Advanced Technologies in Optical and Microwave Transmission

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 29 February 2024 | Viewed by 3092

Special Issue Editor

School of Automation Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731, China
Interests: optical and microwave transfer; optical and microwave measurement; time and frequency transfer; femtosecond laser
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Optical transmission is a technology that transmits optical signals between transmitters and receivers. Typically, its transmission links include optical fiber and free space, and it is widely used in optical fiber communication networks. Microwave transmission, on the other hand, employs wireless waves to transmit data signals and is commonly used as an access layer transmission technology in mobile communication networks.

The objective of both optical and microwave transmission technologies is to achieve signal transmission over long distance channels with high bandwidth, high stability, and low timing jitter. After decades of development, these transmission technologies have progressed rapidly and have achieved high-quality signal transmission. However, with the continuous advancement of basic scientific research and the evolving nature of application fields, traditional optical and microwave transmission methods and performance face significant challenges. Examples of such challenges include ultra-long-distance fiber and free-space communication, ultra-high-bandwidth communication, underwater optical and microwave transmission, and optical and microwave cross-application.

This Special Issue is dedicated to advanced technologies in optical and microwave transmission. The focus of the subjects to be discussed in this Special Issue will not only be on novel technologies and modern methods, but also on their implementation and verification for further applications.

Dr. Dong Hou
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • optical fiber transmission/communication
  • optical free-space transmission/communication
  • optical communication network
  • optical microwave transmission/communication
  • radio over fiber transmission
  • radio over space transmission
  • underwater transmission/communication
  • optical and microwave measurement in transmission
  • optical and microwave detection in transmission

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 3131 KiB  
Article
Analysis and Reduction of Nonlinear Effects in Optical Fiber Frequency Transfer
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(23), 12762; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132312762 - 28 Nov 2023
Viewed by 546
Abstract
Nonlinear effects in optical fiber frequency transfer have a significant impact on the precision of frequency transfer. We investigate the main nonlinear effects, including the Brillouin scattering and the Raman scattering, in optical fiber frequency transfer through theoretical and simulation calculations in detail. [...] Read more.
Nonlinear effects in optical fiber frequency transfer have a significant impact on the precision of frequency transfer. We investigate the main nonlinear effects, including the Brillouin scattering and the Raman scattering, in optical fiber frequency transfer through theoretical and simulation calculations in detail. The calculation results show that the threshold powers of the Brillouin scattering and the Raman scattering decrease with the increase in the fiber length; however, the fiber length has little to no impact on the threshold powers when the fiber length is greater than 10 km. The threshold powers, including the Brillouin scattering and the Raman scattering, increase as the attenuation coefficient increases. Conversely, when it comes to the gain coefficients, the outcomes exhibit a reverse trend. When the linewidth Δvlaser of the laser source is from 1 Hz to 1 MHz, the linewidth Δvlaser does not affect the threshold powers of the Brillouin scattering. This study seeks to offer design guidance aimed at mitigating nonlinear effects in optical fiber frequency transfer. The calculated results hold considerable potential in guiding various applications reliant on Brillouin and Raman scattering properties, such as laser technology and optical fiber sensing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Technologies in Optical and Microwave Transmission)
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15 pages, 734 KiB  
Article
Performance Analysis of Dual-Hop DF Multi-Relay FSO System with Adaptive Modulation
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(19), 11035; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131911035 - 07 Oct 2023
Viewed by 567
Abstract
The signal quality in high-bandwidth free space optical (FSO) systems deteriorates due to atmospheric turbulence and pointing errors. Employing techniques such as adaptive transmission and relay selection (RS) can mitigate their effects. This paper analyzes the performance of a dual-hop decode-and-forward multi-relay FSO [...] Read more.
The signal quality in high-bandwidth free space optical (FSO) systems deteriorates due to atmospheric turbulence and pointing errors. Employing techniques such as adaptive transmission and relay selection (RS) can mitigate their effects. This paper analyzes the performance of a dual-hop decode-and-forward multi-relay FSO system with an adaptive M-ary phase shift keying scheme. This analysis is based on the recently proposed Fisher–Snedecor F channel model and considers the impact of pointing errors. We propose two partial relay selection schemes based on the source-to-relay or relay-to-destination channel state information to reduce the complexity of the optimal relay selection scheme. In this investigation, we derive closed-form expressions for the outage probability, modulation level selection probability, and spectral efficiency (SE) and compare the performance of the proposed RS schemes under balanced and unbalanced link cases. We observe an improvement in the SE with an increase in the number of modulation levels and the number of relays. Moreover, it is noted that the performance of the system can be restricted by the quality of either the source-to-relay or the relay-to-destination link, even if the quality of the other link is perfect. Finally, the outcomes obtained through the derived expressions are validated using Monte Carlo simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Technologies in Optical and Microwave Transmission)
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12 pages, 5694 KiB  
Article
Analysis and Implementation of a Frequency Synthesizer Based on Dual Phase-Locked Loops in Cesium Atomic Clock
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(16), 9155; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13169155 - 11 Aug 2023
Viewed by 877
Abstract
The frequency synthesizer plays a crucial role in atomic clock technology. In this study, we demonstrate a direct microwave frequency synthesizer for a cesium atomic clock, employing frequency multiplication and a dual-phase-locked loop mode. A mathematical model of the frequency synthesis chain is [...] Read more.
The frequency synthesizer plays a crucial role in atomic clock technology. In this study, we demonstrate a direct microwave frequency synthesizer for a cesium atomic clock, employing frequency multiplication and a dual-phase-locked loop mode. A mathematical model of the frequency synthesis chain is established to estimate its performance. The phase-settling time and system stability are analyzed and studied in detail, and the obtained results are verified by experiments. An optimized realization of the frequency synthesizer shows that the phase-settling time can be adjusted within the range of 644.5 µs to 1.5 ms. Additionally, we measure the absolute phase noise values to be −63.7 dBc/Hz, −75.7 dBc/Hz, −107.1 dBc/Hz, and −122.5 dBc/Hz at 1 Hz, 10 Hz, 1 kHz, and 10 kHz offset frequencies, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Technologies in Optical and Microwave Transmission)
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13 pages, 2116 KiB  
Article
Asymptotic Ergodic Capacity Analysis for FSO Communication between Mobile Platforms in Maritime Environments
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(12), 6978; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13126978 - 09 Jun 2023
Viewed by 805
Abstract
With the rapid development of wireless communication technologies, free-space optical (FSO) communication has gained much attention in recent years. The FSO technology, which is usually used for communication in terrestrial environments, is expanding its regime to communication in maritime environments. In this study, [...] Read more.
With the rapid development of wireless communication technologies, free-space optical (FSO) communication has gained much attention in recent years. The FSO technology, which is usually used for communication in terrestrial environments, is expanding its regime to communication in maritime environments. In this study, we analyze the ergodic capacity of FSO communication between mobile platforms in maritime environments under foggy conditions, pathloss, and pointing error. More specifically, based on the moment expressions, we derive the closed-form expression of asymptotic ergodic capacity using conventional detection techniques (i.e., heterodyne and intensity modulation/direct detection). The derived analytical results are cross-verified with simulation results via Monte Carlo simulations. The results show that the combined effects of fog with pathloss and pointing error degrade the FSO performance and that it is important to apply the appropriate detection technique according to the communication environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Technologies in Optical and Microwave Transmission)
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