Effects of Physical Exercise on Human Physiology and Pathology

A special issue of Biology (ISSN 2079-7737). This special issue belongs to the section "Physiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2023) | Viewed by 15902

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Exercise and Health Science, National Taipei University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Taipei 11219, Taiwan
Interests: exercise physiology; skeletal muscle, insulin resistance; diabetes; rehabilitation and physical medicine; metabolism; muscle hypertrophy; exercise training adaptation; systemic inflammation; cardiovascular disease; arterial stiffness; hypertension

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Guest Editor
Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, Via Gramsci 14, 43126 Parma, Italy
Interests: exercise science; strength & conditioning planning; resistance training; exercise testing; physical fitness; exercise physiology; physical activity assessment; performance testing; personal training
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Guest Editor
Department of Physical Therapy and Assistive Technology, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taipei City 112304, Taiwan
Interests: skeletal muscle; oxidative stress; exercise training; heart failure; respiratory muscle training; aging, muscle protein synthesis; caloric restriction; muscle strength; insulin resistance; muscle blood flow; physical therapy; rehabilitation medicine

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Guest Editor
Department of Kinesiology, California State University, Turlock, CA 95382, USA
Interests: skeletal muscle; exercise physiology; diabetes; exercise training; muscle protein synthesis; insulin signaling; muscle strength; insulin resistance; glucose metabolism

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This special issue of "Effects of Physical Exercise on Human Physiology and Pathology" focuses on the acute, short-term, and long-term effects of exercise training on physiological responses and pathological changes in the human body. Fundamental knowledge in physiology and pathology in response to exercise is critical to constructing precise exercise prescriptions and training programs for specific populations, including individuals with cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, respiratory system diseases, cancer, and neurological problems (e.g., spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, cognitive function, Alzheimer's disease, etc.). While a variety of exercise strategies have demonstrated the health benefits of exercise, there is considerable scope to better understand the efficacy of novel and commonly used exercise modalities, including specific exercise mode and training techniques, as well as identifying optimal exercise dose parameters and training duration, cellular/molecular mechanisms, and functional outcomes.

This special issue is seeking original research (basic or multidisciplinary approaches) articles and reviews (narrative reviews, systematic reviews, meta-analysis) that focus on the acute, short-term, and long-term impacts of exercise training on human physiological responses and pathological changes. Topics of special interest include the following.

Prof. Dr. Yi-Hung Liao
Dr. Giancarlo Condello
Prof. Dr. Chiao-Nan Chen
Dr. Jeffrey R. Bernard
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • aerobic exercise/resistance exercise/interval exercise/respiratory muscle training
  • sarcopenia and frailty
  • systemic inflammation
  • cardiovascular diseases (hypertension, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, etc.)
  • respiratory system diseases (asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, etc.)
  • metabolic syndrome (type 1/2 diabetes, prediabetes, etc.)
  • cancer
  • environmental factors (e.g., heat, cold, hypoxia, etc.)
  • functional exercise capacity (cardiopulmonary fitness)
  • spinal cord injury (SCI)
  • brain health
  • stroke (cerebrovascular accident, CVA)
  • degenerative neurological diseases (multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson’s diseases, etc.)

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 4385 KiB  
Article
Neuromuscular Characteristics of Unilateral and Bilateral Maximal Voluntary Isometric Contractions following ACL Reconstruction
by Riccardo Di Giminiani, Stefano Marinelli, Stefano La Greca, Andrea Di Blasio, Massimo Angelozzi and Angelo Cacchio
Biology 2023, 12(9), 1173; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12091173 - 26 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1201
Abstract
Despite the advancement of diagnostic surgical techniques in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and rehabilitation protocols following ACL injury, only half of the athletes return to sports at a competitive level. A major concern is neuromechanical dysfunction, which occurs with injuries persisting in [...] Read more.
Despite the advancement of diagnostic surgical techniques in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and rehabilitation protocols following ACL injury, only half of the athletes return to sports at a competitive level. A major concern is neuromechanical dysfunction, which occurs with injuries persisting in operated and non-operated legs following ACL rehabilitation. One of the criteria for a safe return to sports participation is based on the maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) performed unilaterally and a comparison between the ‘healthy knee’ and the ‘operated knee’. The present study aimed to investigate MVIC in athletes following ACL rehabilitation during open kinetic chain exercise performed unilaterally and bilateral exercises. Twenty subjects participated in the present investigation: 10 male athletes of regional–national level (skiers, rugby, soccer, and volleyball players) who were previously operated on one knee and received a complete rehabilitation protocol (for 6–9 months) were included in the ACL group (age: 23.4 ± 2.11 years; stature: 182.0 ± 9.9 cm; body mass: 78.6 ± 9.9 kg; body mass index: 23.7 ± 1.9 kg/m2), and 10 healthy male athletes formed the control group (CG: age: 24.0 ± 3.4 years; stature: 180.3 ± 10.7 cm; body mass: 74.9 ± 13.5 kg; body mass index: 22.8 ± 2.7 kg/m2). MVICs synchronised with electromyographic (EMG) activity (recorded on the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and biceps femoris muscles) were performed during unilateral and bilateral exertions. The rate of force development (RFD) and co-activation index (CI) were also calculated. The differences in the MVIC and RFD between the two legs within each group were not significant (p > 0.05). Vastus lateralis EMG activity during MVIC and biceps femoris EMG activity during RFD were significantly higher in the operated leg than those in the non-operated leg when exertion was performed bilaterally (p < 0.05). The CI was higher in the operated leg than that in the non-operated leg when exertion was performed bilaterally (p < 0.05). Vice versa, vastus medialis EMG activity during RFD was significantly higher in the right leg than that in the left leg when exertion was performed bilaterally (p < 0.05) in the CG. MVICs performed bilaterally represent a reliability modality for highlighting neuromechanical asymmetries. This bilateral exercise should be included in the criteria for a safe return to sports following ACL reconstruction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Physical Exercise on Human Physiology and Pathology)
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13 pages, 650 KiB  
Article
Effect of Acute High-Intensity Interval Training on Immune Function and Oxidative Stress in Canoe/Kayak Athletes
by Ting-Ting Lee, Tzai-Li Li, Bo-Jen Ko and Li-Hui Chien
Biology 2023, 12(8), 1144; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12081144 - 18 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1695
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on immune function and oxidative stress in male canoe/kayak athletes who were well trained. A total of 22 participants were voluntarily recruited with an age range of [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on immune function and oxidative stress in male canoe/kayak athletes who were well trained. A total of 22 participants were voluntarily recruited with an age range of 15.9 ± 2.3 years, height of 172.2 ± 5.5 cm, body mass of 63.30 ± 6.95 kg, and body fat of 13.77 ± 3.76%. The modified Wingate kayaking test on a kayak ergometer was performed by all participants. Blood samples were collected at three different time points: before the test (Pre-T), immediately after (Post-T), and 3 h post-test (Post-3 h). Saliva samples were collected at two different time points: before the test (Pre-T) and 3 h after the test (Post-3 h). Results indicated that acute canoe/kayak ergometry HIIT had significant effects on the percentages and counts of leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and lymphocyte subsets. Additionally, it resulted in increased total LPS-stimulated neutrophil elastase release and alterations in plasma concentrations of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and TBARS. These findings suggest that conventional kayak HIIT regimens can have short-term effects on immune function and induce oxidative stress in athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Physical Exercise on Human Physiology and Pathology)
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22 pages, 1955 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Skeletal Muscle Oxygenation on Hemodynamics, Cerebral Oxygenation and Activation, and Exercise Performance during Incremental Exercise to Exhaustion in Male Cyclists
by Evgenia D. Cherouveim, Panagiotis G. Miliotis, Maria D. Koskolou, Konstantina Dipla, Ioannis S. Vrabas and Nickos D. Geladas
Biology 2023, 12(7), 981; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12070981 - 10 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1673
Abstract
This study aimed to elucidate whether muscle blood flow restriction during maximal exercise is associated with alterations in hemodynamics, cerebral oxygenation, cerebral activation, and deterioration of exercise performance in male participants. Thirteen healthy males, cyclists (age 33 ± 2 yrs., body mass: 78.6 [...] Read more.
This study aimed to elucidate whether muscle blood flow restriction during maximal exercise is associated with alterations in hemodynamics, cerebral oxygenation, cerebral activation, and deterioration of exercise performance in male participants. Thirteen healthy males, cyclists (age 33 ± 2 yrs., body mass: 78.6 ± 2.5 kg, and body mass index: 25.57 ± 0.91 kg·m−1), performed a maximal incremental exercise test on a bicycle ergometer in two experimental conditions: (a) with muscle blood flow restriction through the application of thigh cuffs inflated at 120 mmHg (with cuffs, WC) and (b) without restriction (no cuffs, NC). Exercise performance significantly deteriorated with muscle blood flow restriction, as evidenced by the reductions in V˙O2max (−17 ± 2%, p < 0.001), peak power output (−28 ± 2%, p < 0.001), and time to exhaustion (−28 ± 2%, p < 0.001). Muscle oxygenated hemoglobin (Δ[O2Hb]) during exercise declined more in the NC condition (p < 0.01); however, at exhaustion, the magnitude of muscle oxygenation and muscle deoxygenation were similar between conditions (p > 0.05). At maximal effort, lower cerebral deoxygenated hemoglobin (Δ[HHb]) and cerebral total hemoglobin (Δ[THb]) were observed in WC (p < 0.001), accompanied by a lower cardiac output, heart rate, and stroke volume vs. the NC condition (p < 0.01), whereas systolic blood pressure, rating of perceived exertion, and cerebral activation (as assessed by electroencephalography (EEG) activity) were similar (p > 0.05) between conditions at task failure, despite marked differences in exercise duration, maximal aerobic power output, and V˙O2max. In conclusion, in trained cyclists, muscle blood flow restriction during an incremental cycling exercise test significantly limited exercise performance. Exercise intolerance with muscle blood flow restriction was mainly associated with attenuated cardiac responses, despite cerebral activation reaching similar maximal levels as without muscle blood flow restriction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Physical Exercise on Human Physiology and Pathology)
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18 pages, 2959 KiB  
Article
Immunologic, Anti-Inflammatory, and Anti-Muscle Damage Profile of Supplemented Vitamin D3 in Healthy Adults on Strenuous Endurance Exercise
by Ming-Che Liu, Pei-Wei Weng, Sheng-Chang Chen, Ting-Hao Liu, Hsiang-Wei Huang, Chang-Ti Huang, Cheng-Tse Yang, Viraj Krishna Mishra and Ming-Ta Yang
Biology 2023, 12(5), 657; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12050657 - 26 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2041
Abstract
Reportedly, strenuous endurance exercise can depress the immune system and induce inflammation and muscle damage. Therefore, this double-blinded, matched-pair study aimed to investigate the impact of vitamin D3 supplementation on immune response (leukocyte, neutrophil, lymphocyte, CD4+, CD8+, CD19 [...] Read more.
Reportedly, strenuous endurance exercise can depress the immune system and induce inflammation and muscle damage. Therefore, this double-blinded, matched-pair study aimed to investigate the impact of vitamin D3 supplementation on immune response (leukocyte, neutrophil, lymphocyte, CD4+, CD8+, CD19+, and CD56+ counts), inflammatory profile (TNF-α and IL-6), muscle damage (CK and LDH levels), as well as aerobic capacity after strenuous endurance exercise in 18 healthy men taking 5000 IU of vitamin D3 (n = 9) or placebo (n = 9) daily for 4 weeks. Total and differential blood leukocyte counts, levels of cytokines, and muscle damage biomarkers were determined before, immediately after, and 2, 4, and 24 h after exercise. The IL-6, CK, and LDH levels were significantly lower in vitamin D3 group at 2, 4, and 24 h post exercise (p < 0.05). Maximal and average heart rates during exercise were also significantly lower (p < 0.05). In the vitamin D3 group, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio after 4 weeks of supplementation was only significantly lower at post-0 than at baseline and significantly higher at post-2 than at baseline and post-0 (all p < 0.05). Taken together, 5000 IU of daily vitamin D3 supplementation for 4 weeks exhibited positive effects in terms of increased blood 25(OH)D levels, CD4+/CD8+ ratio (immune response), and aerobic capacity while inhibiting inflammatory cytokines and CK and LDH (muscle damage) in people performing strenuous endurance exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Physical Exercise on Human Physiology and Pathology)
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11 pages, 297 KiB  
Article
The Effects of 6-Month Aqua Aerobics Training on Cardiometabolic Parameters in Perimenopausal Women—A Randomized Controlled Trial
by Katarzyna Sobczak, Krystian Wochna, Katarzyna Antosiak-Cyrak and Katarzyna Domaszewska
Biology 2023, 12(4), 588; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12040588 - 12 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1306
Abstract
Background: Menopause is a time when women experience a number of physiological and anatomical changes resulting from a decline in ovarian function. It can be concluded that cardiovascular disease increases in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women, irrespective of age-related changes. Engaging in the amount [...] Read more.
Background: Menopause is a time when women experience a number of physiological and anatomical changes resulting from a decline in ovarian function. It can be concluded that cardiovascular disease increases in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women, irrespective of age-related changes. Engaging in the amount of moderate physical activity recommended by the World Health Organization helps reduce the risk of death and adverse health events. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of a 6-month aqua aerobics programme on cardiometabolic (anthropometric and biochemical) parameters in perimenopausal women. Methods: In this study, 30 women (control group—16, study group—14) participated in the 6-month aqua aerobics training programme. The mean age of women was 47.67 ± 6.79 year and BMI 26.33 ± 3.64 kg/m2. At the beginning and at the end of the study, anthropometric and blood samples analysis were performed. In the blood, lipid profile, morphotic elements were determined. Body composition, waist–hip ratio (WHR), visceral adiposity index (VAI), blood pressure (BP) were measured. Results: The aqua aerobics programme resulted in a significant decrease in the WHR (p < 0.05; ES: 2.143), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (p < 0.05; ES: 1.005), and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PRL) (p < 0.05; ES: 0.460) and an increase in haemoglobin (HGB) concentration (p < 0.05; ES: 0.643). Conclusions: The type of physical activity described in the present study is a great way for perimenopausal women to take care of their overall well-being. The reduction in selected cardiometabolic parameters is important from the point of view of the protection of women’s health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Physical Exercise on Human Physiology and Pathology)
13 pages, 1085 KiB  
Article
Effectiveness of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Combined with Visual Feedback Training in Improving Neuroplasticity and Lower Limb Function after Chronic Stroke: A Pilot Study
by Hsien-Lin Cheng, Chueh-Ho Lin, Sung-Hui Tseng, Chih-Wei Peng and Chien-Hung Lai
Biology 2023, 12(4), 515; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12040515 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1400
Abstract
After a stroke, sustained gait impairment can restrict participation in the activities listed in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health model and cause poor quality of life. The present study investigated the effectiveness of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and visual [...] Read more.
After a stroke, sustained gait impairment can restrict participation in the activities listed in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health model and cause poor quality of life. The present study investigated the effectiveness of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and visual feedback training (VF) training in improving lower limb motor performance, gait, and corticospinal excitability in patients with chronic stroke. Thirty patients were randomized into three groups that received either rTMS or sham stimulation over the contralesional leg region accompanied by VF training groups in addition to the conventional rehabilitation group. All participants underwent intervention sessions three times per week for four weeks. Outcome measures included the motor-evoked potential (MEP) of the anterior tibialis muscle, Berg Balance Scale (BBS) scores, Timed Up and Go (TUG) test scores, and Fugl–Meyer Assessment of Lower Extremity scores. After the intervention, the rTMS and VF group had significantly improved in MEP latency (p = 0.011), TUG scores (p = 0.008), and BBS scores (p = 0.011). The sham rTMS and VF group had improved MEP latency (p = 0.027). The rTMS and VF training may enhance the cortical excitability and walking ability of individuals with chronic stroke. The potential benefits encourage a larger trial to determine the efficacy in stroke patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Physical Exercise on Human Physiology and Pathology)
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12 pages, 678 KiB  
Article
Does Exercise-Induced Hypoalgesia Depend on Exercise Duration?
by Fabian Tomschi, Luisa Kieckbusch, Julius Zachow and Thomas Hilberg
Biology 2023, 12(2), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12020222 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1871
Abstract
Acute physical activity is assumed to lead to exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH). Yet, little research has been conducted dealing with the influence of exercise duration on EIH. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of three different exercise durations using the [...] Read more.
Acute physical activity is assumed to lead to exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH). Yet, little research has been conducted dealing with the influence of exercise duration on EIH. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of three different exercise durations using the same intensity compared to a control session on EIH. A total of 36 participants conducted three different exercise sessions on a bicycle ergometer for 30, 45, and 60 min, respectively, in addition to a passive control session. The intensity was set to 75% of the individual’s VO2max. Pre and post exercise, pain sensitivity was measured employing pressure pain thresholds (PPT) at the elbow, knee, and ankle joints, as well as the sternum and forehead. In addition, the conditioned pain modulation (CPM) response was conducted pre and post exercise. The results reveal that the exercises neither led to any changes in PPT measured at any landmark nor induced any CPM response effects. These results do not confirm the hypoalgesic effects usually observed after exercise. The reasons explaining these results remain rather elusive but might be explained by the low intensities chosen leading to a milder release of pain inhibiting substances, the landmarks employed for PPT measurements, or potential non-responsiveness of participants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Physical Exercise on Human Physiology and Pathology)
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Review

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15 pages, 1717 KiB  
Review
Systemic and Pulmonary Inflammation/Oxidative Damage: Implications of General and Respiratory Muscle Training in Chronic Spinal-Cord-Injured Patients
by Oscar F. Araneda, Cristián Rosales-Antequera, Felipe Contreras-Briceño, Marcelo Tuesta, Rafael Rossi-Serrano, José Magalhães and Ginés Viscor
Biology 2023, 12(6), 828; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12060828 - 07 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1584
Abstract
Chronic spinal cord injury affects several respiratory-function-related parameters, such as a decrease in respiratory volumes associated with weakness and a tendency to fibrosis of the perithoracic muscles, a predominance of vagal over sympathetic action inducing airway obstructions, and a difficulty in mobilizing secretions. [...] Read more.
Chronic spinal cord injury affects several respiratory-function-related parameters, such as a decrease in respiratory volumes associated with weakness and a tendency to fibrosis of the perithoracic muscles, a predominance of vagal over sympathetic action inducing airway obstructions, and a difficulty in mobilizing secretions. Altogether, these changes result in both restrictive and obstructive patterns. Moreover, low pulmonary ventilation and reduced cardiovascular system functionality (low venous return and right stroke volume) will hinder adequate alveolar recruitment and low O2 diffusion, leading to a drop in peak physical performance. In addition to the functional effects described above, systemic and localized effects on this organ chronically increase oxidative damage and tissue inflammation. This narrative review describes both the deleterious effects of chronic spinal cord injury on the functional effects of the respiratory system as well as the role of oxidative damage/inflammation in this clinical context. In addition, the evidence for the effect of general and respiratory muscular training on the skeletal muscle as a possible preventive and treatment strategy for both functional effects and underlying tissue mechanisms is summarized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Physical Exercise on Human Physiology and Pathology)
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Other

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17 pages, 1842 KiB  
Study Protocol
Sports-Related Concussion Assessment: A New Physiological, Biomechanical, and Cognitive Methodology Incorporating a Randomized Controlled Trial Study Protocol
by Gareth Irwin, Matthew J. Rogatzki, Huw D. Wiltshire, Genevieve K. R. Williams, Yaodong Gu, Garrett I. Ash, Dan Tao and Julien S. Baker
Biology 2023, 12(8), 1089; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology12081089 - 04 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1321
Abstract
Background: Taking part in moderate-to-vigorous exercise in contact sports on a regular basis may be linked to an increase in cerebrovascular injury and head trauma. Validated objective measures are lacking in the initial post-event diagnosis of head injury. The exercise style, duration, and [...] Read more.
Background: Taking part in moderate-to-vigorous exercise in contact sports on a regular basis may be linked to an increase in cerebrovascular injury and head trauma. Validated objective measures are lacking in the initial post-event diagnosis of head injury. The exercise style, duration, and intensity may also confound diagnostic indicators. As a result, we propose that the new Interdisciplinary Group in Movement & Performance from Acute & Chronic Head Trauma (IMPACT) analyze a variety of functional (biomechanical and motor control) tests as well as related biochemistry to see how they are affected by contact in sports and head injury. The study’s goal will be to look into the performance and physiological changes in rugby players after a game for head trauma and injury. Methods: This one-of-a-kind study will use a randomized controlled trial (RCT) utilizing a sport participation group and a non-participation control group. Forty male rugby 7 s players will be recruited for the study and allocated randomly to the experimental groups. The intervention group will participate in three straight rugby matches during a local 7 s rugby event. At the pre-match baseline, demographic and anthropometric data will be collected. This will be followed by the pre-match baseline collection of biochemical, biomechanical, and cognitive-motor task data. After three consecutive matches, the same measures will be taken. During each match, a notational analysis will be undertaken to obtain contact information. All measurements will be taken again 24, 48, and 72 h after the third match. Discussion: When the number of games increases owing to weariness and/or stressful circumstances, we expect a decline in body movement, coordination, and cognitive-motor tasks. Changes in blood biochemistry are expected to correspond to changes in biomechanics and cognitive-motor processes. This research proposal will generate considerable, ecologically valid data on the occurrence of head trauma events under game conditions, as well as the influence of these events on the biological systems of the performers. This will lead to a greater understanding of how sports participants react to exercise-induced injuries. This study’s scope will have far-reaching ramifications for doctors, coaches, managers, scientists, and sports regulatory bodies concerned with the health and well-being of athletic populations at all levels of competition, including all genders and ages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Physical Exercise on Human Physiology and Pathology)
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