in wheat. In this study, we comprehensively analyzed the [...] Read more.
HSP70s play crucial roles in plant growth and development, as well as in stress response. Knowledge of the distribution and heat response of HSP70s is important to understand heat adaptation and facilitate thermotolerance improvement in wheat. In this study, we comprehensively analyzed the distribution of HSP70s in hexaploid wheat (TaHSP70s) and its relatives, and we found an obvious expansion of TaHSP70s in the D genome of hexaploid wheat. Meanwhile, a large portion of tandem duplication events occurred in hexaploid wheat. Among the 84 identified TaHSP70s, more than 64% were present as homeologs. The expression profiles of TaHSP70s in triads tended to be expressed more in non-stressful and heat stress conditions. Intriguingly, many TaHSP70s were especially heat responsive. Tandem duplicated TaHSP70s also participated in heat response and growth development. Further HSE analysis revealed divergent distribution of HSEs in the promoter regions of TaHSP70 homeologs, which suggested a distinct heat regulatory mechanism. Our results indicated that the heat response of TaHSP70s may experience a different regulation, and this regulation, together with the expression of tandem duplicated TaHSP70s, may help hexaploid wheat to adapt to heat conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Plant Functional Genomics and Stress Response)
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Review

Jump to: Research

22 pages, 1101 KiB  
Review
Molecular Defense Response of Pine Trees (Pinus spp.) to the Parasitic Nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus
by Inês Modesto, André Mendes, Isabel Carrasquinho and Célia M. Miguel
Cells 2022, 11(20), 3208; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11203208 - 13 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2408
Abstract
Pine wilt disease (PWD) is a severe environmental problem in Eastern Asia and Western Europe, devastating large forest areas and causing significant economic losses. This disease is caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, a parasitic migratory nematode that infects [...] Read more.
Pine wilt disease (PWD) is a severe environmental problem in Eastern Asia and Western Europe, devastating large forest areas and causing significant economic losses. This disease is caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, a parasitic migratory nematode that infects the stem of conifer trees. Here we review what is currently known about the molecular defense response in pine trees after infection with PWN, focusing on common responses in different species. By giving particular emphasis to resistance mechanisms reported for selected varieties and families, we identified shared genes and pathways associated with resistance, including the activation of oxidative stress response, cell wall lignification, and biosynthesis of terpenoids and phenylpropanoids. The role of post-transcriptional regulation by small RNAs in pine response to PWN infection is also discussed, as well as the possible implementation of innovative RNA-interference technologies, with a focus on trans-kingdom small RNAs. Finally, the defense response induced by elicitors applied to pine plants before PWN infection to prompt resistance is reviewed. Perspectives about the impact of these findings and future research approaches are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Plant Functional Genomics and Stress Response)
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20 pages, 5495 KiB  
Review
Emerging Roles of SWEET Sugar Transporters in Plant Development and Abiotic Stress Responses
by Tinku Gautam, Madhushree Dutta, Vandana Jaiswal, Gaurav Zinta, Vijay Gahlaut and Sanjay Kumar
Cells 2022, 11(8), 1303; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11081303 - 12 Apr 2022
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 5970
Abstract
Sugars are the major source of energy in living organisms and play important roles in osmotic regulation, cell signaling and energy storage. SWEETs (Sugars Will Eventually be Exported Transporters) are the most recent family of sugar transporters that function as uniporters, facilitating the [...] Read more.
Sugars are the major source of energy in living organisms and play important roles in osmotic regulation, cell signaling and energy storage. SWEETs (Sugars Will Eventually be Exported Transporters) are the most recent family of sugar transporters that function as uniporters, facilitating the diffusion of sugar molecules across cell membranes. In plants, SWEETs play roles in multiple physiological processes including phloem loading, senescence, pollen nutrition, grain filling, nectar secretion, abiotic (drought, heat, cold, and salinity) and biotic stress regulation. In this review, we summarized the role of SWEET transporters in plant development and abiotic stress. The gene expression dynamics of various SWEET transporters under various abiotic stresses in different plant species are also discussed. Finally, we discuss the utilization of genome editing tools (TALENs and CRISPR/Cas9) to engineer SWEET genes that can facilitate trait improvement. Overall, recent advancements on SWEETs are highlighted, which could be used for crop trait improvement and abiotic stress tolerance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Plant Functional Genomics and Stress Response)
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