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Exercise and Sport Science: Moving Towards the Next Decade

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Exercise and Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2021) | Viewed by 44165

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, 43126 Parma, Italy
Interests: sport; performance; training; physical activity
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Participation in exercise and sport is finally considered the leading strategy for the promotion of a healthy lifestyle. Across the lifespan, a higher level of physical activity and a lower time in sedentary behaviors should be achieved in order to allow physical and cognitive development, to maintain functional fitness, to keep a high perception of health and quality of life, to prevent diseases, to counteract physical and cognitive decline. Nutrition and energy balance should be always considered in combination with exercise and sport for seeking the desired achievements. Moreover, new strategies are deemed necessary due to the unexpected challenges induced by the COVID-19 pandemic, which is negatively influencing the lifestyle of the general population and the sport performance of athletes. Questions still remain unanswered and new concepts have to be developed, moving research on exercise and sport science into the new decade of progression.

This Special Issue aims to explore potential exercise and sport topics including (but not limited to) the factors associated with physical activity and sedentary behaviors, the dose–response relationship for optimal volume and intensity of exercise, the impact of nutritional strategies on the enhancement of performances. We welcome all article types, particularly original research using randomized controlled trials, long-term prospective and longitudinal study designs. Papers addressing these issues with high academic standard coupled with practical implications are strongly recommended.

Dr. Giancarlo Condello
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Exercise
  • Physical activity
  • Sport
  • Performance
  • Training
  • Perceived health
  • Nutritional strategies
  • Age-related decline
  • Longevity
  • Noncommunicable diseases

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 883 KiB  
Article
The Interlink among Age, Functional Fitness, and Perception of Health and Quality of Life: A Mediation Analysis
by Simone Ciaccioni, Caterina Pesce, Roberta Forte, Valentina Presta, Angela Di Baldassarre, Laura Capranica and Giancarlo Condello
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(11), 6850; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19116850 - 3 Jun 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2291
Abstract
In aging societies, physical activity may benefit functional fitness influencing the health of older people. The aim of this study was to explore the interrelation between age and perception of health and quality of life, and the mediating effects of functional fitness in [...] Read more.
In aging societies, physical activity may benefit functional fitness influencing the health of older people. The aim of this study was to explore the interrelation between age and perception of health and quality of life, and the mediating effects of functional fitness in older individuals. One hundred and sixty-six late middle-aged (55–64 years, young-old (65–74 years), and old (75–84 years) adults, divided into senior athletes (n = 44), physically active (n = 59), and sedentary individuals (n = 63) were evaluated for functional fitness (flexibility, strength, interlimb coordination, endurance) and physical (Physical Component Summary-PCS) and mental (Mental Component Summary-MCS) health and quality of life perception. Multiple mediation analyses were applied to assess the relationship between age and PCS and MCS indices and the role of functional fitness-related mediators. For MCS only, the mediation analysis showed a positive total and direct effect of age and a negative total indirect effect through mediators. No effects emerged for PCS. Despite a decline in their functional fitness, older individuals were able to maintain a mental health perception, also demonstrating how beneficial effects of physically active lifestyle on functional fitness can positively impact the cognitive-emotional dimension of mental health with advancing age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Sport Science: Moving Towards the Next Decade)
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12 pages, 875 KiB  
Article
Short-Term Effects of Low-Fat Chocolate Milk on Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness and Performance in Players on a Women’s University Badminton Team
by Maryam Molaeikhaletabadi, Reza Bagheri, Mohammad Hemmatinafar, Javad Nemati, Alexei Wong, Michael Nordvall, Maryam Namazifard and Katsuhiko Suzuki
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(6), 3677; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19063677 - 19 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3528
Abstract
This study investigated the short-term effects of low-fat chocolate milk (LFCM) consumption on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and performance in female badminton players. Seven female badminton players (23 ± 1 years; height: 163.8 ± 4.1 cm; body mass: 58.7 ± 0.9 kg) [...] Read more.
This study investigated the short-term effects of low-fat chocolate milk (LFCM) consumption on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and performance in female badminton players. Seven female badminton players (23 ± 1 years; height: 163.8 ± 4.1 cm; body mass: 58.7 ± 0.9 kg) were randomly assigned to 1 week of LFCM (500 mL) or placebo (water, 500 mL) consumption in a crossover design. Participants consumed LFCM or water immediately after each training session during the 1-week intervention. Performance variables (aerobic power, anaerobic power, agility, explosive power, and maximum handgrip strength) were assessed at two separate time points: pre and post-intervention (after 1 week). In addition, the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was used to assess DOMS before, immediately after, and at 24 and 48 h after each training session. There were significant time effects for aerobic power, upper body explosive power, minimum anaerobic power, and time to exhaustion (TTE), which significantly increased after LFCM consumption (p < 0.05). Moreover, relative and maximum lower body power significantly (p < 0.05) increased, while rating of perceived exertion (RPE) as well as DOMS in lower extremity muscles immediately after exercise significantly decreased after LFCM consumption compared to placebo (p < 0.05). There were no significant changes in maximum anaerobic power, agility, and maximum handgrip strength (p > 0.05). LFCM, as a post-exercise beverage, may help speed recovery in female badminton players leading to increased aerobic, anaerobic, and strength performance indices, increased TTE, and decreased muscle soreness and RPE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Sport Science: Moving Towards the Next Decade)
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18 pages, 404 KiB  
Article
Examination of the Prevalence of Female Athlete Triad Components among Competitive Cheerleaders
by Allison B. Smith, Jennifer L. Gay, Shawn M. Arent, Mark A. Sarzynski, Dawn M. Emerson and Toni M. Torres-McGehee
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(3), 1375; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031375 - 26 Jan 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4729
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine individual and combined Female Athlete Triad components within collegiate cheerleaders, an at-risk group. Cheerleaders (n = 19; age: 20.3 ± 1.2 years) completed anthropometric measurements, health history questionnaires, resting metabolic rate, the eating disorder [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to examine individual and combined Female Athlete Triad components within collegiate cheerleaders, an at-risk group. Cheerleaders (n = 19; age: 20.3 ± 1.2 years) completed anthropometric measurements, health history questionnaires, resting metabolic rate, the eating disorder inventory-3 and symptom checklist, blood sample, and DXA scan. Participants completed dietary and exercise logs for 7 days and used heart rate monitors to track daily and exercise energy expenditure. Proportions were calculated for low energy availability (LEA) risk, disordered eating risk, and pathogenic behaviors. Chi-square analysis was used to determine the difference between cheerleaders who experience low EA with or without disordered eating risk. All cheerleaders demonstrated LEA for the days they participated in cheerleading practice, 52.6% demonstrated LEA with eating disorder risk and 47.4% demonstrated LEA without eating disorder risk, 52.6% self-reported menstrual dysfunction, 14% experienced menstrual dysfunction via hormonal assessment, and 0% demonstrated low bone mineral density. Overall, 47.7% presented with one Triad component, 52.6% demonstrated two Triad components using self-reported menstrual data, and 10.5% demonstrated two Triad components using hormonal assessments. All cheerleaders displayed LEA. These findings support the need for increased education on the individual components of the Triad and their potential consequences by qualified personal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Sport Science: Moving Towards the Next Decade)
16 pages, 2562 KiB  
Article
“The Competitive Season and Off-Season”: Preliminary Research concerning the Sport-Specific Performance, Stress, and Sleep in Elite Male Adolescent Basketball Athletes
by Chun-Chung Chou, Fei-Ti Wang, Hsin-Hung Wu, Shiow-Chwen Tsai, Chung-Yu Chen, Jeffrey R. Bernard, Yu-Chi Kuo and Yi-Hung Liao
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(24), 13259; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182413259 - 16 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3398
Abstract
Background: Through scholastic sports programs, adolescent athletes compete to represent their communities. However, few studies investigate the changes in physiological and mental profiles during varied sport periodization among this population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the changes in sports [...] Read more.
Background: Through scholastic sports programs, adolescent athletes compete to represent their communities. However, few studies investigate the changes in physiological and mental profiles during varied sport periodization among this population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the changes in sports performance and stress-related biomarkers between the competitive season (CS) and off-season (OS) in elite adolescent basketball players. Method: Nine elite Division I male basketball players (age: 15–18 years. old) participated in this study. Basketball-specific performance, salivary dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S)/cortisol levels, mood state, and sleep quality were all accessed during the CS and OS periods. Results: The training load during OS was 26.0% lower than CS (p = 0.001). Muscle mass, aerobic capacity, 10 m sprint, and Abalakov jump (AJ) power during OS were greater than that during CS (+2.2–9.8%, p < 0.05), but planned agility was greater during CS (p = 0.003). The salivary DHEA-S/cortisol was greater during CS than during OS (p = 0.039). The overall mood state and sleep quality did not differ between periods, but the POMS-tension was higher during CS (p = 0.005). Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that muscle mass, aerobic capacity, peak AJ power, and 10 m sprint performance, but not planned agility, were greater during OS compared to CS among elite adolescent basketball players. Furthermore, the stress-related responses reflected by the D/C ratio and mood tension were relatively lower during the OS in these athletes. Thus, this study suggests that coaches and sport science professionals should closely monitor athletes’ training states across varied training/competition periods to better react to modifying training or recovery plans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Sport Science: Moving Towards the Next Decade)
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12 pages, 1637 KiB  
Article
Post-activation Performance Enhancement after a Bout of Accentuated Eccentric Loading in Collegiate Male Volleyball Players
by Kuo-Wei Tseng, Jyun-Ru Chen, Jun-Jie Chow, Wei-Chin Tseng, Giancarlo Condello, Hsia-Ling Tai and Szu-Kai Fu
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(24), 13110; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182413110 - 12 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3024
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the benefit of post-activation performance enhancement (PAPE) after accentuated eccentric loading (AEL) compared to traditional resistance loading (TR). Sixteen male volleyball athletes were divided in AEL and TR group. AEL group performed 3 sets of [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the benefit of post-activation performance enhancement (PAPE) after accentuated eccentric loading (AEL) compared to traditional resistance loading (TR). Sixteen male volleyball athletes were divided in AEL and TR group. AEL group performed 3 sets of 4 repetitions (eccentric: 105% of concentric 1RM, concentric: 80% of concentric 1RM) of half squat, and TR group performed 3 sets of 5 repetitions (eccentric & concentric: 85% of 1RM). Countermovement jump (CMJ), spike jump (SPJ), isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP), and muscle soreness test were administered before (Pre) exercise, and 10 min (10-min), 24 h (24-h), and 48 h (48-h) after exercise. A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance was used to analyze the data. Peak force and rate of development (RFD) of IMTP in AEL group were significantly greater (p < 0.05) than TR group. The height, peak velocity, and RFD of CMJ, height of SPJ, and muscle soreness showed no interaction effects (p > 0.05) groups x time. AEL seemed capable to maintain force production in IMTP, but not in CMJ and SPJ. It is recommended the use of accentuated eccentric loading protocols to overcome the fatigue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Sport Science: Moving Towards the Next Decade)
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11 pages, 7813 KiB  
Article
The Prediction of Running Velocity during the 30–15 Intermittent Fitness Test Using Accelerometry-Derived Metrics and Physiological Parameters: A Machine Learning Approach
by Andrea Di Credico, David Perpetuini, Piero Chiacchiaretta, Daniela Cardone, Chiara Filippini, Giulia Gaggi, Arcangelo Merla, Barbara Ghinassi, Angela Di Baldassarre and Pascal Izzicupo
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(20), 10854; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010854 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2492
Abstract
Measuring exercise variables is one of the most important points to consider to maximize physiological adaptations. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a useful method to improve both cardiovascular and neuromuscular performance. The 30–15IFT is a field test reflecting the effort elicited by [...] Read more.
Measuring exercise variables is one of the most important points to consider to maximize physiological adaptations. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a useful method to improve both cardiovascular and neuromuscular performance. The 30–15IFT is a field test reflecting the effort elicited by HIIT, and the final velocity reached in the test is used to set the intensity of HIIT during the training session. In order to have a valid measure of the velocity during training, devices such as GPS can be used. However, in several situations (e.g., indoor setting), such devices do not provide reliable measures. The aim of the study was to predict exact running velocity during the 30–15IFT using accelerometry-derived metrics (i.e., Player Load and Average Net Force) and heart rate (HR) through a machine learning (ML) approach (i.e., Support Vector Machine) with a leave-one-subject-out cross-validation. The SVM approach showed the highest performance to predict running velocity (r = 0.91) when compared to univariate approaches using PL (r = 0.62), AvNetForce (r = 0.73) and HR only (r = 0.87). In conclusion, the presented multivariate ML approach is able to predict running velocity better than univariate ones, and the model is generalizable across subjects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Sport Science: Moving Towards the Next Decade)
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13 pages, 1833 KiB  
Article
A Preliminary Study of Pre-Season Taekwondo Preparation Strategy: Personal Isolation Training Effect for Elite Athletes
by Yu-Chi Sung, Yi-Zhen Yang, Che-Chia Chang and Chun-Chung Chou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(20), 10570; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010570 - 9 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1965
Abstract
Background: The global coronavirus disease pandemic (COVID-19) has had a considerable impact on athletic competition and team sports training. Athletes have been forced to train alone at home. However, the isolation training model effects are still unknown. Purpose: This study compared the effects [...] Read more.
Background: The global coronavirus disease pandemic (COVID-19) has had a considerable impact on athletic competition and team sports training. Athletes have been forced to train alone at home. However, the isolation training model effects are still unknown. Purpose: This study compared the effects of personal isolation training (PIT) and detraining (DT) on specific sport performances (flexibility, power, reaction time, acceleration, and aerobic capacity) and body composition in elite taekwondo athletes. Methods: Eleven elite taekwondo athletes were recruited as voluntary subjects. Athletes were randomly paired by weight into the personal isolation training group (PIT group: N = 5, age: 21.2 ± 0.4 years, BMI: 22.2 ± 0.8 kg/m2) or detraining group (DT group: N = 6, age: 19.8 ± 0.3 years, BMI: 23.1 ± 1.0 kg/m2). All subjects performed the same training content prior to the pre-test (T1). When the pre-test was completed, all subjects underwent 12 weeks of PIT or DT. Athletes were then administrated the post-test (T2). The athlete’s sport performances and body composition were measured to compare the differences between the two groups (PIT and DT) and two phases (T1 and T2). Results: There were no significant differences in kicking reaction time and flexibility in both groups (p > 0.05). The PIT showed significant improvements in 10 m (10M) sprint performance (p < 0.05), and displayed a progress trend in Abalakov jump performance. In addition, the PIT resulted in a better change response in 10M sprint performance (PIT: −4.2%, DT: +2.1%), aerobic endurance performance (PIT: −10.2%, DT: −18.4%), right arm muscle mass (PIT: +2.9%, DT: −3.8%), and trunk muscle mass (PIT: +2.2%, DT: −1.9%) than DT (p < 0.05). The fat mass percentage showed a negative change from T1 to T2 in both groups (p < 0.05). Conclusions: PIT showed a trend toward better body composition (arm and trunk muscle) and sport performances (10M sprint and aerobic capacity) compared to DT. This finding may provide information on the effectiveness of a personal isolation training model for optimal preparation for taekwondo athletes and coaches. It may also serve as a useful and safe guideline for training recommendations during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Sport Science: Moving Towards the Next Decade)
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9 pages, 329 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Mindfulness, Psychological Skills, and Mental Toughness in College Athletes
by Chih-Han Wu, Jui-Ti Nien, Chi-Yen Lin, Yu-Hsiang Nien, Garry Kuan, Tsung-Yi Wu, Fei-Fei Ren and Yu-Kai Chang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(13), 6802; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18136802 - 24 Jun 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 7066
Abstract
Numerous studies have shown that dispositional mindfulness is positively associated with many mental abilities related to sports performance, including psychological skills and mental toughness. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between dispositional mindfulness, psychological skills, and mental toughness among [...] Read more.
Numerous studies have shown that dispositional mindfulness is positively associated with many mental abilities related to sports performance, including psychological skills and mental toughness. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between dispositional mindfulness, psychological skills, and mental toughness among different types of athletes. For this cross-sectional study, 101 college athletes were recruited. Their dispositional mindfulness, psychological skills, and mental toughness were measured by the Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), Athletic Psychological Skills Inventory (APSI), and Traits of Mental Toughness Inventory for Sports Scale (TMTIS). Pearson’s correlation was used to calculate how dispositional mindfulness is associated with psychological skills and mental toughness. The results revealed that dispositional mindfulness is positively associated with comprehensive APSI (r = 0.21–0.36, p < 0.05), TMTIS overall (r = 0.27, p < 0.01), positive effort (r = 0.26, p = 0.01), and pressure (r = 0.30, p < 0.01). These findings suggest a positive linkage between mindfulness and the two examined psychological characteristics related to sports performance. Other approaches to increase mindfulness may be considered in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Sport Science: Moving Towards the Next Decade)

Review

Jump to: Research

23 pages, 2307 KiB  
Review
A Sports Nutrition Perspective on the Impacts of Hypoxic High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) on Appetite Regulatory Mechanisms: A Narrative Review of the Current Evidence
by Chung-Yu Chen, Chun-Chung Chou, Ke-Xun Lin, Toby Mündel, Mu-Tsung Chen, Yi-Hung Liao and Shiow-Chwen Tsai
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(3), 1736; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031736 - 2 Feb 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3701
Abstract
High-intensity interval training (HIIT) and low-oxygen exposure may inhibit the secretion of appetite-stimulating hormones, suppress appetite, and inhibit dietary intake. Physiological changes affecting appetite are frequent and include appetite hormone (ghrelin, leptin, PYY, and GLP-1) effects and the subjective loss of appetite, resulting [...] Read more.
High-intensity interval training (HIIT) and low-oxygen exposure may inhibit the secretion of appetite-stimulating hormones, suppress appetite, and inhibit dietary intake. Physiological changes affecting appetite are frequent and include appetite hormone (ghrelin, leptin, PYY, and GLP-1) effects and the subjective loss of appetite, resulting in nutritional deficiencies. This paper is a narrative review of the literature to verify the HIIT effect on appetite regulation mechanisms and discusses the possible relationship between appetite effects and the need for high-intensity exercise training in a hypoxic environment. We searched MEDLINE/PubMed and the Web of Science databases, as well as English articles (gray literature by Google Scholar for English articles) through Google Scholar, and the searched studies primarily focused on the acute effects of exercise and hypoxic environmental factors on appetite, related hormones, and energy intake. In a general normoxic environment, regular exercise habits may have accustomed the athlete to intense training and, therefore, no changes occurred in their subjective appetite, but there is a significant effect on the appetite hormones. The higher the exercise intensity and the longer the duration, the more likely exercise is to cause exercise-induced appetite loss and changes in appetite hormones. It has not been clear whether performing HIIT in a hypoxic environment may interfere with the exerciser’s diet or the nutritional supplement intake as it suppresses appetite, which, in turn, affects and interferes with the recovery efficiency after exercise. Although appetite-regulatory hormones, the subjective appetite, and energy intake may be affected by exercise, such as hypoxia or hypoxic exercise, we believe that energy intake should be the main observable indicator in future studies on environmental and exercise interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Sport Science: Moving Towards the Next Decade)
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10 pages, 987 KiB  
Review
Stereopsis in Sports: Visual Skills and Visuomotor Integration Models in Professional and Non-Professional Athletes
by Valentina Presta, Costanza Vitale, Luca Ambrosini and Giuliana Gobbi
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(21), 11281; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111281 - 27 Oct 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3984
Abstract
Visual skills in sport are considered relevant variables of athletic performance. However, data on the specific contribution of stereopsis—as the ability to perceive depth—in sport performance are still scarce and scattered in the literature. The aim of this review is therefore to take [...] Read more.
Visual skills in sport are considered relevant variables of athletic performance. However, data on the specific contribution of stereopsis—as the ability to perceive depth—in sport performance are still scarce and scattered in the literature. The aim of this review is therefore to take stock of the effects of stereopsis on the athletic performance, also looking at the training tools to improve visual abilities and potential differences in the visuomotor integration processes of professional and non-professional athletes. Dynamic stereopsis is mainly involved in catching or interceptive actions of ball sports, whereas strategic sports use different visual skills (peripheral and spatial vision) due to the sport-specific requirements. As expected, professional athletes show better visual skills as compared to non-professionals. However, both non-professional and professional athletes should train their visual skills by using sensory stations and light boards systems. Non-professional athletes use the visual inputs as the main method for programming motor gestures. In contrast, professional athletes integrate visual information with sport expertise, thus, they encode the match (or the athletic performance) through a more complex visuomotor integration system. Although studies on visual skills and stereopsis in sports still appear to be in their early stages, they show a large potential for both scientific knowledge and technical development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Sport Science: Moving Towards the Next Decade)
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17 pages, 1505 KiB  
Review
The Effect of Acute High-Intensity Interval Training on Executive Function: A Systematic Review
by Jing-Yi Ai, Feng-Tzu Chen, Shu-Shih Hsieh, Shih-Chun Kao, Ai-Guo Chen, Tsung-Min Hung and Yu-Kai Chang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3593; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073593 - 30 Mar 2021
Cited by 40 | Viewed by 5592
Abstract
Acute high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient strategy to improve physical health; however, the effect of acute HIIT on executive function (EF) is unclear. The aim of this study was to systematically review the existing evidence and quantify the effect of acute [...] Read more.
Acute high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient strategy to improve physical health; however, the effect of acute HIIT on executive function (EF) is unclear. The aim of this study was to systematically review the existing evidence and quantify the effect of acute HIIT on overall EF and the factors affecting the relationship between acute HIIT and EF. Standard databases (i.e., the PubMed, Medline, Scopus, and CENTRAL databases) were searched for studies that examined the effect of acute HIIT on EF and were published up until January 2021. The overall EF and factors grouped by three categories, namely, EF assessment characteristics, exercise intervention characteristics, and sample and study characteristics, were analyzed by percentage of comparison for positive or null/negative effects. Overall, 35 of 57 outcomes (61%) across 24 studies revealed that acute HIIT has a positive effect on overall EF. In terms of factors, the results indicated that among EF assessment characteristics, groups, inhibition, updating, and the assessment occurring within 30 min may moderate the effect of acute HIIT on EF, while among exercise intervention characteristics, total time within 11 to 30 min may moderate the effect. Finally, among sample characteristics, age under 40 years may moderate the effect. Acute HIIT is generally considered a viable alternative for eliciting EF gains, with factors related to EF components, timing of the assessment, exercise total time, and age potentially moderating the effect of HIIT on EF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Sport Science: Moving Towards the Next Decade)
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