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Nanotechnology in Wastewater Treatment Technology

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanotechnology and Applied Nanosciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 November 2017) | Viewed by 31949

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200F-Bus 02423, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium
Interests: separation processes; membrane technology; chemical engineering; resource recovery; hybrid separation and reaction/separation systems; low cost and high performance technologies; water treatment; potable water; wastewater
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department, Water Technology Research Center and Institute of the Environment and Sustainability, California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1592, USA
Interests: water treatment; desalination; membrane technology; membrane synthesis; graft polymerization; machine learning; environmental impact assessment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Industrial scale wastewater treatment technologies are still largely based on conventional treatment methods and, thus, reflect a paradigm that has remained essentially unchanged since the last century. However, in recent years, there have been numerous proposed approaches on emerging advances in wastewater treatment technology involving integration of nanotechnology including, but not limited to: nanocatalysts for advanced degradation of pollutants; nanocomposite and surface nanostructured membranes; nanostructured additives for targeted separations; nanoparticle-based sorption resins; and sensors based on nanomaterials. The ultimate goal is towards achieving low cost process efficiency, process intensification and resource recovery. This Special Issue focuses on the latest research and development of nanoscale strategies with potential for practical applications in wastewater treatment. Accordingly, papers that demonstrate novel nanotechnology concepts for wastewater treatment are sought. These include papers dealing with theoretical analyses, laboratory and field studies. Also, contributions that demonstrate potential for practical viability are particularly welcome.

Prof. Bart Van der Bruggen
Prof. Samuel B. Adeloju
Prof. Yoram Cohen
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nanotechnology
  • nanomaterials
  • nanoparticles
  • nanomembranes
  • nanoadsorbents
  • wastewater
  • pollutant degradation
  • economic feasibility
  • industrial application

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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10 pages, 6011 KiB  
Article
Flower-like BiVO4 Microspheres and Their Visible Light-Driven Photocatalytic Activity
by Arini Nuran Zulkifili, Akira Fujiki and Shinji Kimijima
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8020216 - 31 Jan 2018
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 4351
Abstract
A flower-like BiVO4 microsphere photocatalyst was synthesized with a simple template-free homogeneous precipitation method at 60 °C for 24 h. The purpose of this study is to explore a low-cost, simple method of synthesizing the self-assembled 3D structure in order to enhance [...] Read more.
A flower-like BiVO4 microsphere photocatalyst was synthesized with a simple template-free homogeneous precipitation method at 60 °C for 24 h. The purpose of this study is to explore a low-cost, simple method of synthesizing the self-assembled 3D structure in order to enhance photocatalytic performance under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm). In this study, the morphology, structure, and photo-absorption of flower-like BiVO4 microspheres were characterized, and the effects of photocatalysis were analyzed. The results indicate that the size of the flower-like microspheres was about 2 μm to 4 μm and they were composed of several nanosheets. The mechanism of hierarchical microsphere formation has been proposed as the Ostwald ripening process and the self-assembled process. The obtained samples were calcined under different temperatures (300 °C, 400 °C, 500 °C and 600 °C) to study the effects of calcination on the structure and on photocatalysis. The photocatalytic process was then evaluated by decolorization of methylene blue dye under visible-light irradiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnology in Wastewater Treatment Technology)
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7305 KiB  
Article
Nanostructured Ceramic Photocatalytic Membrane Modified with a Polymer Template for Textile Wastewater Treatment
by Rizwan Ahmad, Jin Kyu Kim, Jong Hak Kim and Jeonghwan Kim
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(12), 1284; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7121284 - 9 Dec 2017
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 7128
Abstract
Photocatalytic ceramic membranes have attracted considerable attention for industrial wastewater treatment. However, morphological control of the membrane surface to improve its photocatalytic reactivity for the degradation of organic pollutants remains a challenge. Herein, we report a new nanostructured TiO2/Al2O [...] Read more.
Photocatalytic ceramic membranes have attracted considerable attention for industrial wastewater treatment. However, morphological control of the membrane surface to improve its photocatalytic reactivity for the degradation of organic pollutants remains a challenge. Herein, we report a new nanostructured TiO2/Al2O3 composite ceramic membrane prepared from a poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) (POEM) template through a sol–gel method and its photocatalytic performance in the treatment of a model dye compound. The POEM polymeric template allowed the homogeneous distribution of catalytic sites, i.e., the TiO2 layer, on the Al2O3 membrane surface, resulting in improved organic dye degradation along with effective fouling mitigation. The immobilization of a TiO2 layer on the Al2O3 membrane support also significantly enhanced the membrane adsorption capacity toward dye organic compounds. An organic removal efficiency of over 96% was achieved with the TiO2/Al2O3 composite membrane under Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. In addition, the self-cleaning efficiency of the TiO2/Al2O3 composite membrane was remarkably improved by the degradation of organic foulants on the membrane under UV illumination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnology in Wastewater Treatment Technology)
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3883 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of Iron-Doped ZnO Nanowires for Water Purification
by Yamina Ghozlane Habba, Martine Capochichi-Gnambodoe and Yamin Leprince-Wang
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(11), 1185; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7111185 - 17 Nov 2017
Cited by 46 | Viewed by 6340
Abstract
In order to improve the photocatalytic efficiency of ZnO nanowires, iron-doped ZnO nanowires (ZnO:Fe NWs) were successfully synthesized. The morphology, optical properties and photocatalytic performance of ZnO:Fe NWs were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-Visible spectrophotometry and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), respectively. The [...] Read more.
In order to improve the photocatalytic efficiency of ZnO nanowires, iron-doped ZnO nanowires (ZnO:Fe NWs) were successfully synthesized. The morphology, optical properties and photocatalytic performance of ZnO:Fe NWs were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-Visible spectrophotometry and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), respectively. The SEM observations showed that the morphology of the ZnO NWs was not modified by iron doping, but the band gap was reduced from 3.29 eV for ZnO NWs to 3.25 eV for ZnO:Fe NWs. This band gap reduction allows the semiconductor to harvest more photons to excite more electrons in the valence band; subsequently, resulting in an improvement of the degradability of the understudied organic dyes: methylene blue (MB), methyl orange (MO), and acid red 14 (AR14). The photocatalytic study showed that the photo-degradation rate of the MB, MO, and AR14 was improved 9%, 20%, and 5% respectively by 1% iron doping in the ZnO NWs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnology in Wastewater Treatment Technology)
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Review

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16 pages, 1771 KiB  
Review
Nanomaterials for the Abatement of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products from Wastewater
by Francesca Stefania Freyria, Francesco Geobaldo and Barbara Bonelli
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8020170 - 25 Jan 2018
Cited by 47 | Viewed by 5739
Abstract
In this short-review, the most common types of both pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCP, a class of “emerging pollutants”) are considered, as well as some of the most frequent methods for their removal that envisage the use of nanomaterials. The nanomaterials used [...] Read more.
In this short-review, the most common types of both pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCP, a class of “emerging pollutants”) are considered, as well as some of the most frequent methods for their removal that envisage the use of nanomaterials. The nanomaterials used in conservative methods (namely, reverse osmosis, nanofiltration and adsorption) are basically nanoporous solids. Non-conservative methods, which include photocatalysis and Fenton reaction, are currently considered more promising than conservative ones, as the former allow the (at least) partial degradation of the original molecules into more biodegradable by-products, which can be further abated by subsequent biological treatments, whereas the former are not efficient for the removal of small quantities of pollutants and have to be regenerated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnology in Wastewater Treatment Technology)
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40 pages, 6634 KiB  
Review
Nanofiber-Based Materials for Persistent Organic Pollutants in Water Remediation by Adsorption
by Elise Des Ligneris, Ludovic F. Dumée and Lingxue Kong
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8020166 - 24 Jan 2018
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 7121
Abstract
Fresh water is one of the most precious resources for our society. As a cause of oxygen depletion, organic pollutants released into water streams from industrial discharges, fertilizers, pesticides, detergents or consumed medicines can raise toxicological concerns due to their long-range transportability, bio-accumulation [...] Read more.
Fresh water is one of the most precious resources for our society. As a cause of oxygen depletion, organic pollutants released into water streams from industrial discharges, fertilizers, pesticides, detergents or consumed medicines can raise toxicological concerns due to their long-range transportability, bio-accumulation and degradation into carcinogenic compounds. The Stockholm Convention has named 21 persistent organic pollutants (POP) so far. As opposed to other separation techniques, adsorption, typically performed with activated carbons, offers opportunities to combine low operation costs with high performance as well as fast kinetics of capture if custom-designed with the right choice of adsorbent structure and surface chemistry. Nanofibers possess a higher surface to volume ratio compared to commercial macro-adsorbents, and a higher stability in water than other adsorptive nanostructures, such as loose nanoparticles. This paper highlights the potential of nanofibers in organic pollutant adsorption and thus provides an up-to-date overview of their employment for the treatment of wastewater contaminated by disinfectants and pesticides, which is benchmarked with other reported adsorptive structures. The discussion further investigates the impact of adsorbent pore geometry and surface chemistry on the resulting adsorption performance against specific organic molecules. Finally, insight into the physicochemical properties required for an adsorbent against a targeted pollutant is provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnology in Wastewater Treatment Technology)
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