Non-destructive Testing for Building Evaluation

A special issue of Buildings (ISSN 2075-5309). This special issue belongs to the section "Building Structures".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2020) | Viewed by 54533

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Building Engineering, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland
Interests: cementitious materials; sustainable development; artificial intelligence; nondestructive testing; surface morphology
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recently the non-destructive testing (NDT) is more frequently used for the evaluation and condition assessment of buildings. This evaluation is wide: from the simplest visual inspection, through optical & laser, acoustic, radiological and electromagnetic methods together with thermography and advanced tomography. At the construction stage also materials together with parts of the buildings are tested on site or in the laboratory. At the maintenance stage more often whole buildings are monitored. The special effort is placed on the complementary application of various NDT techniques into a one structural health monitoring system (SHM). More advanced techniques and algorithms are used to correlate the obtained signals and parameters. The main objective of this special issue is to share, present and discuss recent applications of NDT for the evaluation and condition assessment of buildings with the special focus on real-world applications. Original research articles, case studies as well as review articles that will stimulate the continuing efforts in applications of NDT & Evaluation for buildings are welcomed.

Dr. Łukasz Sadowski
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • non-destructive testing
  • evaluation
  • buildings
  • construction
  • maintenance
  • monitoring
  • concrete
  • masonry
  • condition assessment

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 176 KiB  
Editorial
Non-Destructive Testing for Building Evaluation
by Łukasz Sadowski
Buildings 2022, 12(7), 1030; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12071030 - 16 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1561
Abstract
As of recent, non-destructive testing (NDT) has been used more frequently to evaluate and assess the condition of buildings [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-destructive Testing for Building Evaluation)

Research

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14 pages, 7804 KiB  
Article
Ultrasonic Assessment of the Concrete Residual Strength after a Real Fire Exposure
by Roman Wróblewski and Bohdan Stawiski
Buildings 2020, 10(9), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10090154 - 2 Sep 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3114
Abstract
After a fire, the assessment of concrete residual strength can be a challenge. Since the strength reduction depends on the distance from the heated surface examination based on destructive test, i.e., core samples, is not precise enough. Therefore, more detailed methods can establish [...] Read more.
After a fire, the assessment of concrete residual strength can be a challenge. Since the strength reduction depends on the distance from the heated surface examination based on destructive test, i.e., core samples, is not precise enough. Therefore, more detailed methods can establish the influence of the high temperature in the zone, which no longer has visible cracks. That method can be used to assess layer thickness to remove due to the fire damage. The Ultrasound Pulse Velocity (UPV) method with point heads was used in the paper to examine samples taken from a structure after the real fire. Moreover, to make the analysis more precise, an effect associated with the porosity in concrete was also considered to separate pure fire effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-destructive Testing for Building Evaluation)
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13 pages, 5277 KiB  
Article
A New Proposal for the Shear Strength Prediction of Beams Longitudinally Reinforced with Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Bars
by Czesław Bywalski, Michał Drzazga, Mieczysław Kamiński and Maciej Kaźmierowski
Buildings 2020, 10(5), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10050086 - 3 May 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3357
Abstract
This paper investigates composite reinforcement with regard to its use as longitudinal reinforcement. The methods used to calculate the shear strength of concrete members reinforced with fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) bars are analysed. The main parameters having a bearing on the shear strength of [...] Read more.
This paper investigates composite reinforcement with regard to its use as longitudinal reinforcement. The methods used to calculate the shear strength of concrete members reinforced with fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) bars are analysed. The main parameters having a bearing on the shear strength of beams reinforced with composite bars are defined. A comparative analysis of the shear strength calculating algorithms provided in the available design recommendations concerning FRP reinforcement and formulas derived by others researchers is carried out. A synthesis of the research to date on sheared concrete members reinforced longitudinally with FRP bars is made. The results of the studies relating to shear strength are compared with the theoretical results yielded by the considered algorithms. A new approach for estimating the shear capacity of support zones reinforced longitudinally with FRP bars without shear reinforcement was proposed and verified. A satisfactory level of model fit was obtained—the best among the available proposals. Taking into account the extended base of destructive testing results, the estimation of the shear strength in accordance with the proposed model can be used as an accompanying (non-destructive) method for the empirical determination of shear resistance of longitudinally reinforced FRP bars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-destructive Testing for Building Evaluation)
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16 pages, 3287 KiB  
Article
Ultrasonic Evaluation of Cement-Based Building Materials Modified Using Marble Powder Sourced from Industrial Wastes
by Nadhir Toubal Seghir, Oussama Benaimeche, Kamil Krzywiński and Łukasz Sadowski
Buildings 2020, 10(3), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10030038 - 27 Feb 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 4061
Abstract
This paper presents an experimental study on the assessment of the cement-based materials properties made with marble powder (MP) at different replacement ratios (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%) of cement by using the ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) test. The used MP has a [...] Read more.
This paper presents an experimental study on the assessment of the cement-based materials properties made with marble powder (MP) at different replacement ratios (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%) of cement by using the ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) test. The used MP has a Blaine fineness similar to that of Portland cement. The physical and the chemical characteristics of Portland cement and MP were determined. To determine the UPV values, cubic specimens (50 × 50 × 50 mm3) of cement paste and mortar were prepared and cured either in air at a temperature equal to 22 ± 2 °C and relative humidity equal to 20 ± 1%, or in water at a temperature equal to 20 ± 1 °C. The experimental tests including the UPV, the compressive strength (fcd), and the apparent density (ϒad) were conducted at 3, 7, 28, and 65 days, the relationship between each of these parameters were presented. Additionally, economic performance of cement and waste MP used in this study was performed. The results show that the use of MP as partial replacement of cement causes a decrease in the compressive strength and apparent density in both curing conditions. In addition, the results show a good relationship between the destructive test and non-destructive test adopted by UPV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-destructive Testing for Building Evaluation)
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9 pages, 3920 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Displacement of an Aluminum Frame Using Close Range Photogrammetry
by Setareh Ghaychi Afrouz, Mohammad Reza Razavi, Ashkan Pourkand and Claudia Mara Dias Wilson
Buildings 2019, 9(8), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9080176 - 29 Jul 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3916
Abstract
Dynamic displacement measurement of objects can be challenging due to the limitations of conventional methods and pricey instrumentation of unconventional methods, such as laser scanners. In this research, Close Range Photogrammetry (CRP) is used as an affordable non-contact method to measure 3D dynamic [...] Read more.
Dynamic displacement measurement of objects can be challenging due to the limitations of conventional methods and pricey instrumentation of unconventional methods, such as laser scanners. In this research, Close Range Photogrammetry (CRP) is used as an affordable non-contact method to measure 3D dynamic displacements. It is proposed as a reliable alternative to traditional dynamic deformation measurement methods such as displacement sensors or accelerometers. For this purpose, dynamic displacements of a three-dimensional one-story building frame model on a one-dimensional shake table are determined by using the traditional method of attached accelerometer and CRP. The results of the CRP method are compared with the results of the traditional methods as well as numerical models. The results show a good agreement which evidences the reliability of the CRP with regular cameras. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-destructive Testing for Building Evaluation)
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23 pages, 10740 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Infrared Thermography and Heat Flux Method for Dynamic Thermal Transmittance Determination
by Mergim Gaši, Bojan Milovanović and Sanjin Gumbarević
Buildings 2019, 9(5), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9050132 - 23 May 2019
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 4612
Abstract
This paper proposes an alternative experimental procedure that uses infrared thermography (IRT) for measuring the surface temperature of building elements, through which it is possible to approximate the thermal transmittance or the U-value. The literature review showed that all authors used similar procedures [...] Read more.
This paper proposes an alternative experimental procedure that uses infrared thermography (IRT) for measuring the surface temperature of building elements, through which it is possible to approximate the thermal transmittance or the U-value. The literature review showed that all authors used similar procedures that require semi-stationary heat transfer conditions, which, in most cases, could not be achieved. The dynamic and the average methods that are given in ISO 9869 were also used with the IRT and the heat flux method (HFM). The dynamic method (DYNM) shows a higher level of accuracy compared to the average method (AVGM). Since the algorithm of the DYNM is more complicated than that of the AVGM, Microsoft Excel VBA was used to implement the algorithm of the DYNM. Using the procedure given in this paper, the U-value could be approximated within 0–30% of the design U-value. The use of IRT, in combination with the DYNM, could be used in-situ since the DYNM does not require stable boundary conditions. Furthermore, the procedure given in this paper could be used for relatively fast and inexpensive U-value approximation without the use of expensive equipment (e.g., heat flux sensors). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-destructive Testing for Building Evaluation)
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20 pages, 8345 KiB  
Article
Locating Hidden Elements in Walls of Cultural Heritage Buildings by Using Infrared Thermography
by Hrvoje Glavaš, Marijana Hadzima-Nyarko, Ivana Haničar Buljan and Tomislav Barić
Buildings 2019, 9(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9020032 - 28 Jan 2019
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 6773
Abstract
The structure of Tvrđa and its buildings date back to the Middle Ages. Tvrđa represents the Old Town of the city of Osijek and the best-preserved and largest ensemble of Baroque buildings in Croatia. After the withdrawal of the Ottomans in 1687, during [...] Read more.
The structure of Tvrđa and its buildings date back to the Middle Ages. Tvrđa represents the Old Town of the city of Osijek and the best-preserved and largest ensemble of Baroque buildings in Croatia. After the withdrawal of the Ottomans in 1687, during the 18th century, the Austro-Hungarian administration systematically formed a new fortification system, regulated streets and squares and built a large number of military objects. Tvrđa took its present form in the 19th century and has kept it since then. Investigating the historical development of individual buildings, in addition to archival sources and existing architectural documentation, the obvious source of information are the buildings themselves. The aim of this paper is to explore the possibilities of using infrared thermography to find structural elements and hidden openings in historic buildings in Osijek’s Tvrđa. This paper describes the exploration of the 18th century openings on the facades of the former Kostić houses. The facades were bricked into the walls in the 19th century because houses were reused and their purposes changed from commercial to residential. Infrared thermography is often a starting, nondestructive testing method (NDT) for building analyses. This paper presents thermographic analyses of two buildings. The analyses were carried out in December 2017 and January 2018. Using a steady-state thermographic analysis of a building envelope as the first step, the audit was continued with step heating (SH) of an interest point where changes in a thermal pattern were expected due to additional bricking. Heat flux was generated by the usage of a heat gun for paint removal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-destructive Testing for Building Evaluation)
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23 pages, 4437 KiB  
Article
Vibration Analysis and Dynamic Characterization of Structural Glass Elements with Different Restraints Based on Operational Modal Analysis
by Chiara Bedon, Marco Fasan and Claudio Amadio
Buildings 2019, 9(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9010013 - 5 Jan 2019
Cited by 52 | Viewed by 8563
Abstract
Given a series of intrinsic features of structural glass systems (i.e., material properties, type of restraints, operational conditions, etc.), special care should be spent at the design stage, to ensure appropriate fail-safe requirements, but also in the service life of these innovative building [...] Read more.
Given a series of intrinsic features of structural glass systems (i.e., material properties, type of restraints, operational conditions, etc.), special care should be spent at the design stage, to ensure appropriate fail-safe requirements, but also in the service life of these innovative building components and assemblies. In this paper, the dynamic characterization of simple monolithic glass elements is presented, based on non-destructive laboratory experiments and Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) techniques, including Finite Element (FE) numerical simulations, classical analytical models, and video-tracking approaches. It is shown, in particular, how the actual restraint condition (i.e., flexibility of supports, with respect to ideal boundaries) can affect the vibration parameters of a given glass member (frequency and damping capacity). This turns out in possible variations of its overall structural performance, including stress-strain-related effects, hence suggesting the need for even further dedicated studies and methods for the reliable analysis and design of structural glass assemblies and complex systems under dynamic loads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-destructive Testing for Building Evaluation)
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19 pages, 4058 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Characterisation and Finite Element Updating of a RC Stadium Grandstand
by Filipe Santos, Corneliu Cismaşiu, Ildi Cismaşiu and Chiara Bedon
Buildings 2018, 8(10), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8100141 - 12 Oct 2018
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 7869
Abstract
This paper reports on the dynamic characterisation of a Reinforced Concrete (RC) stadium grandstand module for the Sporting Stadium in Lisbon. To this aim, a three-dimensional (3D) Finite-Element (FE) numerical model, implemented according to the technical drawings of the structure, is first presented [...] Read more.
This paper reports on the dynamic characterisation of a Reinforced Concrete (RC) stadium grandstand module for the Sporting Stadium in Lisbon. To this aim, a three-dimensional (3D) Finite-Element (FE) numerical model, implemented according to the technical drawings of the structure, is first presented to provide preliminary estimates of the expected modal characteristics for the examined structural system. Ambient vibration tests are then carried out on the same grandstand, and used to extract the natural frequencies and vibration modes of the system, according to conventional state-of-the-art output-only modal parameter identification techniques. A sensitivity investigation and FE model updating study is hence presented for the grandstand, giving evidence of the major influencing parameters and key input data for the numerical fitting of the experimental modal testing results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-destructive Testing for Building Evaluation)
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Review

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23 pages, 7017 KiB  
Review
Evaluation of the Adhesion between Overlays and Substrates in Concrete Floors: Literature Survey, Recent Non-Destructive and Semi-Destructive Testing Methods, and Research Gaps
by Jacek Szymanowski
Buildings 2019, 9(9), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9090203 - 11 Sep 2019
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 7295
Abstract
Non-destructive testing (NDT) and semi-destructive testing (SDT) have recently been more frequently used for the evaluation and condition assessment of concrete floors in various types of buildings. The subject of the article is to briefly introduce the reader to the problem of adhesion [...] Read more.
Non-destructive testing (NDT) and semi-destructive testing (SDT) have recently been more frequently used for the evaluation and condition assessment of concrete floors in various types of buildings. The subject of the article is to briefly introduce the reader to the problem of adhesion between overlays and substrates in concrete floors and to illustrate the current state of knowledge on the subject. The aim of this paper was to briefly describe the recently used non-destructive and semi-destructive testing methods and the parameters useful for characterizing the adhesion between overlays and substrates in concrete floors, as well as the methods useful to characterize the functional properties of the overlays. A recent literature survey, related to the adhesion between the overlays and substrates in concrete floors, is thus shown. Special emphasis was placed on the critical review of the current research results. Based on the analysis of the literature review, research gaps have been presented in order to highlight future research directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-destructive Testing for Building Evaluation)
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