TGF-beta/BMP Signaling Pathway

A special issue of Cells (ISSN 2073-4409). This special issue belongs to the section "Cell Signaling".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2019) | Viewed by 208168

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
1. TGF-β and Cancer Group, Oncobell Program, Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), Gran Via de l'Hospitalet, 199, L'Hospitalet, 08908 Barcelona, Spain
2. Oncology Program, CIBEREHD, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
3. Department of Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Barcelona, L'Hospitalet, 08907 Barcelona, Spain
Interests: liver; TGF-beta; EGF; NADPH oxidases; NOX4; oxidative stress; epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT); liver stem cells; metabolism and liver; liver cancer; HCC; liver fibrosis; liver signaling
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Pharmacy, Department Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Complutense University of Madrid, Health Research Institute of the Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain
Interests: hepatic progenitor cell; liver regeneration; chronic liver disease; hepatocarcinogenesis; signalling; TGF-beta; BMP9; HGF/Met; EGFR

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Pharmacy, Department Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Complutense University of Madrid, Health Research Institute of the Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain
Interests: liver; signalling; TGF-beta; BMP9; hepatocellular carcinoma; chronic liver disease; HGF/Met; hepatic progenitor cell; oxidative stress
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The TGF-β superfamily plays key roles in development and tissue homeostasis, controlling the maintenance and regeneration of mature tissues. Cytokines belonging to this family can be multifunctional (TGF-β and BMPs) or develop highly specialized functions (AMH, GDF8) and they control a variety of cellular processes, such us proliferation, differentiation, cell death, adhesion and movement, metabolism, pluripotency, and stemness.

TGF-β family members share a common pathway, the Smad pathway, that controls gene expression in a context dependent fashion since this pathway can be finely tuned at different levels. TGF-β can also activate non-Smad signaling pathways that modulate downstream cellular responses.

Giving the wide array of cell regulatory functions of TGF-β superfamily, dysregulation of this signaling pathway is, as expected, at the grounds of many developmental and degenerative diseases, having an intricate role in tissue fibrosis and cancer.

In this Special Issue, we aim to recapitulate current knowledge of this vast field and to give the possibility of sharing novel data on the multiple aspects of TGF-β signaling.

We invite experts to contribute with research papers and critical reviews on TGF-β/BMP signaling: From regulation and crosstalk to biological relevance in metazoan organisms both in physiological and pathological contexts, and how it can be modulated in disease to gain a therapeutic benefit.

Dr. Isabel Fabregat
Dr. Aránzazu Sánchez
Dr. Blanca Herrera
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • TGF-b
  • signaling
  • BMPs
  • Smad pathway
  • Non-Smad signaling
  • development
  • adult homeostasis
  • disease
  • fibrosis
  • cancer

Published Papers (28 papers)

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Editorial

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6 pages, 235 KiB  
Editorial
Editorial Special Issue TGF-Beta/BMP Signaling Pathway
by Isabel Fabregat, Blanca Herrera and Aránzazu Sánchez
Cells 2020, 9(11), 2363; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9112363 - 27 Oct 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2565
Abstract
The transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily plays key roles in development and tissue homeostasis, controlling the maintenance and regeneration of mature tissues [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TGF-beta/BMP Signaling Pathway)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

14 pages, 1932 KiB  
Article
The BMP Receptor 2 in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: When and Where the Animal Model Matches the Patient
by Chris Happé, Kondababu Kurakula, Xiao-Qing Sun, Denielli da Silva Goncalves Bos, Nina Rol, Christophe Guignabert, Ly Tu, Ingrid Schalij, Karien C. Wiesmeijer, Olga Tura-Ceide, Anton Vonk Noordegraaf, Frances S. de Man, Harm Jan Bogaard and Marie-José Goumans
Cells 2020, 9(6), 1422; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9061422 - 8 Jun 2020
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 4886
Abstract
Background: Mutations in bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II (BMPR2) are leading to the development of hereditary pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). In non-hereditary forms of PAH, perturbations in the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/BMP-axis are believed to cause deficient BMPR2 signaling by changes in [...] Read more.
Background: Mutations in bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II (BMPR2) are leading to the development of hereditary pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). In non-hereditary forms of PAH, perturbations in the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/BMP-axis are believed to cause deficient BMPR2 signaling by changes in receptor expression, the activity of the receptor and/or downstream signaling. To date, BMPR2 expression and its activity in the lungs of patients with non-hereditary PAH is poorly characterized. In recent decades, different animal models have been used to understand the role of BMPR2 signaling in PAH pathophysiology. Specifically, the monocrotaline (MCT) and Sugen–Hypoxia (SuHx) models are extensively used in interventional studies to examine if restoring BMPR2 signaling results in PAH disease reversal. While PAH is assumed to develop in patients over months or years, pulmonary hypertension in experimental animal models develops in days or weeks. It is therefore likely that modifications in BMP and TGF-β signaling in these models do not fully recapitulate those in patients. In order to determine the translational potential of the MCT and SuHx models, we analyzed the BMPR2 expression and activity in the lungs of rats with experimentally induced PAH and compared this to the BMPR2 expression and activity in the lungs of PAH patients. Methods: the BMPR2 expression was analyzed by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy to determine the quantity and localization of the receptor in the lung tissue from normal control subjects and patients with hereditary or idiopathic PAH, as well as in the lungs of control rats and rats with MCT or SuHx-induced PAH. The activation of the BMP pathway was analyzed by determining the level and localization of phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 (pSmad 1/5/8), a downstream mediator of canonical BMPR2 signaling. Results: While BMPR2 and pSmad 1/5/8 expression levels were unaltered in whole lung lysates/homogenates from patients with hereditary and idiopathic PAH, IF analysis showed that BMPR2 and pSmad 1/5/8 levels were markedly decreased in the pulmonary vessels of both PAH patient groups. Whole lung BMPR2 expression was variable in the two PAH rat models, while in both experimental models the expression of BMPR2 in the lung vasculature was increased. However, in the human PAH lungs, the expression of pSmad 1/5/8 was downregulated in the lung vasculature of both experimental models. Conclusion: BMPR2 receptor expression and downstream signaling is reduced in the lung vasculature of patients with idiopathic and hereditary PAH, which cannot be appreciated when using human whole lung lysates. Despite increased BMPR2 expression in the lung vasculature, the MCT and SuHx rat models did develop PAH and impaired downstream BMPR2-Smad signaling similar to our findings in the human lung. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TGF-beta/BMP Signaling Pathway)
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12 pages, 2312 KiB  
Article
Activity of Smurf2 Ubiquitin Ligase Is Regulated by the Wnt Pathway Protein Dishevelled
by Ondrej Bernatik, Petra Paclikova, Ranjani Sri Ganji and Vitezslav Bryja
Cells 2020, 9(5), 1147; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9051147 - 7 May 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3584
Abstract
Wnt and BMP signaling pathways are two key molecular machineries regulating development and homeostasis. The efficient coordination of Wnt and BMP is essential in many developmental processes such as establishment of antero-posterior and dorso-ventral body axis, regulation of convergent extension, or development of [...] Read more.
Wnt and BMP signaling pathways are two key molecular machineries regulating development and homeostasis. The efficient coordination of Wnt and BMP is essential in many developmental processes such as establishment of antero-posterior and dorso-ventral body axis, regulation of convergent extension, or development of various organ systems. SMAD ubiquitination regulatory factor (Smurf) family of E3 ubiquitin ligases are important and evolutionary conserved regulators of TGF-β/BMP signaling pathways. Smurf2 has been previously shown to regulate Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway by ubiquitinating Prickle1, one of the key components of PCP. We explored the role of Smurf2 in Wnt pathways in further detail and identified that Smurf2 is also a ubiquitin ligase of Dishevelled (DVL), the key cytoplasmic signal transducer in the Wnt pathway. Interestingly, the Smurf2 and DVL relationship expands beyond substrate-E3 ligase. We can show that DVL activates Smurf2, which allows Smurf2 to ubiquitinate its substrates from Wnt/PCP (Prickle1) as well as TGF-β/BMP (Smad2) pathways more efficiently. Using SMAD7 as an example of Smurf2 activator we show that DVL and SMAD7 both activates Smurf2 activity. In HEK293 cells the deficiency of DVL phenocopies absence of Smurf2 and leads to the increased phosphorylation of R-Smads. Smurf2-DVL connection provides a novel and intriguing point of crosstalk for Wnt and BMP pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TGF-beta/BMP Signaling Pathway)
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14 pages, 2177 KiB  
Article
A Signaling Crosstalk between BMP9 and HGF/c-Met Regulates Mouse Adult Liver Progenitor Cell Survival
by Annalisa Addante, Cesáreo Roncero, Nerea Lazcanoiturburu, Rebeca Méndez, Laura Almalé, María García-Álvaro, Peter ten Dijke, Isabel Fabregat, Blanca Herrera and Aránzazu Sánchez
Cells 2020, 9(3), 752; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9030752 - 19 Mar 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4545
Abstract
During chronic liver disease, hepatic progenitor cells (HPC, oval cells in rodents) become activated, proliferate, and differentiate into cholangiocytes and/or hepatocytes contributing to the final outcome of the regenerative process in a context-dependent fashion. Here, we analyze the crosstalk between the hepatocyte growth [...] Read more.
During chronic liver disease, hepatic progenitor cells (HPC, oval cells in rodents) become activated, proliferate, and differentiate into cholangiocytes and/or hepatocytes contributing to the final outcome of the regenerative process in a context-dependent fashion. Here, we analyze the crosstalk between the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-Met signaling axis, key for liver regeneration, and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)9, a BMP family ligand that has emerged as a critical regulator of liver pathology. Our results show that HGF/c-Met signaling blocks BMP9-mediated apoptotic cell death, while it potentiates small mothers against decapentaplegic (SMAD)1 signaling triggered by BMP9 in oval cells. Interestingly, HGF-induced overactivation of SMAD1, -5, -8 requires the upregulation of TGF-β type receptor activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)1, and both ALK1 and SMAD1 are required for the counteracting effect of HGF on BMP9 apoptotic activity. On the other hand, we also prove that BMP9 triggers the activation of p38MAPK in oval cells, which drives BMP9-apoptotic cell death. Therefore, our data support a model in which BMP9 and HGF/c-Met signaling axes establish a signaling crosstalk via ALK1 that modulates the balance between the two pathways with opposing activities, SMAD1 (pro-survival) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38MAPK; pro-apoptotic), which determines oval cell fate. These data help delineate the complex signaling network established during chronic liver injury and its impact on the oval cell regenerative response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TGF-beta/BMP Signaling Pathway)
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18 pages, 3584 KiB  
Article
BMP-9 Modulates the Hepatic Responses to LPS
by Haristi Gaitantzi, Julius Karch, Lena Germann, Chen Cai, Vanessa Rausch, Emrullah Birgin, Nuh Rahbari, Tatjana Seitz, Claus Hellerbrand, Courtney König, Hellmut G. Augustin, Carolin Mogler, Carolina de la Torre, Norbert Gretz, Timo Itzel, Andreas Teufel, Matthias P. A. Ebert and Katja Breitkopf-Heinlein
Cells 2020, 9(3), 617; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9030617 - 4 Mar 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4578
Abstract
It was previously shown that Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP)-9 is constitutively produced and secreted by hepatic stellate cells (HSC). Upon acute liver damage, BMP-9 expression is transiently down-regulated and blocking BMP-9 under conditions of chronic damage ameliorated liver fibrogenesis in C57BL/6 mice. Thereby, [...] Read more.
It was previously shown that Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP)-9 is constitutively produced and secreted by hepatic stellate cells (HSC). Upon acute liver damage, BMP-9 expression is transiently down-regulated and blocking BMP-9 under conditions of chronic damage ameliorated liver fibrogenesis in C57BL/6 mice. Thereby, BMP-9 acted as a pro-fibrogenic cytokine in the liver but without directly activating isolated HSC in vitro. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an endotoxin derived from the membrane of Gram-negative bacteria in the gut, is known to be essential in the pathogenesis of diverse kinds of liver diseases. The aim of the present project was therefore to investigate how high levels of BMP-9 in the context of LPS signalling might result in enhanced liver damage. For this purpose, we stimulated human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) with LPS and incubated primary human liver myofibroblasts (MF) with the conditioned medium of these cells. We found that LPS led to the secretion of factors from LSEC that upregulate BMP-9 expression in MF. At least one of these BMP-9 enhancing factors was defined to be IL-6. High BMP-9 in turn, especially in combination with LPS stimulation, induced the expression of certain capillarization markers in LSEC and enhanced the LPS-mediated induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines in primary human macrophages. In LSEC, pre-treatment with BMP-9 reduced the LPS-mediated activation of the NfkB pathway, whereas in macrophages, LPS partially inhibited the BMP-9/Smad-1 signaling cascade. In vivo, in mice, BMP-9 led to the enhanced presence of F4/80-positive cells in the liver and it modulated the LPS-mediated regulation of inflammatory mediators. In summary, our data point to BMP-9 being a complex and highly dynamic modulator of hepatic responses to LPS: Initial effects of LPS on LSEC led to the upregulation of BMP-9 in MF but sustained high levels of BMP-9 in turn promote pro-inflammatory reactions of macrophages. Thereby, the spatial and timely fine-tuned presence (or absence) of BMP-9 is needed for efficient wound-healing responses in the liver. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TGF-beta/BMP Signaling Pathway)
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16 pages, 3332 KiB  
Article
Transactivation of miR-202-5p by Steroidogenic Factor 1 (SF1) Induces Apoptosis in Goat Granulosa Cells by Targeting TGFβR2
by Qiang Ding, Miaohan Jin, Yaoyue Wang, Jiao Liu, Peter Kalds, Ying Wang, Yuxin Yang, Xiaolong Wang and Yulin Chen
Cells 2020, 9(2), 445; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9020445 - 14 Feb 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3779
Abstract
MicroRNAs play key roles during ovary development, with emerging evidence suggesting that miR-202-5p is specifically expressed in female animal gonads. Granulosa cells (GCs) are somatic cells that are closely related to the development of female gametes in mammalian ovaries. However, the biological roles [...] Read more.
MicroRNAs play key roles during ovary development, with emerging evidence suggesting that miR-202-5p is specifically expressed in female animal gonads. Granulosa cells (GCs) are somatic cells that are closely related to the development of female gametes in mammalian ovaries. However, the biological roles of miR-202-5p in GCs remain unknown. Here, we show that miR-202-5p is specifically expressed in GCs and accumulates in extracellular vesicles (EVs) from large growth follicles in goat ovaries. In vitro assays showed that miR-202-5p induced apoptosis and suppressed the proliferation of goat GCs. We further revealed that miR-202-5p is a functional miRNA that targets the transforming growth factor-beta type II receptor (TGFβR2). MiR-202-5p attenuated TGF-β/SMAD signaling through the degradation of TGFβR2 at both the mRNA and protein level, decreasing p-SMAD3 levels in GCs. Moreover, we verified that steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) is a transcriptional factor that binds to the promoters of miR-202 and cytochrome P450 family 19 subfamily A member 1 (CYP19A1) through luciferase reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. That contributed to positive correlation between miR-202-5p and CYP19A1 expression and estradiol (E2) release. Furthermore, SF1 repressed TGFβR2 and p-SMAD3 levels in GCs through the transactivation of miR-202-5p. Taken together, these results suggest a mechanism by which miR-202-5p regulates canonical TGF-β/SMAD signaling through targeting TGFβR2 in GCs. This provides insight into the transcriptional regulation of miR-202 and CYP19A1 during goat ovarian follicular development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TGF-beta/BMP Signaling Pathway)
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20 pages, 2055 KiB  
Article
Human Skin Keratinocytes on Sustained TGF-β Stimulation Reveal Partial EMT Features and Weaken Growth Arrest Responses
by Sergio Liarte, Ángel Bernabé-García and Francisco J. Nicolás
Cells 2020, 9(1), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9010255 - 20 Jan 2020
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 5573
Abstract
Defects in wound closure can be related to the failure of keratinocytes to re-epithelize. Potential mechanisms driving this impairment comprise unbalanced cytokine signaling, including Transforming Growth Factor-β (TFG-β). Although the etiologies of chronic wound development are known, the relevant molecular events are poorly [...] Read more.
Defects in wound closure can be related to the failure of keratinocytes to re-epithelize. Potential mechanisms driving this impairment comprise unbalanced cytokine signaling, including Transforming Growth Factor-β (TFG-β). Although the etiologies of chronic wound development are known, the relevant molecular events are poorly understood. This lack of insight is a consequence of ethical issues, which limit the available evidence to humans. In this work, we have used an in vitro model validated for the study of epidermal physiology and function, the HaCaT cells to provide a description of the impact of sustained exposure to TGF-β. Long term TGF-β1 treatment led to evident changes, HaCaT cells became spindle-shaped and increased in size. This phenotype change involved conformational re-arrangements for actin filaments and E-Cadherin cell-adhesion structures. Surprisingly, the signs of consolidated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition were absent. At the molecular level, modified gene expression and altered protein contents were found. Non-canonical TGF-β pathway elements did not show relevant changes. However, R-Smads experienced alterations best characterized by decreased Smad3 levels. Functionally, HaCaT cells exposed to TGF-β1 for long periods showed cell-cycle arrest. Yet, the strength of this restraint weakens the longer the treatment, as revealed when challenged by pro-mitogenic factors. The proposed setting might offer a useful framework for future research on the mechanisms driving wound chronification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TGF-beta/BMP Signaling Pathway)
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18 pages, 5615 KiB  
Article
TGF-β1 Increases GDNF Production by Upregulating the Expression of GDNF and Furin in Human Granulosa-Lutein Cells
by Jingwen Yin, Hsun-Ming Chang, Yuyin Yi, Yuanqing Yao and Peter C.K. Leung
Cells 2020, 9(1), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9010185 - 10 Jan 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 5810
Abstract
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is expressed at a high level in the human ovary and GDNF signaling is involved in the direct control of follicular activation and oocyte maturation. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) plays an important role in the regulation of [...] Read more.
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is expressed at a high level in the human ovary and GDNF signaling is involved in the direct control of follicular activation and oocyte maturation. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) plays an important role in the regulation of various ovarian functions. Furin is an intracellular serine endopeptidase of the subtilisin family that is closely associated with the activation of multiple protein precursors. Despite the important roles of GDNF and TGF-β1 in the regulation of follicular development, whether TGF-β is able to regulate the expression and production of GDNF in human granulosa cells remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of TGF-β1 on the production of GDNF and its underlying mechanisms in human granulosa-lutein (hGL) cells. We used two types of hGL cells (primary hGL cells and an established immortalized hGL cell line, SVOG cells) as study models. Our results show that TGF-β1 significantly induced the expression of GDNF and furin, which, in turn, increased the production of mature GDNF. Using a dual inhibition approach combining RNA interference and kinase inhibitors against cell signaling components, we showed that the TβRII type II receptor and ALK5 type I receptor are the principal receptors that mediated TGF-β1-induced cellular activity in hGL cells. Additionally, Sma- and Mad-related protein (SMAD)3 and SMAD4 are the downstream signaling transducers that mediate the biological response induced by TGF-β1. Furthermore, furin is the main proprotein convertase that induces the production of GDNF. These findings provide additional regulatory mechanisms by which an intrafollicular factor influences the production of another growth factor through a paracrine or autocrine interaction in hGL cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TGF-beta/BMP Signaling Pathway)
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24 pages, 7918 KiB  
Article
JNK-Dependent cJun Phosphorylation Mitigates TGFβ- and EGF-Induced Pre-Malignant Breast Cancer Cell Invasion by Suppressing AP-1-Mediated Transcriptional Responses
by Anders Sundqvist, Oleksandr Voytyuk, Mohamed Hamdi, Herman E. Popeijus, Corina Bijlsma-van der Burgt, Josephine Janssen, John W.M. Martens, Aristidis Moustakas, Carl-Henrik Heldin, Peter ten Dijke and Hans van Dam
Cells 2019, 8(12), 1481; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8121481 - 21 Nov 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4181
Abstract
Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) has both tumor-suppressive and tumor-promoting effects in breast cancer. These functions are partly mediated through Smads, intracellular transcriptional effectors of TGFβ. Smads form complexes with other DNA-binding transcription factors to elicit cell-type-dependent responses. Previously, we found that the collagen [...] Read more.
Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) has both tumor-suppressive and tumor-promoting effects in breast cancer. These functions are partly mediated through Smads, intracellular transcriptional effectors of TGFβ. Smads form complexes with other DNA-binding transcription factors to elicit cell-type-dependent responses. Previously, we found that the collagen invasion and migration of pre-malignant breast cancer cells in response to TGFβ and epidermal growth factor (EGF) critically depend on multiple Jun and Fos components of the activator protein (AP)-1 transcription factor complex. Here we report that the same process is negatively regulated by Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-dependent cJun phosphorylation. This was demonstrated by analysis of phospho-deficient, phospho-mimicking, and dimer-specific cJun mutants, and experiments employing a mutant version of the phosphatase MKP1 that specifically inhibits JNK. Hyper-phosphorylation of cJun by JNK strongly inhibited its ability to induce several Jun/Fos-regulated genes and to promote migration and invasion. These results show that MEK-AP-1 and JNK-phospho-cJun exhibit distinct pro- and anti-invasive functions, respectively, through differential regulation of Smad- and AP-1-dependent TGFβ target genes. Our findings are of importance for personalized cancer therapy, such as for patients suffering from specific types of breast tumors with activated EGF receptor-Ras or inactivated JNK pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TGF-beta/BMP Signaling Pathway)
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21 pages, 5570 KiB  
Article
Is NO the Answer? The Nitric Oxide Pathway Can Support Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Mediated Signaling
by Christopher Differ, Franka Klatte-Schulz, Nicole Bormann, Susann Minkwitz, Petra Knaus and Britt Wildemann
Cells 2019, 8(10), 1273; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8101273 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 5051
Abstract
The growth factor bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) plays an important role in bone development and repair. Despite the positive effects of BMP2 in fracture healing, its use is associated with negative side effects and poor cost effectiveness, partly due to the large [...] Read more.
The growth factor bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) plays an important role in bone development and repair. Despite the positive effects of BMP2 in fracture healing, its use is associated with negative side effects and poor cost effectiveness, partly due to the large amounts of BMP2 applied. Therefore, reduction of BMP2 amounts while maintaining efficacy is of clinical importance. As nitric oxide (NO) signaling plays a role in bone fracture healing and an association with the BMP2 pathway has been indicated, this study aimed to investigate the relationship of BMP2 and NO pathways and whether NO can enhance BMP2-induced signaling and osteogenic abilities in vitro. To achieve this, the stable BMP reporter cell line C2C12BRELuc was used to quantify BMP signaling, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and gene expression were used to quantify osteogenic potency. C2C12BRELuc cells were treated with recombinant BMP2 in combination with NO donors and substrate (Deta NONOate, SNAP & L-Arginine), NOS inhibitor (LNAME), soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) inhibitor (LY83583) and activator (YC-1), BMP type-I receptor inhibitor (LDN-193189), or protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor (H89). It was found that the NOS enzyme, direct NO application, and sGC enhanced BMP2 signaling and improved BMP2 induced osteogenic activity. The application of a PKA inhibitor demonstrated that BMP2 signaling is enhanced by the NO pathway via PKA, underlining the capability of BMP2 in activating the NO pathway. Collectively, this study proves the ability of the NO pathway to enhance BMP2 signaling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TGF-beta/BMP Signaling Pathway)
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20 pages, 4450 KiB  
Article
Endoglin Protein Interactome Profiling Identifies TRIM21 and Galectin-3 as New Binding Partners
by Eunate Gallardo-Vara, Lidia Ruiz-Llorente, Juan Casado-Vela, María J. Ruiz-Rodríguez, Natalia López-Andrés, Asit K. Pattnaik, Miguel Quintanilla and Carmelo Bernabeu
Cells 2019, 8(9), 1082; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8091082 - 13 Sep 2019
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 5492
Abstract
Endoglin is a 180-kDa glycoprotein receptor primarily expressed by the vascular endothelium and involved in cardiovascular disease and cancer. Heterozygous mutations in the endoglin gene (ENG) cause hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia type 1, a vascular disease that presents with nasal and gastrointestinal bleeding, skin [...] Read more.
Endoglin is a 180-kDa glycoprotein receptor primarily expressed by the vascular endothelium and involved in cardiovascular disease and cancer. Heterozygous mutations in the endoglin gene (ENG) cause hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia type 1, a vascular disease that presents with nasal and gastrointestinal bleeding, skin and mucosa telangiectases, and arteriovenous malformations in internal organs. A circulating form of endoglin (alias soluble endoglin, sEng), proteolytically released from the membrane-bound protein, has been observed in several inflammation-related pathological conditions and appears to contribute to endothelial dysfunction and cancer development through unknown mechanisms. Membrane-bound endoglin is an auxiliary component of the TGF-β receptor complex and the extracellular region of endoglin has been shown to interact with types I and II TGF-β receptors, as well as with BMP9 and BMP10 ligands, both members of the TGF-β family. To search for novel protein interactors, we screened a microarray containing over 9000 unique human proteins using recombinant sEng as bait. We find that sEng binds with high affinity, at least, to 22 new proteins. Among these, we validated the interaction of endoglin with galectin-3, a secreted member of the lectin family with capacity to bind membrane glycoproteins, and with tripartite motif-containing protein 21 (TRIM21), an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase. Using human endothelial cells and Chinese hamster ovary cells, we showed that endoglin co-immunoprecipitates and co-localizes with galectin-3 or TRIM21. These results open new research avenues on endoglin function and regulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TGF-beta/BMP Signaling Pathway)
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15 pages, 2505 KiB  
Article
Differential Consequences of Bmp9 Deletion on Sinusoidal Endothelial Cell Differentiation and Liver Fibrosis in 129/Ola and C57BL/6 Mice
by Agnès Desroches-Castan, Emmanuelle Tillet, Nicolas Ricard, Marie Ouarné, Christine Mallet, Jean-Jacques Feige and Sabine Bailly
Cells 2019, 8(9), 1079; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8091079 - 13 Sep 2019
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 4367
Abstract
The aim of the present work was to address the role of BMP9 in different genetic backgrounds (C57BL/6, BALB/c, and 129/Ola) of mice deleted for Bmp9. We found that Bmp9 deletion led to premature mortality only in the 129/Ola strain. We have [...] Read more.
The aim of the present work was to address the role of BMP9 in different genetic backgrounds (C57BL/6, BALB/c, and 129/Ola) of mice deleted for Bmp9. We found that Bmp9 deletion led to premature mortality only in the 129/Ola strain. We have previously shown that Bmp9 deletion led to liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) capillarization and liver fibrosis in the 129/Ola background. Here, we showed that this is not the case in the C57BL/6 background. Analysis of LSEC from Wild-type (WT) versus Bmp9-KO mice in the C57BL/6 background showed no difference in LSEC fenestration and in the expression of differentiation markers. Comparison of the mRNA expression of LSEC differentiation markers between WT C57BL/6 and 129/Ola mice showed a significant decrease in Stabilin2, Plvap, and CD209b, suggesting a more capillary-like phenotype in WT C57BL/6 LSECs. C57BL/6 mice also had lower BMP9 circulating concentrations and hepatic Vegfr2 mRNA levels, compared to the 129/Ola mice. Taken together, our observations support a role for BMP9 in liver endothelial cell fenestration and prevention of fibrosis that is dependent on genetic background. It also suggests that 129/Ola mice are a more suitable model than C57BL/6 for the study of liver fibrosis subsequent to LSEC capillarization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TGF-beta/BMP Signaling Pathway)
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24 pages, 3479 KiB  
Article
Endoglin Trafficking/Exosomal Targeting in Liver Cells Depends on N-Glycosylation
by Steffen Meurer, Almut Elisabeth Wimmer, Eddy van de Leur and Ralf Weiskirchen
Cells 2019, 8(9), 997; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8090997 - 28 Aug 2019
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4456
Abstract
Injury of the liver involves a wound healing partial reaction governed by hepatic stellate cells and portal fibroblasts. Individual members of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily including TGF-β itself and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) exert diverse and partially opposing effects on pro-fibrogenic [...] Read more.
Injury of the liver involves a wound healing partial reaction governed by hepatic stellate cells and portal fibroblasts. Individual members of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily including TGF-β itself and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) exert diverse and partially opposing effects on pro-fibrogenic responses. Signaling by these ligands is mediated through binding to membrane integral receptors type I/type II. Binding and the outcome of signaling is critically modulated by Endoglin (Eng), a type III co-receptor. In order to learn more about trafficking of Eng in liver cells, we investigated the membranal subdomain localization of full-length (FL)-Eng. We could show that FL-Eng is enriched in Caveolin-1-containing sucrose gradient fractions. Since lipid rafts contribute to the pool of exosomes, we could consequently demonstrate for the first time that exosomes isolated from cultured primary hepatic stellate cells and its derivatives contain Eng. Moreover, via adenoviral overexpression, we demonstrate that all liver cells have the capacity to direct Eng to exosomes, irrespectively whether they express endogenous Eng or not. Finally, we demonstrate that block of N-glycosylation does not interfere with dimerization of the receptor, but abrogates the secretion of soluble Eng (sol-Eng) and prevents exosomal targeting of FL-Eng. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TGF-beta/BMP Signaling Pathway)
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13 pages, 2177 KiB  
Article
PI3K (Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase) Activation and Endothelial Cell Proliferation in Patients with Hemorrhagic Hereditary Telangiectasia Type 1
by Adriana Iriarte, Agnes Figueras, Pau Cerdà, José María Mora, Anna Jucglà, Rosa Penín, Francesc Viñals and Antoni Riera-Mestre
Cells 2019, 8(9), 971; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8090971 - 24 Aug 2019
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 4506
Abstract
Hemorrhagic hereditary telangiectasia (HHT) type 2 patients have increased activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway in telangiectasia. The main objective is to evaluate the activation of the PI3K pathway in cutaneous telangiectasia of HHT1 patients. A cutaneous biopsy of a digital [...] Read more.
Hemorrhagic hereditary telangiectasia (HHT) type 2 patients have increased activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway in telangiectasia. The main objective is to evaluate the activation of the PI3K pathway in cutaneous telangiectasia of HHT1 patients. A cutaneous biopsy of a digital hand telangiectasia was performed in seven HHT1 and eight HHT2 patients and compared with six controls. The study was approved by the Clinical Research Ethics Committee of our center. A histopathological pattern with more dilated and superficial vessels that pushed up the epidermis was identified in HHT patients regardless of the type of mutation and was associated with older age, as opposed to the common telangiectasia pattern. The mean proliferation index (Ki-67) was statistically higher in endothelial cells (EC) from HHT1 than in controls. The percentage of positive EC for pNDRG1, pAKT, and pS6 in HHT1 patients versus controls resulted in higher values, statistically significant for pNDRG1 and pS6. In conclusion, we detected an increase in EC proliferation linked to overactivation of the PI3K pathway in cutaneous telangiectasia biopsies from HHT1 patients. Our results suggest that PI3K inhibitors could be used as novel therapeutic agents for HHT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TGF-beta/BMP Signaling Pathway)
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14 pages, 1638 KiB  
Article
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia Cells Impair Dendritic Cell and Macrophage Differentiation: Role of BMP4
by Jaris Valencia, Lidia M. Fernández-Sevilla, Alberto Fraile-Ramos, Rosa Sacedón, Eva Jiménez, Angeles Vicente and Alberto Varas
Cells 2019, 8(7), 722; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8070722 - 14 Jul 2019
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 4028
Abstract
Dendritic cells and macrophages are common components of the tumour immune microenvironment and can contribute to immune suppression in both solid and haematological cancers. The Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) pathway has been reported to be involved in cancer, and more recently in leukaemia [...] Read more.
Dendritic cells and macrophages are common components of the tumour immune microenvironment and can contribute to immune suppression in both solid and haematological cancers. The Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) pathway has been reported to be involved in cancer, and more recently in leukaemia development and progression. In the present study, we analyse whether acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) cells can affect the differentiation of dendritic cells and macrophages and the involvement of BMP pathway in the process. We show that ALL cells produce BMP4 and that conditioned media from ALL cells promote the generation of dendritic cells with immunosuppressive features and skew M1-like macrophage polarization towards a less pro-inflammatory phenotype. Likewise, BMP4 overexpression in ALL cells potentiates their ability to induce immunosuppressive dendritic cells and favours the generation of M2-like macrophages with pro-tumoral features. These results suggest that BMP4 is in part responsible for the alterations in dendritic cell and macrophage differentiation produced by ALL cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TGF-beta/BMP Signaling Pathway)
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17 pages, 4375 KiB  
Article
BMP2 and TGF-β Cooperate Differently during Synovial-Derived Stem-Cell Chondrogenesis in a Dexamethasone-Dependent Manner
by Nikolas J. Kovermann, Valentina Basoli, Elena Della Bella, Mauro Alini, Christoph Lischer, Hagen Schmal, Eva Johanna Kubosch and Martin J. Stoddart
Cells 2019, 8(6), 636; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8060636 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 7558
Abstract
Recent studies highlighting mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) epigenetic memory suggest that a different differentiation medium may be required depending on the tissue of origin. As synovial-derived stem cells (SDSCs) attract interest we aimed to investigate the influence of TGF-β1, BMP-2 and dexamethasone on [...] Read more.
Recent studies highlighting mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) epigenetic memory suggest that a different differentiation medium may be required depending on the tissue of origin. As synovial-derived stem cells (SDSCs) attract interest we aimed to investigate the influence of TGF-β1, BMP-2 and dexamethasone on SDSC chondrogenesis in vitro. We demonstrate that dexamethasone-free medium led to enhanced chondrogenic differentiation at both the mRNA and matrix level. The greatest COL2A1/COL10A1 ratio was detected in cells exposed to a combination medium containing 10 ng/mL BMP-2 and 1 ng/mL TGF-β1 in the absence of dexamethasone, and this was reflected in the total amount of glycosaminoglycans produced. In summary, dexamethasone-free medium containing BMP-2 and TGF-β1 may be the most suitable when using SDSCs for cartilage tissue regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TGF-beta/BMP Signaling Pathway)
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14 pages, 1811 KiB  
Article
Combined Inhibition of TGF-β Signaling and the PD-L1 Immune Checkpoint Is Differentially Effective in Tumor Models
by Heng Sheng Sow, Jiang Ren, Marcel Camps, Ferry Ossendorp and Peter ten Dijke
Cells 2019, 8(4), 320; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8040320 - 5 Apr 2019
Cited by 80 | Viewed by 10175
Abstract
Antibodies blocking the programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) have shown impressive and durable responses in clinical studies. However, this type of immunotherapy is only effective in a subset of patients and not sufficient for rejection of all tumor types. In this study, we explored [...] Read more.
Antibodies blocking the programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) have shown impressive and durable responses in clinical studies. However, this type of immunotherapy is only effective in a subset of patients and not sufficient for rejection of all tumor types. In this study, we explored in two mouse tumor models whether the antitumor effect could be enhanced by the combined blockade of PD-L1 and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), a potent immunosuppressive cytokine. The effect of anti-PD-L1 mouse monoclonal (mAb) and a TGF-β type I receptor small molecule kinase inhibitor (LY364947) was evaluated in the highly immunogenic mouse MC38 colon adenocarcinoma and the poorly immunogenic mouse KPC1 pancreatic tumor model. In the MC38 tumor model, LY364947 monotherapy did not show any antitumor effect, whereas treatment with anti-PD-L1 mAb significantly delayed tumor outgrowth. However, combination therapy showed the strongest therapeutic efficacy, resulting in improved long-term survival compared with anti-PD-L1 mAb monotherapy. This improved survival was associated with an increased influx of CD8+ T cells in the tumor microenvironment. In the KPC1 tumor model, LY364947 did not enhance the antitumor effect of anti-PD-L1 mAb. Despite this, delayed KPC1 tumor outgrowth was observed in the LY364947-treated group and this treatment led to a significant reduction of CD4+ T cells in the tumor microenvironment. Together, our data indicate that an additive anti-tumor response of dual targeting PD-L1 and TGF-β is dependent on the tumor model used, highlighting the importance of selecting appropriate cancer types, using in-depth analysis of the tumor microenvironment, which can benefit from combinatorial immunotherapy regimens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TGF-beta/BMP Signaling Pathway)
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15 pages, 3395 KiB  
Article
miR-1306 Mediates the Feedback Regulation of the TGF-β/SMAD Signaling Pathway in Granulosa Cells
by Liu Yang, Xing Du, Lu Liu, Qiuyu Cao, Zengxiang Pan and Qifa Li
Cells 2019, 8(4), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8040298 - 31 Mar 2019
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 5423
Abstract
Transforming growth factor-β receptor II (TGFBR2), the type II receptor of the TGF-β/SMA- and MAD-related protein (SMAD) signaling pathway, plays a crucial role in TGF-β signal transduction and is regulated by multiple factors. Nevertheless, the modulation of the non-coding RNA involved in the [...] Read more.
Transforming growth factor-β receptor II (TGFBR2), the type II receptor of the TGF-β/SMA- and MAD-related protein (SMAD) signaling pathway, plays a crucial role in TGF-β signal transduction and is regulated by multiple factors. Nevertheless, the modulation of the non-coding RNA involved in the process of TGFBR2 expression in ovaries is not well studied. In our study, we isolated and characterized the 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of the porcine TGFBR2 gene and microRNA-1306 (miR-1306) was identified as the functional miRNA that targets TGFBR2 in porcine granulosa cells (GCs). Functional analysis showed that miR-1306 promotes apoptosis of GCs as well as attenuating the TGF-β/SMAD signaling pathway targeting and impairing TGFBR2 in GCs. Moreover, we identified the miR-1306 core promoter and found three potential SMAD4-binding elements (SBEs). Luciferase and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays revealed that the transcription factor SMAD4 directly binds to the miR-1306 core promoter and inhibits its transcriptional activity. Furthermore, the TGF-β/SMAD signaling pathway is modulated by SMAD4 positive feedback via inhibition of miR-1306 expression in GCs. Collectively, our findings provide evidence of an epigenetic mechanism that modulates as well as mediates the feedback regulation of the classical TGF-β/SMAD signaling pathway in GCs from porcine ovaries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TGF-beta/BMP Signaling Pathway)
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23 pages, 2225 KiB  
Article
Carnosine Prevents Aβ-Induced Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Microglial Cells: A Key Role of TGF-β1
by Giuseppe Caruso, Claudia G. Fresta, Nicolò Musso, Mariaconcetta Giambirtone, Margherita Grasso, Simona F. Spampinato, Sara Merlo, Filippo Drago, Giuseppe Lazzarino, Maria A. Sortino, Susan M. Lunte and Filippo Caraci
Cells 2019, 8(1), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8010064 (registering DOI) - 17 Jan 2019
Cited by 88 | Viewed by 8649
Abstract
Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine), a dipeptide, is an endogenous antioxidant widely distributed in excitable tissues like muscles and the brain. Carnosine is involved in cellular defense mechanisms against oxidative stress, including the inhibition of amyloid-beta (Aβ) aggregation and the scavenging of reactive species. Microglia play [...] Read more.
Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine), a dipeptide, is an endogenous antioxidant widely distributed in excitable tissues like muscles and the brain. Carnosine is involved in cellular defense mechanisms against oxidative stress, including the inhibition of amyloid-beta (Aβ) aggregation and the scavenging of reactive species. Microglia play a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease, promoting neuroinflammation through the secretion of inflammatory mediators and free radicals. However, the effects of carnosine on microglial cells and neuroinflammation are not well understood. In the present work, carnosine was tested for its ability to protect BV-2 microglial cells against oligomeric Aβ1-42-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. Carnosine prevented cell death in BV-2 cells challenged with Aβ oligomers through multiple mechanisms. Specifically, carnosine lowered the oxidative stress by decreasing NO and O2−• intracellular levels as well as the expression of iNOS and Nox enzymes. Carnosine also decreased the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, simultaneously rescuing IL-10 levels and increasing the expression and the release of TGF-β1. Carnosine also prevented Aβ-induced neurodegeneration in mixed neuronal cultures challenged with Aβ oligomers, and these neuroprotective effects were completely abolished by SB431542, a selective inhibitor of the type-1 TGF-β receptor. Our data suggest a multimodal mechanism of action of carnosine underlying its protective effects on microglial cells against Aβ toxicity with a key role of TGF-β1 in mediating these protective effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TGF-beta/BMP Signaling Pathway)
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

17 pages, 1511 KiB  
Review
Role of TGF-β in Skin Chronic Wounds: A Keratinocyte Perspective
by Sergio Liarte, Ángel Bernabé-García and Francisco J. Nicolás
Cells 2020, 9(2), 306; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9020306 - 28 Jan 2020
Cited by 124 | Viewed by 8674
Abstract
Chronic wounds are characterized for their incapacity to heal within an expected time frame. Potential mechanisms driving this impairment are poorly understood and current hypotheses point to the development of an unbalanced milieu of growth factor and cytokines. Among them, TGF-β is considered [...] Read more.
Chronic wounds are characterized for their incapacity to heal within an expected time frame. Potential mechanisms driving this impairment are poorly understood and current hypotheses point to the development of an unbalanced milieu of growth factor and cytokines. Among them, TGF-β is considered to promote the broadest spectrum of effects. Although it is known to contribute to healthy skin homeostasis, the highly context-dependent nature of TGF-β signaling restricts the understanding of its roles in healing and wound chronification. Historically, low TGF-β levels have been suggested as a pattern in chronic wounds. However, a revision of the available evidence in humans indicates that this could constitute a questionable argument. Thus, in chronic wounds, divergences regarding skin tissue compartments seem to be characterized by elevated TGF-β levels only in the epidermis. Understanding how this aspect affects keratinocyte activities and their capacity to re-epithelialize might offer an opportunity to gain comprehensive knowledge of the involvement of TGF-β in chronic wounds. In this review, we compile existing evidence on the roles played by TGF-β during skin wound healing, with special emphasis on keratinocyte responses. Current limitations and future perspectives of TGF-β research in chronic wounds are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TGF-beta/BMP Signaling Pathway)
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29 pages, 1083 KiB  
Review
Specification of BMP Signaling
by Joachim Nickel and Thomas D. Mueller
Cells 2019, 8(12), 1579; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8121579 - 5 Dec 2019
Cited by 79 | Viewed by 10343
Abstract
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) together with the Growth and Differentiation Factors (GDFs) form the largest subgroup of the Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)β family and represent secreted growth factors, which play an essential role in many aspects of cell communication in higher organisms. As [...] Read more.
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) together with the Growth and Differentiation Factors (GDFs) form the largest subgroup of the Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)β family and represent secreted growth factors, which play an essential role in many aspects of cell communication in higher organisms. As morphogens they exert crucial functions during embryonal development, but are also involved in tissue homeostasis and regeneration in the adult organism. Their involvement in maintenance and repair processes of various tissues and organs made these growth factors highly interesting targets for novel pharmaceutical applications in regenerative medicine. A hallmark of the TGFβ protein family is that all of the more than 30 growth factors identified to date signal by binding and hetero-oligomerization of a very limited set of transmembrane serine-threonine kinase receptors, which can be classified into two subgroups termed type I and type II. Only seven type I and five type II receptors exist for all 30plus TGFβ members suggesting a pronounced ligand-receptor promiscuity. Indeed, many TGFβ ligands can bind the same type I or type II receptor and a particular receptor of either subtype can usually interact with and bind various TGFβ ligands. The possible consequence of this ligand-receptor promiscuity is further aggravated by the finding that canonical TGFβ signaling of all family members seemingly results in the activation of just two distinct signaling pathways, that is either SMAD2/3 or SMAD1/5/8 activation. While this would implicate that different ligands can assemble seemingly identical receptor complexes that activate just either one of two distinct pathways, in vitro and in vivo analyses show that the different TGFβ members exert quite distinct biological functions with high specificity. This discrepancy indicates that our current view of TGFβ signaling initiation just by hetero-oligomerization of two receptor subtypes and transduction via two main pathways in an on-off switch manner is too simplified. Hence, the signals generated by the various TGFβ members are either quantitatively interpreted using the subtle differences in their receptor-binding properties leading to ligand-specific modulation of the downstream signaling cascade or additional components participating in the signaling activation complex allow diversification of the encoded signal in a ligand-dependent manner at all cellular levels. In this review we focus on signal specification of TGFβ members, particularly of BMPs and GDFs addressing the role of binding affinities, specificities, and kinetics of individual ligand-receptor interactions for the assembly of specific receptor complexes with potentially distinct signaling properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TGF-beta/BMP Signaling Pathway)
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33 pages, 10016 KiB  
Review
TGFβ Family Signaling Pathways in Pluripotent and Teratocarcinoma Stem Cells’ Fate Decisions: Balancing Between Self-Renewal, Differentiation, and Cancer
by Olga Gordeeva
Cells 2019, 8(12), 1500; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8121500 - 23 Nov 2019
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 8140
Abstract
The transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) family factors induce pleiotropic effects and are involved in the regulation of most normal and pathological cellular processes. The activity of different branches of the TGFβ family signaling pathways and their interplay with other signaling pathways govern the [...] Read more.
The transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) family factors induce pleiotropic effects and are involved in the regulation of most normal and pathological cellular processes. The activity of different branches of the TGFβ family signaling pathways and their interplay with other signaling pathways govern the fine regulation of the self-renewal, differentiation onset and specialization of pluripotent stem cells in various cell derivatives. TGFβ family signaling pathways play a pivotal role in balancing basic cellular processes in pluripotent stem cells and their derivatives, although disturbances in their genome integrity induce the rearrangements of signaling pathways and lead to functional impairments and malignant transformation into cancer stem cells. Therefore, the identification of critical nodes and targets in the regulatory cascades of TGFβ family factors and other signaling pathways, and analysis of the rearrangements of the signal regulatory network during stem cell state transitions and interconversions, are key issues for understanding the fundamental mechanisms of both stem cell biology and cancer initiation and progression, as well as for clinical applications. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of TGFβ family functions in naїve and primed pluripotent stem cells and discusses how these pathways are involved in perturbations in the signaling network of malignant teratocarcinoma stem cells with impaired differentiation potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TGF-beta/BMP Signaling Pathway)
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35 pages, 1471 KiB  
Review
TGF-β in Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation and Liver Fibrogenesis—Updated 2019
by Bedair Dewidar, Christoph Meyer, Steven Dooley and and Nadja Meindl-Beinker
Cells 2019, 8(11), 1419; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8111419 - 11 Nov 2019
Cited by 432 | Viewed by 23443
Abstract
Liver fibrosis is an advanced liver disease condition, which could progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. To date, there is no direct approved antifibrotic therapy, and current treatment is mainly the removal of the causative factor. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is a master [...] Read more.
Liver fibrosis is an advanced liver disease condition, which could progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. To date, there is no direct approved antifibrotic therapy, and current treatment is mainly the removal of the causative factor. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is a master profibrogenic cytokine and a promising target to treat fibrosis. However, TGF-β has broad biological functions and its inhibition induces non-desirable side effects, which override therapeutic benefits. Therefore, understanding the pleiotropic effects of TGF-β and its upstream and downstream regulatory mechanisms will help to design better TGF-β based therapeutics. Here, we summarize recent discoveries and milestones on the TGF-β signaling pathway related to liver fibrosis and hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation, emphasizing research of the last five years. This comprises impact of TGF-β on liver fibrogenesis related biological processes, such as senescence, metabolism, reactive oxygen species generation, epigenetics, circadian rhythm, epithelial mesenchymal transition, and endothelial-mesenchymal transition. We also describe the influence of the microenvironment on the response of HSC to TGF-β. Finally, we discuss new approaches to target the TGF-β pathway, name current clinical trials, and explain promises and drawbacks that deserve to be adequately addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TGF-beta/BMP Signaling Pathway)
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26 pages, 2825 KiB  
Review
ACVR1 Function in Health and Disease
by José Antonio Valer, Cristina Sánchez-de-Diego, Carolina Pimenta-Lopes, Jose Luis Rosa and Francesc Ventura
Cells 2019, 8(11), 1366; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8111366 - 31 Oct 2019
Cited by 49 | Viewed by 13250
Abstract
Activin A receptor type I (ACVR1) encodes for a bone morphogenetic protein type I receptor of the TGFβ receptor superfamily. It is involved in a wide variety of biological processes, including bone, heart, cartilage, nervous, and reproductive system development and regulation. Moreover, ACVR1 [...] Read more.
Activin A receptor type I (ACVR1) encodes for a bone morphogenetic protein type I receptor of the TGFβ receptor superfamily. It is involved in a wide variety of biological processes, including bone, heart, cartilage, nervous, and reproductive system development and regulation. Moreover, ACVR1 has been extensively studied for its causal role in fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), a rare genetic disorder characterised by progressive heterotopic ossification. ACVR1 is linked to different pathologies, including cardiac malformations and alterations in the reproductive system. More recently, ACVR1 has been experimentally validated as a cancer driver gene in diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG), a malignant childhood brainstem glioma, and its function is being studied in other cancer types. Here, we review ACVR1 receptor function and signalling in physiological and pathological processes and its regulation according to cell type and mutational status. Learning from different functions and alterations linked to ACVR1 is a key step in the development of interdisciplinary research towards the identification of novel treatments for these pathologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TGF-beta/BMP Signaling Pathway)
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26 pages, 2359 KiB  
Review
Contextual Regulation of TGF-β Signaling in Liver Cancer
by Shuo Tu, Wei Huang, Chunhong Huang, Zhijun Luo and Xiaohua Yan
Cells 2019, 8(10), 1235; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8101235 - 11 Oct 2019
Cited by 47 | Viewed by 8229
Abstract
Primary liver cancer is one of the leading causes for cancer-related death worldwide. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a pleiotropic cytokine that signals through membrane receptors and intracellular Smad proteins, which enter the nucleus upon receptor activation and act as transcription factors. [...] Read more.
Primary liver cancer is one of the leading causes for cancer-related death worldwide. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a pleiotropic cytokine that signals through membrane receptors and intracellular Smad proteins, which enter the nucleus upon receptor activation and act as transcription factors. TGF-β inhibits liver tumorigenesis in the early stage by inducing cytostasis and apoptosis, but promotes malignant progression in more advanced stages by enhancing cancer cell survival, EMT, migration, invasion and finally metastasis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underpinning the multi-faceted roles of TGF-β in liver cancer has become a persistent pursuit during the last two decades. Contextual regulation fine-tunes the robustness, duration and plasticity of TGF-β signaling, yielding versatile albeit specific responses. This involves multiple feedback and feed-forward regulatory loops and also the interplay between Smad signaling and non-Smad pathways. This review summarizes the known regulatory mechanisms of TGF-β signaling in liver cancer, and how they channel, skew and even switch the actions of TGF-β during cancer progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TGF-beta/BMP Signaling Pathway)
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21 pages, 1737 KiB  
Review
The Interactivity between TGFβ and BMP Signaling in Organogenesis, Fibrosis, and Cancer
by Francesco Dituri, Carla Cossu, Serena Mancarella and Gianluigi Giannelli
Cells 2019, 8(10), 1130; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8101130 - 23 Sep 2019
Cited by 86 | Viewed by 15057
Abstract
The Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGFβ) and Bone Morphogenic Protein (BMP) pathways intersect at multiple signaling hubs and cooperatively or counteractively participate to bring about cellular processes which are critical not only for tissue morphogenesis and organogenesis during development, but also for adult [...] Read more.
The Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGFβ) and Bone Morphogenic Protein (BMP) pathways intersect at multiple signaling hubs and cooperatively or counteractively participate to bring about cellular processes which are critical not only for tissue morphogenesis and organogenesis during development, but also for adult tissue homeostasis. The proper functioning of the TGFβ/BMP pathway depends on its communication with other signaling pathways and any deregulation leads to developmental defects or diseases, including fibrosis and cancer. In this review we explore the cellular and physio-pathological contexts in which the synergism or antagonism between the TGFβ and BMP pathways are crucial determinants for the normal developmental processes, as well as the progression of fibrosis and malignancies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TGF-beta/BMP Signaling Pathway)
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30 pages, 3370 KiB  
Review
TGFβ/BMP Signaling Pathway in Cartilage Homeostasis
by Nathalie G.M. Thielen, Peter M. van der Kraan and Arjan P.M. van Caam
Cells 2019, 8(9), 969; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8090969 - 24 Aug 2019
Cited by 160 | Viewed by 13469
Abstract
Cartilage homeostasis is governed by articular chondrocytes via their ability to modulate extracellular matrix production and degradation. In turn, chondrocyte activity is regulated by growth factors such as those of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) family. Members of this family include the [...] Read more.
Cartilage homeostasis is governed by articular chondrocytes via their ability to modulate extracellular matrix production and degradation. In turn, chondrocyte activity is regulated by growth factors such as those of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) family. Members of this family include the TGFβs, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), and growth and differentiation factors (GDFs). Signaling by this protein family uniquely activates SMAD-dependent signaling and transcription but also activates SMAD-independent signaling via MAPKs such as ERK and TAK1. This review will address the pivotal role of the TGFβ family in cartilage biology by listing several TGFβ family members and describing their signaling and importance for cartilage maintenance. In addition, it is discussed how (pathological) processes such as aging, mechanical stress, and inflammation contribute to altered TGFβ family signaling, leading to disturbed cartilage metabolism and disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TGF-beta/BMP Signaling Pathway)
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17 pages, 1290 KiB  
Review
Transforming Growth Factor-Beta (TGFβ) Signaling Pathway in Cholangiocarcinoma
by Panagiotis Papoutsoglou, Corentin Louis and Cédric Coulouarn
Cells 2019, 8(9), 960; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8090960 - 23 Aug 2019
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 5862
Abstract
Cholangiocarcinoma is a deadly cancer worldwide, associated with a poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. Although cholangiocarcinoma accounts for less than 15% of liver primary cancer, its silent nature restricts early diagnosis and prevents efficient treatment. Therefore, it is of clinical relevance to [...] Read more.
Cholangiocarcinoma is a deadly cancer worldwide, associated with a poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. Although cholangiocarcinoma accounts for less than 15% of liver primary cancer, its silent nature restricts early diagnosis and prevents efficient treatment. Therefore, it is of clinical relevance to better understand the molecular basis of cholangiocarcinoma, including the signaling pathways that contribute to tumor onset and progression. In this review, we discuss the genetic, molecular, and environmental factors that promote cholangiocarcinoma, emphasizing the role of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling pathway in the progression of this cancer. We provide an overview of the physiological functions of TGFβ signaling in preserving liver homeostasis and describe how advanced cholangiocarcinoma benefits from the tumor-promoting effects of TGFβ. Moreover, we report the importance of noncoding RNAs as effector molecules downstream of TGFβ during cholangiocarcinoma progression, and conclude by highlighting the need for identifying novel and clinically relevant biomarkers for a better management of patients with cholangiocarcinoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TGF-beta/BMP Signaling Pathway)
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