Plant-Based Alternatives to Antimicrobial in Animal Feed

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (26 November 2021) | Viewed by 73790

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences—DIVAS, University of Milan, Via Dell’Università 6, 26900 Lodi, Italy
Interests: animal nutrition; alternatives to antimicrobial; innovative additives; natural extracts; phytochemicals; antioxidants; functional feed; antimicrobial resistance; medical molecular farming; plant-based edible vaccines
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Guest Editor
Department of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
Interests: bioactive compounds; health effects of animal-derived foods; functional feed/food; animal nutrition; human nutrition
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The increase of antimicrobial resistance, a major threat at a global scale, has attracted attention from researchers, particularly in studies on the development of effective alternatives to antimicrobials. In this scenario, plants represent a relevant source of bioactive and functional compounds eliciting beneficial health effects in humans and animals, recognized also in traditional medicine in different countries. Substances of plant-origin, included in the animal diets, can exert antimicrobial effects, directly or indirectly, through different mechanisms of action and can be considered a valid strategy for the control of the diseases or to guarantee the health status of animals.

This Special Issue will publish original research papers and review articles concerning innovation in animal nutrition through the use of sustainable plant-based alternatives to antimicrobials in feed. The interrelations between nutrition, health and the environment will also be covered with both in vitro and in vivo studies.

Areas of interest include phytochemicals, sustainability, alternatives to antimicrobials, feed additives, in vivo, or in vitro effects of plant-based feed.

We invite original research papers and review articles addressing aspects of the use of plant-based alternatives to antimicrobials as animal feed ingredients in farm animals.

Prof. Luciana Rossi
Dr. Carlotta Giromini
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • bioactive compounds
  • plant extract
  • antimicrobial
  • feed additives
  • innovation

Published Papers (18 papers)

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10 pages, 461 KiB  
Article
Isoflavone Containing Legumes Mitigate Ergot Alkaloid-Induced Vasoconstriction in Goats (Capra hircus)
by Brittany E. Harlow, Michael D. Flythe, Jack P. Goodman, Huihua Ji and Glen E. Aiken
Animals 2022, 12(6), 750; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12060750 - 17 Mar 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1859
Abstract
Ergot alkaloids produced by a fungal endophyte that infects tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum; (E+ TF) can induce constriction of the vasculature in ruminants, resulting in “fescue toxicosis”. Legumes contain isoflavones that have been demonstrated to prevent and reverse E+ TF vasoconstriction. [...] Read more.
Ergot alkaloids produced by a fungal endophyte that infects tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum; (E+ TF) can induce constriction of the vasculature in ruminants, resulting in “fescue toxicosis”. Legumes contain isoflavones that have been demonstrated to prevent and reverse E+ TF vasoconstriction. Several legumes are conventionally utilized in ruminant production, but can vary in both isoflavone concentration and composition. A feeding study was conducted to determine if isoflavone supplementation via red clover (Trifolium pratense), white clover (Trifolium repens), or soybean (Glycine max) meal can alleviate vasoconstriction when wether goats were challenged with E+ TF seed. The basal diet was chopped grass hay ad libitum. Carotid luminal areas were obtained pre- and post-ruminal infusions of E+ TF seed (15 µg kg BW−1 ergovaline + ergovalanine ± red clover, white clover, or soybean meal at 2.61 mg kg BW−1). When goats were challenged with E+ TF seed, the mean carotid luminal areas decreased by 56.1% (p < 0.01). All treatments were able to partially mitigate vasoconstriction, with red clover being the most effective (+39.8%), and white clover and soybean meal eliciting an intermediate response (+30%, p < 0.01). Results indicate that legumes can relax vasoconstriction in goats consuming ergot alkaloids, despite differences in isoflavone profile and concentrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Based Alternatives to Antimicrobial in Animal Feed)
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12 pages, 297 KiB  
Communication
Comparison of the Effect of Synthetic (Tannic Acid) or Natural (Oak Bark Extract) Hydrolysable Tannins Addition on Fatty Acid Profile in the Rumen of Sheep
by Małgorzata P. Majewska, Renata Miltko, Grzegorz Bełżecki, Aneta Kędzierska and Barbara Kowalik
Animals 2022, 12(6), 699; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12060699 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2001
Abstract
The aim of the study was to compare two sources of tannins on fatty acids (FA) composition in rumen. Treatments were (g tannins/kg diet as-feed-basis) as follows: (1) no supplemental tannin addition (CON), (2) addition of 13 g of oak bark extract (OAK), [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to compare two sources of tannins on fatty acids (FA) composition in rumen. Treatments were (g tannins/kg diet as-feed-basis) as follows: (1) no supplemental tannin addition (CON), (2) addition of 13 g of oak bark extract (OAK), and (3) 4 g of tannic acid (TAN). The basal diet contained 55:45 forage to concentrate ratio. Net consumption of tannins (g/d) was 4 g for both tannins sources. The study was performed on three Polish Mountain ewes fitted with rumen cannulas, and was divided into three experimental periods (I, II, and III). Both sampling time and animal diet had a significant effect on FA profile in the rumen fluid. In general, FA concentrations were higher before feeding in comparison to samples collected 2 and 4 h after feeding. In terms of dietary effect, it was shown that TAN addition had a greater influence on FA profile in the ruminal fluid than the OAK diet. Briefly, in the TAN group significantly increased concentrations of C18:2 c9c12 (linoleic acid, LA) 8 h after feeding (vs. control, CON and OAK), C18:3 c9c12c15 (α-linolenic acid, LNA) 4 h after feeding (vs. OAK), C20:3 n-6 before feeding (vs. CON), C20:4 before feeding (vs. CON and OAK) and 8 h after feeding (vs. OAK) were recorded. In contrast, OAK addition significantly reduced C20:3 n-6 concentration 2 h after feeding (vs. CON). In conclusion, increased concentrations of both LA and LNA in the rumen indicated that supplemental tannic acid may inhibit the initial stage of FA biohydrogenation in the rumen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Based Alternatives to Antimicrobial in Animal Feed)
20 pages, 328 KiB  
Article
Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Mushroom or Vitamin D2-Enriched Mushroom Powders on Gastrointestinal Health Parameters in the Weaned Pig
by Alison Dowley, Torres Sweeney, Eadaoin Conway, Stafford Vigors, Supriya Yadav, Jude Wilson, William Gabrielli and John V. O’Doherty
Animals 2021, 11(12), 3603; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123603 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3700
Abstract
The objective of this study was to compare the molecular, physiological and microbial effects of mushroom powder (MP), vitamin D2 enriched mushroom powder (MPD2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) in pigs post-weaning. Pigs (four pigs/pen; 12 pens/treatment) were assigned to: (1) [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to compare the molecular, physiological and microbial effects of mushroom powder (MP), vitamin D2 enriched mushroom powder (MPD2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) in pigs post-weaning. Pigs (four pigs/pen; 12 pens/treatment) were assigned to: (1) basal diet (control), (2) basal diet + ZnO, (3) basal diet + MP (2 g/kg feed) and (4) basal diet + MPD2 (2 g/kg feed). Zinc oxide supplementation improved the feed intake (p < 0.001); increased the caecal abundance of Lactobacillus (p < 0.05); increased the villus height (p < 0.05) in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum; increased the expression of chemokine interleukin 8 (CXCL8; p < 0.05); and decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine gene interleukin 6 (IL6; p < 0.05), tumour necrosis factor (TNF; p < 0.05), nutrient transporters peptide transporter 1 (SLC15A1; p < 0.05) and fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2; (p < 0.05) in the duodenum. Whereas dietary supplementation with MPD2 improved the gastrointestinal morphology (p < 0.05); increased the total volatile fatty acid concentrations (p < 0.05); increased the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine gene interleukin 10 (IL10; p < 0.05) and nutrient transporters SLC15A1 (p < 0.05), FABP2 (p < 0.05) and vitamin D receptor (VDR; p < 0.05); and reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine gene IL6 (p < 0.05), it adversely affected average daily feed intake (ADFI; p < 0.001) and average daily gain (ADG; p < 0.05). Mushroom powder supplementation had a positive impact on gastrointestinal morphology (p < 0.05) and upregulated the expression of nutrient transporters SLC15A1 (p < 0.05) and FABP2 (p < 0.05) and tight junction claudin 1 (CLDN1) (p < 0.05) compared to the controls but had no effect on the expression of inflammatory markers (p > 0.05). Furthermore, MP reduced ADFI (p < 0.01); however, this did not negatively impact the ADG (p > 0.05). In conclusion, MP and MPD2 have limited use as commercial feed additives in replacing ZnO in pig diets as feed intake was reduced post-weaning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Based Alternatives to Antimicrobial in Animal Feed)
16 pages, 1897 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Antibacterial Effect of the Methanolic Extract of the Korean Soybean Fermented Product Doenjang against Staphylococcus aureus
by Klara Lalouckova, Lucie Mala, Petr Marsik and Eva Skrivanova
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2319; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082319 - 5 Aug 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3240
Abstract
Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry showed soyasaponin I and the isoflavones daidzein, genistein, and glycitein to be the main components of the methanolic extract of the Korean soybean fermented product doenjang, which is known to be a rich source of naturally occurring bioactive [...] Read more.
Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry showed soyasaponin I and the isoflavones daidzein, genistein, and glycitein to be the main components of the methanolic extract of the Korean soybean fermented product doenjang, which is known to be a rich source of naturally occurring bioactive substances, at average contents of 515.40, 236.30, 131.23, and 29.00 ng/mg, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of the methanolic extract of doenjang against nine Staphylococcusaureus strains was determined in vitro by the broth microdilution method to investigate its potential to serve as an alternative antibacterial compound. The results suggest that the extract is an effective antistaphylococcal agent at concentrations of 2048–4096 µg/mL. Moreover, the tested extract also showed the ability to inhibit the growth of both methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant animal and clinical S. aureus isolates. The growth kinetics of the chosen strains of S. aureus at the minimum inhibitory concentration of the methanolic extract of doenjang support the idea that the tested extract acts as an antibacterial compound. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the antistaphylococcal action of the methanolic extract of doenjang thus, additional studies including in vivo testing are necessary to confirm this hypothesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Based Alternatives to Antimicrobial in Animal Feed)
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28 pages, 1647 KiB  
Article
Effectiveness of Two Plant-Based In-Feed Additives against an Escherichia coli F4 Oral Challenge in Weaned Piglets
by Daniel Montoya, Matilde D’Angelo, Susana M. Martín-Orúe, Agustina Rodríguez-Sorrento, Mireia Saladrigas-García, Coralie Araujo, Thibaut Chabrillat, Sylvain Kerros and Lorena Castillejos
Animals 2021, 11(7), 2024; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11072024 - 6 Jul 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 5556
Abstract
This study evaluates the efficacy of two plant-based feed supplementations to fight colibacillosis in weanlings. A total of 96 piglets (32 pens) were assigned to four diets: a control diet (T1) or supplemented with ZnO (2500 ppm Zn) (T2) or two different plant [...] Read more.
This study evaluates the efficacy of two plant-based feed supplementations to fight colibacillosis in weanlings. A total of 96 piglets (32 pens) were assigned to four diets: a control diet (T1) or supplemented with ZnO (2500 ppm Zn) (T2) or two different plant supplements, T3 (1 kg/t; based on essential oils) and T4 (T3 + 1.5 kg/t based on non-volatile compounds). After one week, animals were challenged with ETEC F4, and 8 days after, one animal per pen was euthanized. Performance, clinical signs, microbial analysis, inflammatory response, intestinal morphology, and ileal gene expression were assessed. ZnO improved daily gains 4 days after challenge, T3 and T4 showing intermediate values (96, 249, 170, and 157 g/d for T1, T2, T3, and T4, p = 0.035). Fecal lactobacilli were higher with T3 and T4 compared to ZnO (7.55, 6.26, 8.71, and 8.27 cfu/gFM; p = 0.0007) and T3 increased the lactobacilli/coliforms ratio (p = 0.002). T4 was associated with lower levels of Pig-MAP (p = 0.07) and increases in villus/crypt ratio (1.49, 1.90, 1.73, and 1.84; p = 0.009). Moreover, T4 was associated with an upregulation of the REG3G gene (p = 0.013; pFDR = 0.228) involved in the immune response induced by enteric pathogens. In conclusion, both plant supplements enhanced animal response in front of an ETEC F4 challenge probably based on different modes of action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Based Alternatives to Antimicrobial in Animal Feed)
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18 pages, 1411 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Tannin Extracts, Leonardite and Tributyrin Supplementation on Diarrhoea Incidence and Gut Microbiota of Weaned Piglets
by Matteo Dell’Anno, Serena Reggi, Valentina Caprarulo, Monika Hejna, Carlo Angelo Sgoifo Rossi, Maria Luisa Callegari, Antonella Baldi and Luciana Rossi
Animals 2021, 11(6), 1693; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11061693 - 6 Jun 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 5763
Abstract
The effects of the dietary administration of a combination of Quebracho and Chestnut tannins, leonardite and tributyrin were evaluated in weaned piglets. A total of 168 weaned piglets (Landrace × Large White) were randomly allotted to two experimental groups (6 pens/group, 14 piglets/pen). [...] Read more.
The effects of the dietary administration of a combination of Quebracho and Chestnut tannins, leonardite and tributyrin were evaluated in weaned piglets. A total of 168 weaned piglets (Landrace × Large White) were randomly allotted to two experimental groups (6 pens/group, 14 piglets/pen). Animals were fed a basal control diet (CTRL) and a treatment diet (MIX) supplemented with 0.75% tannin extracts, 0.25% leonardite and 0.20% tributyrin for 28 days. Individual body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly. Diarrhoea incidence was recorded by a faecal scoring scale (0–3; considering diarrhoea ≥ 2). At 0 and 28 days, faecal samples were obtained from four piglets/pen for microbiological and chemical analyses of faecal microbiota, which were then assessed by V3-V4 region amplification sequencing. At 28 days, blood from two piglets/pen was sampled to evaluate the serum metabolic profile. After 28 days, a reduction in diarrhoea incidence was observed in the MIX compared to CTRL group (p < 0.05). In addition, compared to CTRL, MIX showed a higher lactobacilli:coliform ratio and increased Prevotella and Fibrobacter genera presence (p < 0.01). The serum metabolic profile showed a decreased level of low-density lipoproteins in the treated group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, a combination of tannin extract, leonardite and tributyrin could decrease diarrhoea incidence and modulate the gut microbiota. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Based Alternatives to Antimicrobial in Animal Feed)
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12 pages, 803 KiB  
Article
Interactions among Natural Active Ingredients to Improve the Efficiency of Rumen Fermentation In Vitro
by Rokia Temmar, María Rodríguez-Prado, Gwenael Forgeard, Cécile Rougier and Sergio Calsamiglia
Animals 2021, 11(5), 1205; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11051205 - 22 Apr 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2261
Abstract
Twelve essential oils (EO): Anise star, cassia, geraniol, lemongrass (LEM), limonene, thyme, tea tree, coriander (COR), capsicum, black pepper, turmeric and ginger (GIN), in Experiment 1 at three doses; and different combinations of LEM, COR and GIN oils in Experiment 2, were evaluated [...] Read more.
Twelve essential oils (EO): Anise star, cassia, geraniol, lemongrass (LEM), limonene, thyme, tea tree, coriander (COR), capsicum, black pepper, turmeric and ginger (GIN), in Experiment 1 at three doses; and different combinations of LEM, COR and GIN oils in Experiment 2, were evaluated in in vitro batch microbial fermentation using ruminal fluid from four dairy cows fed a 50:50 forage: concentrate diet. In experiment 1, LEM tended to increase the propionate proportion and tended to decrease the acetate to propionate ratio. Anise star, COR, and thyme tended to increase butyrate proportion. Capsicum, COR, and thyme decreased ammonia-N concentration. In experiment 2, a synergy was observed between LEM and COR that resulted in an increase in total volatile fatty acids and propionate proportion, and a decrease in the acetate to propionate ratio. However, the addition of high doses of GIN to the mix had an antagonistic effect on the rumen fermentation profile of the LEM + COR mix. Careful selection and combination of these EO may result in useful mixtures with synergistic interactions to modulate rumen microbial fermentation profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Based Alternatives to Antimicrobial in Animal Feed)
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11 pages, 274 KiB  
Article
The Efficacy of Plant-Based Bioactives Supplementation to Different Proportion of Concentrate Diets on Methane Production and Rumen Fermentation Characteristics In Vitro
by Eslam Ahmed, Naoki Fukuma, Masaaki Hanada and Takehiro Nishida
Animals 2021, 11(4), 1029; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11041029 - 5 Apr 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3519
Abstract
This In Vitro study was conducted to investigate the impact of plant-bioactives extract (PE), a combination of garlic powder and bitter orange extract, on methane production, rumen fermentation, and digestibility in different feeding models. The dietary treatments were 1000 g grass/kg ration + [...] Read more.
This In Vitro study was conducted to investigate the impact of plant-bioactives extract (PE), a combination of garlic powder and bitter orange extract, on methane production, rumen fermentation, and digestibility in different feeding models. The dietary treatments were 1000 g grass/kg ration + 0 g concentrate/kg ration (100:0), 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, and 20:80. The PE was supplemented at 200 g/kg of the feed. Each group consisted of 6 replicates. The experiment was performed as an In Vitro batch culture for 24 h at 39 °C. This procedure was repeated in three consecutive runs. The results of this experiment showed that supplementation with PE strongly reduced methane production in all kinds of feeding models (p < 0.001). Its efficacy in reducing methane/digestible dry matter was 44% in the 100:0 diet, and this reduction power increased up to a 69.2% with the inclusion of concentrate in the 20:80 diet. The PE application significantly increased gas and carbon dioxide production and the concentration of ammonia-nitrogen, but decreased the pH (p < 0.001). In contrast, it did not interfere with organic matter and fiber digestibility. Supplementation with PE was effective in altering rumen fermentation toward less acetate and more propionate and butyrate (p < 0.001). Additionally, it improved the production of total volatile fatty acids in all feeding models (p < 0.001). In conclusion, the PE combination showed effective methane reduction by improving rumen fermentation characteristics without exhibiting adverse effects on fiber digestibility. Thus, PE could be used with all kinds of feeding models to effectively mitigate methane emissions from ruminants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Based Alternatives to Antimicrobial in Animal Feed)
12 pages, 282 KiB  
Article
Free and Microencapsulated Essential Oils Incubated In Vitro: Ruminal Stability and Fermentation Parameters
by Nida Amin, Franco Tagliapietra, Sheyla Arango, Nadia Guzzo and Lucia Bailoni
Animals 2021, 11(1), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11010180 - 14 Jan 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2746
Abstract
Essential oils (EOs) are generally considered as an alternative to antibiotics because of their antimicrobial properties. Despite their vast variety, their volatile nature poses hindrance on their use in animal feeds, which demands a high degree of stability. This study aimed at testing [...] Read more.
Essential oils (EOs) are generally considered as an alternative to antibiotics because of their antimicrobial properties. Despite their vast variety, their volatile nature poses hindrance on their use in animal feeds, which demands a high degree of stability. This study aimed at testing the susceptibility of three EOs (mixtures of EOs based on cinnamaldehyde, named Olistat-Cyn, Olistat-G, and Olistat-P) in two forms (free: fEOs; and microencapsulated: mEOs) to in vitro ruminal degradation using the Ankom DaisyII technique. The microencapsulation was made using a matrix based on vegetable hydrogenated fatty acids. Compared to the fEOs, which were completely degraded within 48 h of in vitro incubation, the mEOs showed a low ruminal disappearance. In comparison to the fermentation profile at 0 h, Olistat-G significantly decreased the pH and the total protozoa number after 48 h, while the total VFAs increased. However, the other EOs (Olistat-Cyn and Olistat-P) had no effect on the rumen fermentation parameters. In conclusion, the protection of EOs from ruminal degradation by microencapsulation was found to be very effective to ensure rumen by-pass. Among the EOs, Olistat-G was capable of changing rumen fermentation, potentially reducing methane emissions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Based Alternatives to Antimicrobial in Animal Feed)
14 pages, 1458 KiB  
Article
Effect of Allium Extract Supplementation on Egg Quality, Productivity, and Intestinal Microbiota of Laying Hens
by Paloma Abad, Natalia Arroyo-Manzanares, Juan J. Ariza, Alberto Baños and Ana M. García-Campaña
Animals 2021, 11(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11010041 - 28 Dec 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3557
Abstract
The use of allium extract containing propyl propane thiosulfonate (PTSO) as hen feed supplement was evaluated to demonstrate its positive effect on egg production and intestinal microbiota modulation. The study was carried out on 90 laying hens whose feed was supplemented with allium [...] Read more.
The use of allium extract containing propyl propane thiosulfonate (PTSO) as hen feed supplement was evaluated to demonstrate its positive effect on egg production and intestinal microbiota modulation. The study was carried out on 90 laying hens whose feed was supplemented with allium extract for 28 days. Nutritional properties of eggs were not affected, whereas an improvement in productivity was observed based on the increase weight of eggs. In addition, a modulator effect on intestinal microbiota was confirmed by the increase in Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp., as well as by the reduction in Enterobacteriaceae populations. Finally, the preservation of egg composition was checked by monitoring the content of PTSO, using a new analytical method consisting of the use of solid phase extraction and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Consequently, based on current results, Allium spp. extract rich in organosulfur compounds such as PTSO added to the diet had a beneficial effect on the microbiota and would seem to be a possible alternative to increase productivity, while not affecting the biochemical composition of egg. However, further studies on the effects of allium extract as feed supplement are necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Based Alternatives to Antimicrobial in Animal Feed)
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18 pages, 298 KiB  
Article
Comparative Efficacy of Selected Phytobiotics with Halquinol and Tetracycline on Gut Morphology, Ileal Digestibility, Cecal Microbiota Composition and Growth Performance in Broiler Chickens
by Muhammad Abdul Basit, Arifah Abdul Kadir, Teck Chwen Loh, Saleha Abdul Aziz, Annas Salleh, Zainul Amiruddin Zakaria and Sherifat Banke Idris
Animals 2020, 10(11), 2150; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10112150 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 4032
Abstract
The current experiment was designed to estimate the comparative efficacy of selected phytobiotics Persicaria odorata leaf meal (POLM) and Piper betle leaf meal (PBLM) with halquinol, and tetracycline in broiler chickens. The 150-day-old broiler chickens were randomly assigned to five dietary groups. The [...] Read more.
The current experiment was designed to estimate the comparative efficacy of selected phytobiotics Persicaria odorata leaf meal (POLM) and Piper betle leaf meal (PBLM) with halquinol, and tetracycline in broiler chickens. The 150-day-old broiler chickens were randomly assigned to five dietary groups. The dietary supplementation groups were the basal diet (BD), which served as the negative control (NC), and BD + 0.2 g/kg tetracycline, which served as the positive control (PC); BD + 0.03 g/kg halquinol (HAL), BD + 8 g/kg POLM (Po8), and BD + 4 g/kg PBLM (Pb4) were the treatment groups. Growth performance, gut morphology, ileal digestibility, and cecal microbiota composition were measured. On day 21, the body weight gain (BWG) was enhanced (p < 0.05) in the broiler chickens fed on phytobiotics (Po8 and Pb4) relative to the NC group, however, on day 42 and in terms of overall growth performance, BWG was enhanced (p < 0.05 in diets (Po8, Pb4, HAL and PC) in comparison with the NC group. Conversely, feed conversion ratio (FCR) was recorded reduced (p < 0.05) in Pb4, Po8, HAL, and PC group in comparison with the NC group. Supplementation of phytobiotics (Po8 and Pb4), HAL and PC, positively improved the gut morphology compared to the NC group. Furthermore, the maximum (p < 0.05) villus height (VH) in duodenum and jejunum was observed in broilers fed on diet Pb4. Supplementation of phytobiotics, HAL and PC, improved (p < 0.05) the digestibility of dry matter (DM) (except for HAL), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), and ash compared to the NC group. Dietary supplementation of phytobiotics (Po8 and Pb4), HAL and PC, significantly reduced the E. coli, Salmonella, and Staphylococcus aureus (except for HAL) counts compared to the NC group. However, supplementation of Pb4 resulted in significantly decreased total anaerobic bacteria and Clostridium spp. counts compared to the NC group. In addition, supplementation of phytobiotics significantly increased the Lactobacillus count compared to HAL, PC, and NC groups. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of phytobiotics improved the gut morphology, positively modulated and maintained the dynamics of cecal microbiota with enhanced nutrient digestibility, thus, increased the growth performance. Based on current results, phytobiotics could be used as an alternative to AGPs for sustainable broiler chicken production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Based Alternatives to Antimicrobial in Animal Feed)
14 pages, 1208 KiB  
Article
Eucommia ulmoides Flavones as Potential Alternatives to Antibiotic Growth Promoters in a Low-Protein Diet Improve Growth Performance and Intestinal Health in Weaning Piglets
by Daixiu Yuan, Jing Wang, Dingfu Xiao, Jiefeng Li, Yanhong Liu, Bie Tan and Yulong Yin
Animals 2020, 10(11), 1998; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10111998 - 30 Oct 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2117
Abstract
Eucommia ulmoides flavones (EUF) have been demonstrated to attenuate the inflammation and oxidative stress of piglets. This study aimed to test whether EUF could be used as an alternative antibiotic growth promoter to support growth performance and maintain intestinal health in weanling piglets. [...] Read more.
Eucommia ulmoides flavones (EUF) have been demonstrated to attenuate the inflammation and oxidative stress of piglets. This study aimed to test whether EUF could be used as an alternative antibiotic growth promoter to support growth performance and maintain intestinal health in weanling piglets. Weaned piglets (n = 480) were assigned into three groups and fed with a low-protein basal diet (NC), or supplementation with antibiotics (PC) or 0.01% EUF (EUF). Blood, intestinal contents, and intestine were collected on days 15 and 35 after weaning. The results showed the PC and EUF supplementations increased (p < 0.05) body weight on day 35, average daily gain and gain: feed ratio from day 15 to day 35 and day 0 to day 35, whereas decreased (p < 0.05) the diarrhea index of weanling piglets. EUF treatment increased (p < 0.05) jejunal villus height: crypt depth ratio, jejunal and ileal villus height, and population of ileal lactic acid bacteria on day 15 but decreased (p < 0.05) the population of ileal coliform bacteria on day 15 and day 35. These findings indicated the EUF, as the potential alternative to in-feed antibiotic growth promoter, could improve growth performance and intestinal morphology, and decrease colonization of coliform bacteria and diarrhea index in weanling piglets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Based Alternatives to Antimicrobial in Animal Feed)
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15 pages, 575 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Dietary Administration of Chestnut and Quebracho Tannins on Growth, Serum Metabolites and Fecal Parameters of Weaned Piglets
by Valentina Caprarulo, Monika Hejna, Carlotta Giromini, Yanhong Liu, Matteo Dell’Anno, Stefania Sotira, Serena Reggi, Carlo Angelo Sgoifo-Rossi, Maria Luisa Callegari and Luciana Rossi
Animals 2020, 10(11), 1945; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10111945 - 22 Oct 2020
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 3641
Abstract
In pig livestock, alternatives to in-feed antibiotics are needed to control enteric infections. Plant extracts such as tannins can represent an alternative as a natural source of functional compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro digestibility and in [...] Read more.
In pig livestock, alternatives to in-feed antibiotics are needed to control enteric infections. Plant extracts such as tannins can represent an alternative as a natural source of functional compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro digestibility and in vivo effects of oral supplementation of combined chestnut (Ch) and quebracho (Qu) tannins in order to establish if they can induce a positive effect on weaned piglets’ performance, metabolic status and fecal parameters. In vitro digestibility (dry matter, DM) of diets was calculated using a multi-step enzymatic technique. In vitro digested diet samples were further tested on an intestinal porcine enterocyte cell line (IPEC-J2). Weaned piglets (n = 120; 28 ± 2 day old) were randomly allotted to two groups (12 pens in total with 10 pigs per pen): control (Ctrl) and treatment (Ch/Qu). After one week of adaptation (day 0), 35-day-old piglets in the Ctrl group were fed a Ctrl diet and the Ch/Qu group were fed with 1.25% Ch/Qu for 40 days. Body weight and feed intake per pen were recorded weekly. At day 40, blood and fecal samples were collected. Principal metabolic parameters were evaluated from blood samples by enzymatic colorimetric analysis. Total phenolic compounds, urea, and ammonia in feces were analyzed (Megazyme International, Bray, Ireland). In vitro digestibility and cell viability assays showed that the inclusion of 1.25% Ch/Qu slightly reduced diet digestibility compared with the Ctrl diet, while intestinal cell viability was not altered with low concentrations of Ch/Qu digesta compared with Ctrl. In vivo results did not show any adverse effects of Ch/Qu on feed intake and growth performance, confirming that dietary inclusion of Ch/Qu at a concentration of 1.25% did not impair animal performance. The decreased diet DM digestibility in the Ch/Qu diet may cause increased serum concentration of albumin (Ctrl: 19.30 ± 0.88; Ch/Qu: 23.05 ± 0.88) and albumin/globulin ratio (Ctrl: 0.58 ± 0.04; Ch/Qu: 0.82 ± 0.04), but decreased creatinine (Ctrl: 78.92 ± 4.18; Ch/Qu: 54.82 ± 4.18) and urea (Ctrl: 2.18 ± 0.19; Ch/Qu: 0.95 ± 0.19) compared with Ctrl. Pigs in the Ch/Qu group contained higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of fecal phenolic compounds and nitrogen than the Ctrl group, while fecal ammonia and urea were not affected by tannins. In conclusion, Ch/Qu tannin supplementation did not influence growth performance. Although lower digestibility was observed in the diet supplemented with Ch/Qu tannins, Ch/Qu supplementation did not show any adverse effect on intestinal epithelial cell viability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Based Alternatives to Antimicrobial in Animal Feed)
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12 pages, 254 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Wheat Bran on the Morphology and Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Broiler Chickens
by Qinghui Shang, Di Wu, Hansuo Liu, Shad Mahfuz and Xiangshu Piao
Animals 2020, 10(10), 1831; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10101831 - 8 Oct 2020
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 4638
Abstract
There is increasing evidence showing that moderate amounts of insoluble dietary fiber can improve nutrient utilization by positively influencing the physiology of the gastrointestinal tract. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of wheat bran as a source of insoluble fiber [...] Read more.
There is increasing evidence showing that moderate amounts of insoluble dietary fiber can improve nutrient utilization by positively influencing the physiology of the gastrointestinal tract. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of wheat bran as a source of insoluble fiber on nutrient digestibility, serum antioxidant status, gastrointestinal development, digestive enzyme activities and intestinal morphology in broiler chickens. A total of 96 one-day-old male Arbor Acre broiler chickens were assigned to two treatments with six replicate cages per treatment and eight birds per replicate for 42 d. Dietary treatments consisted of the control group (CON, control diet) and wheat bran group (WB, 30 g/kg wheat bran). Inclusion of WB increased (p < 0.05) the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, gross energy and crude protein on Day 42. Birds fed WB had lower (p < 0.05) serum total cholesterol concentration on Day 21, and lower (p < 0.05) serum concentrations of low-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol and total triglyceride on Day 42. Inclusion of WB increased (p < 0.05) serum glutathione peroxidase activity on Day 21 and superoxide dismutase activity on Day 42, but tended (p = 0.07) to decrease serum malondialdehyde concentration on Day 21, and significantly decreased (p < 0.05) serum malondialdehyde concentration on Day 42. Birds fed WB had a greater (p < 0.05) relative weight of gizzard on both Day 21 and 42. Inclusion of WB increased (p < 0.05) activities of amylase and trypsin in pancreas and jejunal mucosa on Day 21, and increased (p < 0.05) amylase activity in pancreas and jejunal mucosa. Birds fed WB had greater (p < 0.05) villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio in jejunum and ileum on Day 42. In conclusion, supplementation of 30 g/kg WB enhanced nutrient digestibility by improving antioxidant status, gizzard development, intestinal digestive enzyme activities and morphology of broilers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Based Alternatives to Antimicrobial in Animal Feed)
15 pages, 286 KiB  
Article
Effect of Alliaceae Extract Supplementation on Performance and Intestinal Microbiota of Growing-Finishing Pig
by Cristian Jesús Sánchez, Silvia Martínez-Miró, Juan José Ariza, Josefa Madrid, Juan Orengo, María Arántzazu Aguinaga, Alberto Baños and Fuensanta Hernández
Animals 2020, 10(9), 1557; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10091557 - 2 Sep 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3425
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether an Allium spp. extract rich in organosulfur compounds, such as propyl thiosulfonate (PTSO), added to the feed of growing-finishing pigs at 5 g/kg enhances growth performance or affects the fecal microbiome, the levels [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether an Allium spp. extract rich in organosulfur compounds, such as propyl thiosulfonate (PTSO), added to the feed of growing-finishing pigs at 5 g/kg enhances growth performance or affects the fecal microbiome, the levels of short-chain fatty acids, or the antioxidant capacity of the animals. Fifty male growing pigs (large white) of 23.07 ± 2.87 kg average body weight were randomly allotted to two treatments in a 103-day trial. The trial was divided into two periods, an initial growing phase (56-days) and a finishing phase (47-days). Two dietary treatments for each phase (growing and finishing) were used: a control diet (CON) and an experimental diet consisting of the control diet to which 5 g/kg of Allium spp. extract was added to substitute sepiolite (GAR). Throughout the study, body weight, average daily gain (kg/day, ADG), feed intake (kg/day), and feed conversion ratio (kg/kg) were measured, while the backfat thickness and muscle depth were determined at the end of the study. Besides, feces samples were taken for bacterial counts by means of real-time PCR and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profile determination, and the antioxidant capacity was assessed in serum and saliva. In the animals receiving Allium spp. extract (5 g/kg) in the feed, ADG increased (p < 0.05) throughout the trial, Salmonella spp. and Clostridium spp. counts in feces had decreased (p < 0.05) when measured on day 56, and, by day 103, Salmonella spp., Clostridium spp., and Enterobacteriaceae counts had decreased (p < 0.05) and Lactobacillus spp. counts had increased (p < 0.01) in feces. Regarding the SCFA profile in feces and antioxidant capacity measured in serum and saliva, supplementation with Allium spp. extract significantly increased the levels of propionic, isobutyric, and isovaleric acids and the percentage of total branched fatty acids, while the c2/c3 and (c2 + c4)/c3 ratios were lower (p < 0.05) in feces; the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and the cupric reducing antioxidant capacity levels in serum were significantly higher in the same pigs on day 103 than on day 0. Consequently, based on the current results, Allium spp. extract rich in organosulfur compounds, added to the diet at 5 g/kg, had a beneficial effect on the microbiota and would seem to be a possible alternative for increasing the growth performance of growing-finishing pigs. However, further studies on the effects of Allium spp. supplementation on carcass quality are necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Based Alternatives to Antimicrobial in Animal Feed)
12 pages, 1444 KiB  
Article
Milk Replacer Supplementation with Docosahexaenoic Acid from Microalgae Does Not Affect Growth and Immune Status in Goat Kids
by Isabel Moreno-Indias, Lorenzo E. Hernández-Castellano, Davinia Sánchez-Macías, Antonio Morales-delaNuez, Alexandr Torres, Anastasio Argüello and Noemí Castro
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1233; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071233 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3076
Abstract
Consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has beneficial effects for consumers’ health. Consequently, there is an increased interest in enhancing meat fatty acid profiles (i.e., PUFA and DHA content) through diverse nutritional strategies. This study aimed to investigate the [...] Read more.
Consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has beneficial effects for consumers’ health. Consequently, there is an increased interest in enhancing meat fatty acid profiles (i.e., PUFA and DHA content) through diverse nutritional strategies. This study aimed to investigate the effect of supplementing a microalgae-derived product rich in DHA on growth and immune system development in newborn goat kids. In this experiment, newborn goat kids were fed milk replacer (MR) supplemented with three levels of a microalgae-derived product rich in DHA (DHA-Gold®, Martek Biosciences, MD, USA). Groups were designed as follows: MR-NS (milk replacer without DHA-Gold® supplementation; n = 10), MR-DHA-9 (9 g of DHA-Gold®/L milk replacer; n = 10) and MR-DHA-18 (18 g of DHA-Gold®/L milk replacer; n = 10). The immune status of the kids was evaluated by the plasma IgG and IgM concentrations, as well as by the complement system and chitotriosidase activities. Dietary supplementation with DHA did not affect either growth or innate and humoral immunity (p > 0.05). This study concludes that supplementation with DHA does not cause negative effects on growth and immune status in newborn goat kids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Based Alternatives to Antimicrobial in Animal Feed)
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26 pages, 455 KiB  
Review
Phytogenic Feed Additives in Poultry: Achievements, Prospective and Challenges
by Nedra Abdelli, David Solà-Oriol and José Francisco Pérez
Animals 2021, 11(12), 3471; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123471 - 6 Dec 2021
Cited by 60 | Viewed by 8829
Abstract
Phytogenic feed additives have been largely tested in poultry production with the aim to identify their effects on the gastrointestinal function and health, and their implications on the birds’ systemic health and welfare, the production efficiency of flocks, food safety, and environmental impact. [...] Read more.
Phytogenic feed additives have been largely tested in poultry production with the aim to identify their effects on the gastrointestinal function and health, and their implications on the birds’ systemic health and welfare, the production efficiency of flocks, food safety, and environmental impact. These feed additives originating from plants, and consisting of herbs, spices, fruit, and other plant parts, include many different bioactive ingredients. Reviewing published documents about the supplementation of phytogenic feed additives reveals contradictory results regarding their effectiveness in poultry production. This indicates that more effort is still needed to determine the appropriate inclusion levels and fully elucidate their mode of actions. In this frame, this review aimed to sum up the current trends in the use of phytogenic feed additives in poultry with a special focus on their interaction with gut ecosystem, gut function, in vivo oxidative status and immune system as well as other feed additives, especially organic acids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Based Alternatives to Antimicrobial in Animal Feed)
32 pages, 1347 KiB  
Review
Bacterial Skin Infections in Livestock and Plant-Based Alternatives to Their Antibiotic Treatment
by Lucie Mala, Klara Lalouckova and Eva Skrivanova
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2473; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082473 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 6719
Abstract
Due to its large surface area, the skin is susceptible to various injuries, possibly accompanied by the entrance of infective agents into the body. Commensal organisms that constitute the skin microbiota play important roles in the orchestration of cutaneous homeostasis and immune competence. [...] Read more.
Due to its large surface area, the skin is susceptible to various injuries, possibly accompanied by the entrance of infective agents into the body. Commensal organisms that constitute the skin microbiota play important roles in the orchestration of cutaneous homeostasis and immune competence. The opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is present as part of the normal biota of the skin and mucous membranes in both humans and animals, but can cause disease when it invades the body either due to trauma or because of the impaired immune response of the host. Colonization of livestock skin by S. aureus is a precursor for majority of bacterial skin infections, which range from boils to sepsis, with the best-characterized being bovine mastitis. Antibiotic treatment of these infections can contribute to the promotion of resistant bacterial strains and even to multidrug resistance. The development of antibiotic resistance to currently available antibiotics is a worldwide problem. Considering the increasing ability of bacteria to effectively resist antibacterial agents, it is important to reduce the livestock consumption of antibiotics to preserve antibiotic effectiveness in the future. Plants are recognized as sources of various bioactive substances, including antibacterial activity towards clinically important microorganisms. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on the major groups of phytochemicals with antibacterial activity and their modes of action. It also provides a list of currently known and used plant species aimed at treating or preventing bacterial skin infections in livestock. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Based Alternatives to Antimicrobial in Animal Feed)
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