Materials for the Controlled Release of Drugs for Human and Animal Applications: Trends and Challenges

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Science and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2022) | Viewed by 3729

Special Issue Editors


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Politecnico of Milano, Dpt. CMIC - Chemistry, Materials and Chemical Enginneering "G. Natta", Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20132 Milan, Italy
Interests: circular economy; materials for environmental and energy applications
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Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences—DIVAS, University of Milan, Via Dell’Università 6, 26900 Lodi, Italy
Interests: animal nutrition; alternatives to antimicrobial; innovative additives; natural extracts; phytochemicals; antioxidants; functional feed; antimicrobial resistance; medical molecular farming; plant-based edible vaccines
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recently, the scientific community has directed attention towards drug and nutrient delivery.

In particular, the medical community is strongly invoking the materials science and engineering communities to tackle the issue of preparing new materials for the treatment of different diseases.

The site and rate of delivery need to be efficiently controlled in order to obtain more advantages in the administration of bioactive molecules.

When speaking of controlled drug delivery, one of the most important issues is the opportunity to reach a higher quality of life for patients, especially when considering new possibilities such as the home treatment of diseases such as cancer.

This approach is considered to be of paramount importance for both humans and animals.

Indeed, veterinary drugs (substances or combinations of substances to treat, prevent, or diagnose disease in animals) represent an important tool to guarantee the health status and welfare for animals.

The link between animal health and welfare and food safety has been well established and outlined globally. In this scenario, in comparison to various forms of parenteral administration, oral dosing is the most attractive way due to indisputable advantages for both large animals and pets.

Therefore, pharmaceutical formulations of orally applied active compounds should be strictly controlled considering the possible modulation of drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics during the gastroenteric transit. Additionally, knowledge of the interactions at a molecular level between the pharmaceutical active principles and other components in the formulation is of paramount importance .

This Special Issue focuses on innovative materials for the controlled release of drugs or additives for drugs and dietary supplements for both humans and animals.

Prof. Dr. Cinzia Cristiani
Prof. Luciana Rossi
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • controlled drug delivery
  • innovative materials
  • food and feed
  • modulation of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics
  • higher quality of life
  • health status and welfare for animals

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

10 pages, 1211 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Absorption of Methionine Carried by Mineral Clays and Zeolites in Porcine Ex Vivo Permeability Models
by Carlotta Giromini, Marco Tretola, Cinzia Cristiani, Elisabetta Finocchio, Paolo Silacci, Sara Panseri, Matteo Dell’Anno, Antonella Baldi and Luciana Rossi
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(14), 6384; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11146384 - 10 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1501
Abstract
Supplemental dietary amino acids (AAs) need to be provided in a form that prevents their degradation along the gastrointestinal tract to guarantee their high bioavailability and bioactivity. In this study, methionine (Met) protected via organo-clay intercalation (natural carriers) has been developed as a [...] Read more.
Supplemental dietary amino acids (AAs) need to be provided in a form that prevents their degradation along the gastrointestinal tract to guarantee their high bioavailability and bioactivity. In this study, methionine (Met) protected via organo-clay intercalation (natural carriers) has been developed as a sustainable alternative to polymeric coating. Specifically, two different bentonite-zeolite-based mineral clays were tested, Adsorbene (ADS) and BioKi (BIO). Briefly, 1 g of the carrier (ADS or BIO) was contacted with 50 mL of an aqueous solution at a pH of 3.0, 5.8, and 8.9. Solid-liquid separation was conducted. The released Met in the liquid phase was analysed by Chemical Oxygen Demand, while residual Met in the solid phase was analysed by Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The effect of Met-ADS complex on cell viability was tested on IPEC-J2 cells incubated 3 h with Met-ADS 2.5 mM. Jejunum segments obtained by entire male pigs (Swiss Large White, body weight 100 ± 5 kg) were used as ex vivo models to compare the absorption of 2.5 mM Met released by ADS with 2.5 mM free Met and its influence on epithelial integrity in perfusion Ussing chambers. The carriers released a very low amount of Met and Met-BIO interaction was stronger than Met-ADS. The maximum release of Met was at pH 3, with 3% and 6% of Met release from Met-BIO and Met-ADS, respectively. Cell viability experiments revealed that Met-ADS did not alter cell metabolic activity. No differences in Met absorption and intestinal epithelial integrity were observed ex vivo between free Met and Met-ADS. This study provided new insights into the release of Met from natural clays such as ADS and BIO, the safety of its use in the porcine intestine and the ability of ADS-released Met to absorb to the same extent as the free Met in porcine jejunum. Full article
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20 pages, 4359 KiB  
Article
Natural Clays as Potential Amino Acids Carriers for Animal Nutrition Application
by Cinzia Cristiani, Elisabetta Finocchio, Luciana Rossi, Carlotta Giromini, Matteo Dell’Anno, Sara Panseri and Maurizio Bellotto
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 5669; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11125669 - 18 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1604
Abstract
This study has the main purpose of testing natural carriers as more sustainable alternatives to polymeric coating. New clay-based hybrid organic–inorganic materials have been prepared. An innovative procedure for the intercalation of the bioactive molecule is proposed. The synthesis process implies the use [...] Read more.
This study has the main purpose of testing natural carriers as more sustainable alternatives to polymeric coating. New clay-based hybrid organic–inorganic materials have been prepared. An innovative procedure for the intercalation of the bioactive molecule is proposed. The synthesis process implies the use of mild operating conditions and does not require the use of organic reactants or solvents. Moreover, the use of natural carriers, and milder environmentally friendly process conditions, fulfill the requirement of a mostly safe, greener production. The capture and the release properties of the final material mainly depend on the carrier morphology. Large zeolite content in the mineral clays can favor the capture of very large methionine loadings, but due to the trapping mechanism, typical of these structures, zeolites prevent a satisfactory release in mild condition and physiological condition. The Freundlich adsorption model has been found to be able to predict the capture behavior. Once the proper carrier is selected, the preparation procedure guarantees the protection of the amino acid in the right form. Neither the structure of the inorganic matrix nor the amino acid structure was changed in the preparation process. Methionine was detected in its zwitterionic form, showing the main IR bands only slightly affected by the interaction. Further studies on methionine bioaccessibility and intestinal absorption from methionine–Adsorbene (MET–ADS) are required to optimize the application of natural clay in in-field animal nutrition. Full article
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