Role of Extracellular Vesicles in Inflammatory Diseases

A special issue of Cells (ISSN 2073-4409). This special issue belongs to the section "Cellular Immunology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2024) | Viewed by 3991

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Centre for Eye Research Australia, Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, East Melbourne, VIC, Australia
2. Opthalmology, Department of Surgery, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia
Interests: cancer; inflammation; cell death; extracellular vesicles

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Guest Editor
1. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia
2. Mercy Perinatal, Mercy Hospital for Women, Heidelberg, VIC, Australia
3. Northern Center for Health Education and Research, Epping, VIC, Australia
Interests: reproductive biology; extracellular vesicles; perinatal infections

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over the last two decades, significant progress has been made toward understanding the generation and biological role of cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs are membrane-bound structures that are generated by an evolutionarily conserved process. They are secreted by nearly all cell types and present in all body fluids. EVs are potentially vital contributors to inflammation, which carry autoantigens, danger signals, cytokines, lipid mediators and tissue-degrading enzymes.  Sufficient evidence now exists to indicate that inflammatory diseases could be treated by targeting EV release. Furthermore, EVs evidently have critical roles in the initiation, progression and regulation of inflammatory diseases. This Special Issue aims to address the functions of EVs during inflammation and their potential as biomarkers, drug delivery vehicles and targets in inflammatory disorders.

Dr. Lahiru Gangoda
Dr. Ishara Atukorala
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • extracellular vesicles (EVs)
  • inflammation
  • biomarkers
  • inflammatory diseases
  • cytokines

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 1865 KiB  
Article
Association between Plasma HLA-DR+ Placental Vesicles and Preeclampsia: A Pilot Longitudinal Cohort Study
by Marianna Onori, Rita Franco, Donatella Lucchetti, Silvio Tartaglia, Silvia Buongiorno, Giuliana Beneduce, Fabio Sannino, Silvia Baroni, Andrea Urbani, Antonio Lanzone, Giovanni Scambia, Nicoletta Di Simone and Chiara Tersigni
Cells 2024, 13(2), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13020196 - 20 Jan 2024
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Abstract
(1) Background: Preeclampsia (PE) usually presents with hypertension and proteinuria, related to poor placentation. Reduced maternal–fetal immunological tolerance is a possible trigger of inadequate placentation. Aberrant antigen expression of HLA-DR has been observed in the syncytiotrophoblast of PE patients. In this study, we [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Preeclampsia (PE) usually presents with hypertension and proteinuria, related to poor placentation. Reduced maternal–fetal immunological tolerance is a possible trigger of inadequate placentation. Aberrant antigen expression of HLA-DR has been observed in the syncytiotrophoblast of PE patients. In this study, we analyzed plasma levels of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-DR+ syncytiotrophoblast-derived extracellular vesicles (STEVs) during the three trimesters of pregnancy in relation to PE onset. (2) Methods: Pregnant women underwent venous blood sampling during the three trimesters. STEVs were collected from plasma via ultracentrifugation (120,000 g) and characterized by Western blot, nanotracking analysis and flow cytometry for the expression of Placental Alkaline Phosphatase (PLAP), a placental-derived marker, and HLA-DR. (3) Results: Out of 107 women recruited, 10 developed PE. STEVs were detected in all three trimesters of pregnancy with a zenith in the second trimester. A significant difference was found between the non-PE and PE groups in terms of plasma levels of HLA-DR+ STEVs during all three trimesters of pregnancy. (4) Conclusions: More research is needed to investigate HLA-DR+ as a potential early marker of PE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Extracellular Vesicles in Inflammatory Diseases)
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Review

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18 pages, 2055 KiB  
Review
Inflammation and Exosomes in Fabry Disease Pathogenesis
by Bruna Coelho-Ribeiro, Helena G. Silva, Belém Sampaio-Marques, Alexandra G. Fraga, Olga Azevedo, Jorge Pedrosa and Paula Ludovico
Cells 2024, 13(8), 654; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13080654 - 9 Apr 2024
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Abstract
Fabry Disease (FD) is one of the most prevalent lysosomal storage disorders, resulting from mutations in the GLA gene located on the X chromosome. This genetic mutation triggers glo-botriaosylceramide (Gb-3) buildup within lysosomes, ultimately impairing cellular functions. Given the role of lysosomes in [...] Read more.
Fabry Disease (FD) is one of the most prevalent lysosomal storage disorders, resulting from mutations in the GLA gene located on the X chromosome. This genetic mutation triggers glo-botriaosylceramide (Gb-3) buildup within lysosomes, ultimately impairing cellular functions. Given the role of lysosomes in immune cell physiology, FD has been suggested to have a profound impact on immunological responses. During the past years, research has been focusing on this topic, and pooled evidence strengthens the hypothesis that Gb-3 accumulation potentiates the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, revealing the existence of an acute inflammatory process in FD that possibly develops to a chronic state due to stimulus persistency. In parallel, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have gained attention due to their function as intercellular communicators. Considering EVs’ capacity to convey cargo from parent to distant cells, they emerge as potential inflammatory intermediaries capable of transporting cytokines and other immunomodulatory molecules. In this review, we revisit the evidence underlying the association between FD and altered immune responses and explore the potential of EVs to function as inflammatory vehicles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Extracellular Vesicles in Inflammatory Diseases)
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37 pages, 4962 KiB  
Review
Beyond Macromolecules: Extracellular Vesicles as Regulators of Inflammatory Diseases
by Kaushik Das, Subhojit Paul, Tanmoy Mukherjee, Arnab Ghosh, Anshul Sharma, Prem Shankar, Saurabh Gupta, Shiva Keshava and Deepak Parashar
Cells 2023, 12(15), 1963; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12151963 - 29 Jul 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1579
Abstract
Inflammation is the defense mechanism of the immune system against harmful stimuli such as pathogens, toxic compounds, damaged cells, radiation, etc., and is characterized by tissue redness, swelling, heat generation, pain, and loss of tissue functions. Inflammation is essential in the recruitment of [...] Read more.
Inflammation is the defense mechanism of the immune system against harmful stimuli such as pathogens, toxic compounds, damaged cells, radiation, etc., and is characterized by tissue redness, swelling, heat generation, pain, and loss of tissue functions. Inflammation is essential in the recruitment of immune cells at the site of infection, which not only aids in the elimination of the cause, but also initiates the healing process. However, prolonged inflammation often brings about several chronic inflammatory disorders; hence, a balance between the pro- and anti-inflammatory responses is essential in order to eliminate the cause while producing the least damage to the host. A growing body of evidence indicates that extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a major role in cell–cell communication via the transfer of bioactive molecules in the form of proteins, lipids, DNA, RNAs, miRNAs, etc., between the cells. The present review provides a brief classification of the EVs followed by a detailed description of how EVs contribute to the pathogenesis of various inflammation-associated diseases and their implications as a therapeutic measure. The latter part of the review also highlights how EVs act as a bridging entity in blood coagulation disorders and associated inflammation. The findings illustrated in the present review may open a new therapeutic window to target EV-associated inflammatory responses, thereby minimizing the negative outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Extracellular Vesicles in Inflammatory Diseases)
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