Photocatalytic Oxidation/Ozonation Processes

A special issue of Catalysts (ISSN 2073-4344). This special issue belongs to the section "Photocatalysis".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 January 2022) | Viewed by 28631

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Departamento de Ingenieria Química y Química Física, Instituto Universitario de Investigación del Agua, Cambio Climático y Sostenibilidad Universidad de Extremadura, 06187 Badajoz, Spain
Interests: water ozonation; advanced oxidation processes; catalysis engineering; environmental remediation; photocatalysis
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Guest Editor
Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Química Física, Instituto Universitario de Investigación del Agua, Cambio Climático y Sostenibilidad, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz, Spain.
Interests: Water Ozonation; Advanced Oxidation Processes; Catalysis Engineering; Environmental Remediation; Photocatalysis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nowadays, the increasing demand for water requires research works on water treatment to provide in-depth studies of tertiary operations, such as membrane technologies, adsorption, and chemical oxidation, with the aim of the reuse of water. Among these technologies, advanced chemical oxidation processes (ACOPs), where hydroxyl radicals are the main oxidizing species, stand out because they may completely remove contaminants, while the other process types only transfer contaminants from one phase (water) to another (membrane concentrates, adsorbents, etc). Photochemical oxidation is one ACOP that has already been proved to be efficient in pollutant removal. This technology uses the radiation of a semiconductor catalyst to generate charge carriers (holes and electrons) that eventually form hydroxyl radicals. The process works efficiently with UV lamps and TiO2 in powder form as a catalyst; however, it has a series of drawbacks such that real application of the process has not yet been possible. Among these problems, one can highlight the high recombination of charge carriers that inhibit the process, the poor or null TiO2 activity with visible light due to its high band gap, and the difficult and costly separation of TiO2 from the treated water. In addition, the use of UV lamps based on mercury makes this process environmentally unsustainable. In order to solve these problems, research is focusing on doped TiO2, supported or magnetic photocatalysts, and the use of solar light or higher energetic efficiency and toxicity-free UVA light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Also, photocatalytic ozonation, or the process based on the synergism between ozonation and photocatalytic oxidation, is another, even more powerful, ACOP for the formation of hydroxyl radicals apart from the possible direct oxidation with ozone itself.

This special issue will focus on works about the synthesis and characterization of supported or magnetic photocatalysts and their application in reactions with water pollutants in the presence of visible light (solar or simulated) or radiation from UVA–visible LEDs with and without the presence of ozone. Also, the issue deals with any ozone process in water that involves the simultaneus application of ozone with homogeneous catalysts (iron, manganese, etc), UV radiation (without catalysts), hydrogen peroxide, sonolysis, etc, that is, what they are called ozone advanced oxidation processes. The aim is to look for conditions that would make photocatalytic oxidation and ozone advanced oxidation processes.

Prof. Fernando J. Beltrán Novillo
Prof. Juan F. Garcia-Araya
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Ozonation,
  • photocatalytic oxidation
  • photocatalytic ozonation
  • water contaminants
  • wastewater reuse
  • supported photocatalysts
  • magnetic photocatalysts
  • LEDS, visible active photocatalysts
  • solar radiation

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

4 pages, 209 KiB  
Editorial
Photocatalytic Oxidation/Ozonation Processes
by Juan F. García-Araya and Fernando J. Beltrán
Catalysts 2023, 13(2), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13020314 - 01 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 976
Abstract
Diffuse pollution and the presence in waters of so-called emerging pollutants, among others, represent a major global environmental problem [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photocatalytic Oxidation/Ozonation Processes)

Research

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12 pages, 2343 KiB  
Article
Six Flux Model for the Central Lamp Reactor Applied to an External Four-Lamp Reactor
by Fernando J. Beltrán, Javier Rivas and Juan-Fernando Garcia-Araya
Catalysts 2021, 11(10), 1190; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal11101190 - 29 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1207
Abstract
One of the difficulties of establishing the intrinsic kinetics of photocatalytic oxidation processes is due to the complex mathematical formula used to determine the rate of photon absorption. To solve this problem, some models have been proposed and checked, such as the Six [...] Read more.
One of the difficulties of establishing the intrinsic kinetics of photocatalytic oxidation processes is due to the complex mathematical formula used to determine the rate of photon absorption. To solve this problem, some models have been proposed and checked, such as the Six Flux Model (SFM) confirmed in central lamp photoreactors. External lamp photoreactors are also one of the most used configurations to study the photocatalytic oxidation of contaminants in water, and complex mathematical solutions have been reported to solve the rate of photon absorption. In this work, SFM Equations already reported for the central lamp photoreactor have been adapted to determine the rate of photon absorption in an external four-lamp photoreactor. The results obtained show slight differences from those of the Monte Carlo method. Additionally, once the rate of photon absorption was validated, the intrinsic rate constant and scavenging factor of the photocatalytic oxidation of some contaminant compounds from results already published have been determined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photocatalytic Oxidation/Ozonation Processes)
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16 pages, 3110 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Naproxen Elimination in Water by Catalytic Ozonation Based on NiO Films
by Claudia M. Aguilar-Melo, Julia L. Rodríguez, Isaac Chairez, Iván Salgado, J. A. Andraca Adame, J. A. Galaviz-Pérez, Jorge Vazquez-Arenas and Tatyana Poznyak
Catalysts 2020, 10(8), 884; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10080884 - 05 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2568
Abstract
This study evaluates naproxen (NP) degradation efficiency by ozonation using nickel oxide films (NiO(F)) as a catalyst. The NiO films were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition and characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force [...] Read more.
This study evaluates naproxen (NP) degradation efficiency by ozonation using nickel oxide films (NiO(F)) as a catalyst. The NiO films were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition and characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. NP degradation was conducted for 5 min using 10 films of NiO(F) comparing against ozonation using 100 mg/L NiO powder in suspension (NiO(S)) and conventional ozonation (O3-conv). Total organic carbon analysis demonstrated a mineralization degree of 12% with O3-conv, 35% with NiO as powder and 22% with NiO(F) after 60 min of reaction. The films of NiO(F) were sequentially used 4 times in ozonation demonstrating the stability of the synthesized material, as well as its properties as a catalyst for ozonation. A proposed modeling strategy using robust parametric identification techniques allows the comparison of NP decomposition pseudo-monomolecular reaction rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photocatalytic Oxidation/Ozonation Processes)
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9 pages, 1930 KiB  
Article
Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Methane When Using TiO2- or WO3-Doped Sm2O3 in the Presence of Active Oxygen Excited with UV-LED
by Shigeru Sugiyama, Yasunori Hayashi, Ikumi Okitsu, Naohiro Shimoda, Masahiro Katoh, Akihiro Furube, Yuki Kato and Wataru Ninomiya
Catalysts 2020, 10(5), 559; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10050559 - 18 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2783
Abstract
There are active oxygen species that contribute to oxidative coupling or the partial oxidation during the oxidative dehydrogenation of methane when using solid oxide catalysts, and those species have not been definitively identified. In the present study, we clarify which of the active [...] Read more.
There are active oxygen species that contribute to oxidative coupling or the partial oxidation during the oxidative dehydrogenation of methane when using solid oxide catalysts, and those species have not been definitively identified. In the present study, we clarify which of the active oxygen species affect the oxidative dehydrogenation of methane by employing photo-catalysts such as TiO2 or WO3, which generate active oxygen from UV-LED irradiation conditions under an oxygen flow. These photo-catalysts were studied in combination with Sm2O3, which is a methane oxidation coupling catalyst. For this purpose, we constructed a reaction system that could directly irradiate UV-LED to a solid catalyst via a normal fixed-bed continuous-flow reactor operated at atmospheric pressure. Binary catalysts prepared from TiO2 or WO3 were either supported on or kneaded with Sm2O3 in the present study. UV-LED irradiation clearly improved the partial oxidation from methane to CO and/or slightly improved the oxidative coupling route from methane to ethylene when binary catalysts consisting of Sm2O3 and TiO2 are used, while negligible UV-LED effects were detected when using Sm2O3 and WO3. These results indicate that with UV-LED irradiation the active oxygen of O2 from TiO2 certainly contributes to the activation of methane during the oxidative dehydrogenation of methane when using Sm2O3, while the active oxygen of H2O2 from WO3 under the same conditions afforded only negligible effects on the activation of methane. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photocatalytic Oxidation/Ozonation Processes)
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12 pages, 3358 KiB  
Article
Potassium Ferrite as Heterogeneous Photo-Fenton Catalyst for Highly Efficient Dye Degradation
by Xinghui Zhang, Zhibin Geng, Juan Jian, Yiqiang He, Zipeng Lv, Xinxin Liu and Hongming Yuan
Catalysts 2020, 10(3), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10030293 - 04 Mar 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3415
Abstract
In this work, hexagon-shaped potassium ferrite (K2Fe4O7) crystals with different sizes were prepared using the hydrothermal method. The crystals showed a narrow band gap of 1.44 eV, revealed by UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and was thus used [...] Read more.
In this work, hexagon-shaped potassium ferrite (K2Fe4O7) crystals with different sizes were prepared using the hydrothermal method. The crystals showed a narrow band gap of 1.44 eV, revealed by UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and was thus used as a heterogeneous Fenton catalyst to degrade methylene blue (MB) and crystal violet (CV) in the presence of green oxidant H2O2 under visible-light irradiation. Among the investigated crystals, the as-prepared one with an average size of 20 µm (KFO-20) exhibited better photocatalytic activity due to its high surface area. When it was used as a photo-Fenton catalyst, 100% MB and 92% CV were degraded within 35 min. Moreover, the catalyst maintained high photocatalytic activity and was stable after four continuous cycles. The trapping experiments showed that the active hydroxyl radical (·OH) was dominant in the photo-Fenton reaction. Therefore, this new photo-Fenton catalyst has great potential for the photocatalytic degradation of dye contaminants in water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photocatalytic Oxidation/Ozonation Processes)
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12 pages, 3382 KiB  
Article
Photocatalytic Oxidation of Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether in Presence of Various Phase Compositions of TiO2
by Marcel Šihor, Martin Reli, Michal Vaštyl, Květoslava Hrádková, Lenka Matějová and Kamila Kočí
Catalysts 2020, 10(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10010035 - 26 Dec 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2630
Abstract
MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether) represents a rising threat to the environment, especially drinking water, and its effective removal (with all by-products) is necessary. Even a very low concentration of MTBE makes the water undrinkable; therefore, an effective treatment has to be developed. [...] Read more.
MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether) represents a rising threat to the environment, especially drinking water, and its effective removal (with all by-products) is necessary. Even a very low concentration of MTBE makes the water undrinkable; therefore, an effective treatment has to be developed. This work is focused on MTBE photocatalytic oxidation in presence of various TiO2 photocatalysts with different phase composition prepared by different methods. It was confirmed the phase composition of TiO2 had the most significant influence on the photocatalytic degradation of MTBE. The rutile phase more easily reduces adsorbed oxygen by photogenerated electrons to superoxide radical, supporting separation of charge carriers. The presence and concentrations of by-products have to be taken into account as well. The conversion of total organic carbon (TOC) was used for the comparison, 40% of TOC was removed after 1 h of irradiation in presence of TiO2–ISOP–C/800 photocatalyst composed of anatase and rutile phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photocatalytic Oxidation/Ozonation Processes)
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12 pages, 5473 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Photocatalytic Ozonation of Phenol by Ag/ZnO Nanocomposites
by Junmin Peng, Tong Lu, Hongbo Ming, Zhengxin Ding, Zhiyang Yu, Jinshui Zhang and Yidong Hou
Catalysts 2019, 9(12), 1006; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9121006 - 30 Nov 2019
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 4269
Abstract
Ag/ZnO nanocomposites were synthesized and applied in the photocatalytic ozonation of phenol. Their crystal, textural, morphological, optical, and electrochemical properties were investigated by XRD, Raman, SEM, TEM, UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), and photoluminescence (PL) techniques in detail. The [...] Read more.
Ag/ZnO nanocomposites were synthesized and applied in the photocatalytic ozonation of phenol. Their crystal, textural, morphological, optical, and electrochemical properties were investigated by XRD, Raman, SEM, TEM, UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), and photoluminescence (PL) techniques in detail. The results indicated that silver nanoparticles were well dispersed on the surface of porous ZnO and the intimate contacts were formed at the Ag/ZnO interfaces. This prominently favored the separation and transfer of photoinduced electrons from ZnO to Ag nanoparticles for the activation of ozone to produce •OH and •O2. As a result, a significant enhancement in photocatalytic ozonation of phenol was achieved over Ag/ZnO catalysts. It also showed a synergistic effect between photocatalysis and ozonation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photocatalytic Oxidation/Ozonation Processes)
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Review

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63 pages, 3027 KiB  
Review
The Role of Catalytic Ozonation Processes on the Elimination of DBPs and Their Precursors in Drinking Water Treatment
by Fernando J. Beltrán, Ana Rey and Olga Gimeno
Catalysts 2021, 11(4), 521; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal11040521 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3682
Abstract
Formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water treatment (DWT) as a result of pathogen removal has always been an issue of special attention in the preparation of safe water. DBPs are formed by the action of oxidant-disinfectant chemicals, mainly chlorine derivatives (chlorine, [...] Read more.
Formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water treatment (DWT) as a result of pathogen removal has always been an issue of special attention in the preparation of safe water. DBPs are formed by the action of oxidant-disinfectant chemicals, mainly chlorine derivatives (chlorine, hypochlorous acid, chloramines, etc.), that react with natural organic matter (NOM), mainly humic substances. DBPs are usually refractory to oxidation, mainly due to the presence of halogen compounds so that advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are a recommended option to deal with their removal. In this work, the application of catalytic ozonation processes (with and without the simultaneous presence of radiation), moderately recent AOPs, for the removal of humic substances (NOM), also called DBPs precursors, and DBPs themselves is reviewed. First, a short history about the use of disinfectants in DWT, DBPs formation discovery and alternative oxidants used is presented. Then, sections are dedicated to conventional AOPs applied to remove DBPs and their precursors to finalize with the description of principal research achievements found in the literature about application of catalytic ozonation processes. In this sense, aspects such as operating conditions, reactors used, radiation sources applied in their case, kinetics and mechanisms are reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photocatalytic Oxidation/Ozonation Processes)
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26 pages, 5868 KiB  
Review
Review on the Visible Light Photocatalysis for the Decomposition of Ciprofloxacin, Norfloxacin, Tetracyclines, and Sulfonamides Antibiotics in Wastewater
by Samar Shurbaji, Pham Thi Huong and Talal Mohammed Altahtamouni
Catalysts 2021, 11(4), 437; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal11040437 - 29 Mar 2021
Cited by 65 | Viewed by 6210
Abstract
Antibiotics are chemical compounds that are used to kill or prevent bacterial growth. They are used in different fields, such as the medical field, agriculture, and veterinary. Antibiotics end up in wastewater, which causes the threat of developing antibacterial resistance; therefore, antibiotics must [...] Read more.
Antibiotics are chemical compounds that are used to kill or prevent bacterial growth. They are used in different fields, such as the medical field, agriculture, and veterinary. Antibiotics end up in wastewater, which causes the threat of developing antibacterial resistance; therefore, antibiotics must be eliminated from wastewater. Different conventional elimination methods are limited due to their high cost and effort, or incomplete elimination. Semiconductor-assisted photocatalysis arises as an effective elimination method for different organic wastes including antibiotics. A variety of semiconducting materials were tested to eliminate antibiotics from wastewater; nevertheless, research is still ongoing due to some limitations. This review summarizes the recent studies regarding semiconducting material modifications for antibiotic degradation using visible light irradiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photocatalytic Oxidation/Ozonation Processes)
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