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BioMed, Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2023) – 16 articles

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7 pages, 431 KiB  
Communication
Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Adults (MIS-A) and SARS-CoV2: An Evolving Relationship
by Dominic Worku
BioMed 2023, 3(1), 195-201; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomed3010016 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2441
Abstract
The SARS-CoV2 pandemic is the most significant global health emergency of the last century. While the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV2 is understood, the early and long-term outcomes of natural infection are increasingly being recognised. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS) represents a manifestation of the extreme [...] Read more.
The SARS-CoV2 pandemic is the most significant global health emergency of the last century. While the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV2 is understood, the early and long-term outcomes of natural infection are increasingly being recognised. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS) represents a manifestation of the extreme immune dysfunction that SARS-CoV2 infection heralds and has been described in both children (MIS-C) and adults (MIS-A). Here, we discuss current knowledge of MIS-A and the vast questions that remain unanswered. Full article
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18 pages, 6775 KiB  
Review
Early Multi-Target Treatment of Mild-to-Moderate COVID-19, Particularly in Terms of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Indomethacin
by Serafino Fazio and Paolo Bellavite
BioMed 2023, 3(1), 177-194; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomed3010015 - 10 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 6073
Abstract
Recently, in Italy, a flowchart to be used by General Practitioners for the at-home treatment of patients with COVID-19, has been released. It states that early at-home treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection is possible due to the availability of specific antiviral drugs to be [...] Read more.
Recently, in Italy, a flowchart to be used by General Practitioners for the at-home treatment of patients with COVID-19, has been released. It states that early at-home treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection is possible due to the availability of specific antiviral drugs to be used in at-risk patients, and that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have an important function in combating the virus. Therefore, the use of NSAIDs is not only rational but also effective in cases that cannot be treated using antivirals. These seemingly simple concepts have been applied in Italy since the beginning of the pandemic by doctors that belong to Italian groups created in order to help COVID-19 patients early at home, at a time of organizational difficulties within Italian health institutions and government. However, this approach was largely boycotted by both the Italian Ministry of Health and medical institutions, which mainly suggested the use of paracetamol as symptomatic, and a wait-and-watch approach for the first three days from the onset of symptoms. In this article, we analyze the rationale for the use of NSAIDs and, in particular, the multi-targeted approach including indomethacin in synergism with flavonoids and low-dose aspirin, as early at-home treatment of patients with COVID-19. Applying these simple concepts from the beginning could have reduced the high lethality of the disease during the first two years of the pandemic and prevented hospital overload. In perspective, it is still necessary to systematically address the comparison between different therapeutic approaches to this viral disease on an experimental basis. Full article
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11 pages, 2380 KiB  
Article
Prevalence and Factors Influencing Self-Medication among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Urban Tertiary Hospitals in Nigeria
by Clement Kevin Edet, Anthony Ike Wegbom, Kitoye Gentle Samuel, Leesi Sapira-Ordu, Ishmeal Daniel Jaja, Janet Ene-Peter, Isaac Harold, Chinemere Onyema, Biteegeregha Godfrey Pepple and Adeniyi Francis Fagbamigbe
BioMed 2023, 3(1), 166-176; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomed3010014 - 10 Mar 2023
Viewed by 3866
Abstract
Despite the adverse effects of self-medication (SM), such as antimicrobial drug resistance, drug addiction, allergy, worsening of ailment, organ damage, disability, and death, the practice is still common and increasingly practiced globally, even among pregnant women. This study investigated the prevalence and factors [...] Read more.
Despite the adverse effects of self-medication (SM), such as antimicrobial drug resistance, drug addiction, allergy, worsening of ailment, organ damage, disability, and death, the practice is still common and increasingly practiced globally, even among pregnant women. This study investigated the prevalence and factors influencing self-medication among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in urban tertiary hospitals in Nigeria. A facility-based cross-sectional study was carried out in two tertiary hospitals in Port Harcourt between 25 September and 24 October 2022, using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive and logistics regression techniques, and statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. A total of 413 respondents participated in the study. The prevalence of SM was 31.0% (95% CI = 26.7–73.3). Women who were not married and those with less than secondary education had the highest prevalence, 60.5% (95% CI = 45.1–74.0) and 51.1% (95% CI = 42.7–59.4), respectively. The common drugs used for SM were Paracetamol, antimalarials, antibiotics, cough and cold medicines, and herbal products. While the reasons for SM were emergency illness, high cost at health facilities, and distance to the health facility. The commonest illnesses/symptoms that necessitated SM included body pain, headache, fever, cold and cough, and vaginal discharge. Married women and those educated above the secondary level had lower odds of practicing SM compared to their counterparts; married (AOR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.18–0.78) and >secondary level (AOR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.18–0.51). This study showed that a significant proportion of pregnant women practiced SM and marital status and educational level were the factors influencing SM in the studied population. We recommend public health education and reproductive health programmes aimed at discouraging unmarried women and those with minimal education from the irrational use of drugs during pregnancy. Full article
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14 pages, 3539 KiB  
Article
Alterations in the Cellular Metabolic Footprint Induced by Mayaro Virus
by Ceyla M. O. Castro, Mânlio T. O. Mota, Alessandra Vidotto, Ícaro P. Caruso, Milene R. Ribeiro, Fábio R. Moraes, Fátima P. Souza and Mauricio L. Nogueira
BioMed 2023, 3(1), 152-165; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomed3010013 - 24 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1489
Abstract
Mayaro virus is a neglected virus that causes a mild, dengue-like febrile syndrome characterized by fever, headache, rash, retro-orbital pain, vomiting, diarrhea, articular edemas, myalgia, and severe arthralgia, symptoms which may persist for months and become very debilitating. Though the virus is limited [...] Read more.
Mayaro virus is a neglected virus that causes a mild, dengue-like febrile syndrome characterized by fever, headache, rash, retro-orbital pain, vomiting, diarrhea, articular edemas, myalgia, and severe arthralgia, symptoms which may persist for months and become very debilitating. Though the virus is limited to forest areas and is most frequently transmitted by Haemagogus mosquitoes, Aedes mosquitoes can also transmit this virus and, therefore, it has the potential to spread to urban areas. This study focuses on the metabolic foot-printing of Vero cells infected with the Mayaro virus. Nuclear magnetic resonance combined with multivariate analytical methods and pattern recognition tools found that metabolic changes can be attributed to the effects of Mayaro virus infection on cell culture. The results suggest that several metabolite levels vary in infection conditions at different time points. There were important differences between the metabolic profile of non-infected and Mayaro-infected cells. These organic compounds are metabolites involved in the glycolysis pathway, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the pentose phosphate pathway, and the oxidation pathway of fatty acids (via β-oxidation). This exometabolomic study has generated a biochemical profile reflecting the progressive cytopathological metabolic alterations induced by Mayaro virus replication in the cells and can contribute to the knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in viral pathogenesis. Full article
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17 pages, 277 KiB  
Review
Long-Term Deficits in Muscle Composition, Performance and Quality of Movement after Achilles Tendon Rupture: A Review
by Rebeka Pečjak and Žiga Kozinc
BioMed 2023, 3(1), 135-151; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomed3010012 - 20 Feb 2023
Viewed by 4455
Abstract
The acute rupture of the Achilles tendon is an increasingly common injury due to an active lifestyle and participation in sports, especially in the middle-aged group. We conducted a focused review of the literature and found that the acute rupture of the Achilles [...] Read more.
The acute rupture of the Achilles tendon is an increasingly common injury due to an active lifestyle and participation in sports, especially in the middle-aged group. We conducted a focused review of the literature and found that the acute rupture of the Achilles tendon leaves long-term changes in the structure of the triceps surae muscle, regardless of whether it was treated surgically or conservatively. Significant elongation of the Achilles tendon and atrophy of the triceps surae can be observed on the injured leg, even 4 years or more after the injury. The injury also has long-lasting consequences on movement patterns of walking, running and jumping. These compensatory strategies place stress on other musculoskeletal structures, which are then at greater risk for injury. Full article
11 pages, 768 KiB  
Article
Association between Family Level Influences and Caries Prevention Views and Practices of School Children in a Sub-Urban Nigerian Community
by Abiola Adetokunbo Adeniyi, Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan, Olaniyi Arowolo, Nneka Maureen Chukwumah and Maha El Tantawi
BioMed 2023, 3(1), 124-134; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomed3010011 - 13 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1537
Abstract
Little is known about how family-level factors influence children’s caries prevention views and practices in Nigeria. The purpose of this study was to assess the associations between family level characteristics and caries prevention views and practices of 6–11-year-old primary school children. Data was [...] Read more.
Little is known about how family-level factors influence children’s caries prevention views and practices in Nigeria. The purpose of this study was to assess the associations between family level characteristics and caries prevention views and practices of 6–11-year-old primary school children. Data was collected through a cross-sectional survey of 1326 children in Ile-Ife, a Nigerian suburb. The child’s family structure, size, and birth rank were independent variables while the child’s caries prevention views and self-care practices were dependent variables. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify risk indicator(s) for caries prevention views and practices. The study participants’ mean (SD) age was 8.7 (1.9) years, 407 (30.7%) children had positive caries prevention views, and 106 (8.0%) children did not use the recommended self-care caries preventive methods. Children from larger families had significantly lower odds of having positive prevention views (AOR: 0.572; p = 0.002). Children who were not living with both parents had higher odds of using recommended self-care caries preventive methods (AOR: 3.165; p = 0.048). The findings suggest that family size and family living structure may be social determinants of caries risks in children 6–11 years old in the study population. These findings need to be studied further. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychosocial Factors and the Epidemiology of Oral Diseases)
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11 pages, 277 KiB  
Article
Sociodemographic Factors Associated with Emotional Distress, Transactional Sex and Psychoactive Substance Use during the First Wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan, Roberto Ariel Abeldaño Zuñiga, Oliver C. Ezechi, Nourhan M. Aly, Joanne Lusher, Annie L. Nguyen and Maha El Tantawi
BioMed 2023, 3(1), 113-123; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomed3010010 - 01 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1212
Abstract
The aim of this study was to identify the sociodemographic factors associated with emotional distress and determine if the quality of family relationships and the perception of social isolation can protect those who transacted sex or used psychoactive substances from emotional distress during [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to identify the sociodemographic factors associated with emotional distress and determine if the quality of family relationships and the perception of social isolation can protect those who transacted sex or used psychoactive substances from emotional distress during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data for 426 people who transacted sex and 630 persons who used psychoactive drugs during the COVID-19 pandemic were extracted from a database of participants recruited from 152 countries. The extracted data were the dependent (emotional distress), independent (age, sex, education status, employment status, HIV status, the perception of social isolation, and the quality of family relationships), and confounding (country income level) variables. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the associations between the dependent and independent variables after adjusting for confounders. Students who transacted sex (AOR:2.800) and who used psychoactive substances (AOR:2.270) had significantly higher odds of emotional distress. Participants who transacted sex, lived with HIV (AOR:2.582), or had the same/better quality of family relationships (AOR:1.829) had significantly higher odds of emotional distress. The participants who used psychoactive substances, had tertiary education (AOR:1.979), were retired (AOR:2.772), were unemployed (AOR:2.263), or felt socially isolated (AOR:2.069) had significantly higher odds of emotional distress. Being a student was the only sociodemographic risk indicator common to both populations. The risk indicators and protective factors for emotional distress differed for both populations despite both being at high risk for emotional distress. Full article
10 pages, 1298 KiB  
Article
Effects of Static Magnetic Field (SMF) Exposure on Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) Risk Indicators
by Rahma Nur Istiqomah, Luluk Yunaini, Umiatin Umiatin and Puji Sari
BioMed 2023, 3(1), 103-112; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomed3010009 - 30 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1598
Abstract
Dyslipidemia is a condition of abnormalities in blood lipids, such as increased LDL and decreased HDL. Exposure to intracellular static magnetic fields (SMFs) can affect membranes to modulate the number of Ca2+ ions, which can affect cell biological effects. Increasing the number [...] Read more.
Dyslipidemia is a condition of abnormalities in blood lipids, such as increased LDL and decreased HDL. Exposure to intracellular static magnetic fields (SMFs) can affect membranes to modulate the number of Ca2+ ions, which can affect cell biological effects. Increasing the number of Ca2+ ions will affect the expression of genes that help reduce LDL levels as an indicator of CHD. This study aims to see whether the influence of SMFs can affect calcium levels, lipid profiles, SREBP-2 protein excretion, and LDLR gene expression, which affects the process of breaking down cholesterol. We used obese C57BL/6J male mice divided into standard and HFD feed groups. The HFD feed group was split into Obes0, Obes2, Obes7, Obes14, and Obes21 groups based on the day of exposure. The exposure was carried out with an intensity of Bmax = 2 mT for 1 h daily. After exposure to SMFs, there were changes in blood cholesterol and LDL levels, which tended to decrease in the Obes2 and Obes7 groups and increase in the Obes14 and Obes21 groups. In addition, the exposed group tended to have an increase in the expression of the LDLR gene, SREBP-2 protein, and calcium ion compared to the control. Although it managed to increase after exposure on days 14 and 21, there was a decrease in the expression of the LDLR gene and SREBP-2 protein; hence, the effect of SMF exposure can reduce the risk of CHD. However, research still needs to be done regarding the effective duration of exposure. Full article
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2 pages, 132 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of BioMed in 2022
by BioMed Editorial Office
BioMed 2023, 3(1), 101-102; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomed3010008 - 20 Jan 2023
Viewed by 828
Abstract
High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...] Full article
12 pages, 8834 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Microarchitectures, Stiffness and Strength of Human Trabecular Bone Using Micro-Computed Tomography (Micro-CT) Scans
by Ahmed Sherif El-Gizawy, Xuewei Ma, Ferris Pfeiffer, James D. Schiffbauer and Tara Selly
BioMed 2023, 3(1), 89-100; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomed3010007 - 19 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1521
Abstract
The present work presents evaluation and experimental verification of the use of X-ray computed tomographic microscopy (micro-CT) for accurate characterization of geometry, microarchitecture, and stiffness properties of bones. These properties are crucial for designing and building optimized implants for joint and dental reconstruction [...] Read more.
The present work presents evaluation and experimental verification of the use of X-ray computed tomographic microscopy (micro-CT) for accurate characterization of geometry, microarchitecture, and stiffness properties of bones. These properties are crucial for designing and building optimized implants for joint and dental reconstruction applications. High-resolution micro-CT scans would provide more detailed and accurate information about the microarchitecture and density distribution across patient bones. Nevertheless, micro-CT applications on live patients require invasive procedures involving small bone biopsy specimens. Alternatively, micro-CT could be used on samples collected from selected cadavers of different age, gender, and race groups to establish a database that could be used for providing useful microarchitecture information. The micro-CT scans of investigated bone samples reveal that the trabecular bone is anisotropic and heterogeneous. The results also showed considerable degree of parametric variability and uncertainty on microarchitecture and stiffness properties of patient’s trabecular bone. Full article
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12 pages, 1791 KiB  
Article
Phenotypic Characterization and Prevalence of Carbapenemase-Producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates in Six Health Facilities in Cameroon
by Cecile Ingrid Djuikoue, Paule Dana Djouela Djoulako, Hélène Valérie Same Njanjo, Christiane Possi Kiyang, Feline Leina Djantou Biankeu, Celianthe Guegang, Andrea Sheisley Didi Tchouotou, Rodrigue Kamga Wouambo, Benjamin D. Thumamo Pokam, Teke Apalata and Katy Jeannot
BioMed 2023, 3(1), 77-88; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomed3010006 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2237
Abstract
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen with a great ability to adapt to stress, in particular, to the selective pressure of antibiotics in the hospital environment. This pathogen constitutes a real public health concern, especially in low- and middle-income countries. In Cameroon, [...] Read more.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen with a great ability to adapt to stress, in particular, to the selective pressure of antibiotics in the hospital environment. This pathogen constitutes a real public health concern, especially in low- and middle-income countries. In Cameroon, little is known about the drug resistance patterns of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study sought to determine the prevalence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains producing carbapenemases in six health facilities in the center, littoral, and west regions of Cameroon. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted over a four-month period from July to October 2021. All Pseudomonas aeruginosa or suspected strains isolated from pathological products at the bacteriology laboratory of different health facilities were systematically collected and underwent a re-identification. After growing on cetrimide agar and successfully subculturing on nutrient agar, an oxidase test was performed on pure colonies, followed by biochemical identification (API 20NE system) of the bacterial suspension (0.5McFarland standard). Drug susceptibility testing for the detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases of overproduced inducible cephalosporinases and carbapenemases was performed according to adequate standard procedures. Of the 468 isolates collected, 347 (74.14%) were confirmed Pseudomonas aeruginosa after re-identification, of which 34.49% (120/347) produced inducible cephalosporinases (CAZR and C/TS) and 32.26% (112/347) extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. The prevalence of carbapenemase-producing P. aeruginosa (IMPR and C/TR) was 25.07% (87/347), with 17.24% (15/87) class A and 82.76% (72/87) class B. A high rate of resistance to penicillin (piperacillin: 70.58% and ticarcillin: 60.24%) was observed. We also noted a 34.49% resistance to ceftazidime, 30.22% to imipenem against 37.02% to meropenem, and 25.1% to ceftolozane/tazobactam (C/T). These strains also exhibited 79.57% resistance to quinolones and about 26% to aminoglycoside families. Multivariate analysis revealed that carbapenemase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa-related infections were significantly associated with hospitalization (p = 0.04), maternity (p = 0.03), surgery (p = 0.04), and intensive care wards (p = 0.04). This study highlighted a high burden of resistant strains of carbapenemase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Surveillance should be intensified to prevent the dissemination and spread of these strains. Full article
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18 pages, 1768 KiB  
Review
COVID-19 and Thymoquinone: Clinical Benefits, Cure, and Challenges
by Shimaa Abd El-Salam El-Sayed and Mohamed Abdo Rizk
BioMed 2023, 3(1), 59-76; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomed3010005 - 10 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2913
Abstract
In today’s world, the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread throughout the world, causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and several associated complications in various organs (heart, liver, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract), as well as significant multiple organ dysfunction, shock, [...] Read more.
In today’s world, the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread throughout the world, causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and several associated complications in various organs (heart, liver, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract), as well as significant multiple organ dysfunction, shock, and even death. In order to overcome the serious complications associated with this pandemic virus and to prevent SARS-CoV-2 entry into the host cell, it is necessary to repurpose currently available drugs with a broad medicinal application as soon as they become available. There are several therapeutics under investigation for improving the overall prognosis of COVID-19 patients, but none of them has demonstrated clinical efficacy to date, which is disappointing. It is in this pattern that Nigella sativa seeds manifest their extensive therapeutic effects, which have been reported to be particularly effective in the treatment of skin diseases, jaundice, and gastrointestinal problems. One important component of these seeds is thymoquinone (TQ), which has a wide range of beneficial properties, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as antibacterial and parasitic properties, in addition to anticarcinogenic, antiallergic, and antiviral properties. This comprehensive review discussed the possibility of an emerging natural drug with a wide range of medical applications; the use of TQ to overcome the complications of COVID-19 infection; and the challenges that are impeding the commercialization of this promising phytochemical compound. TQ is recommended as a highly effective weapon in the fight against the novel coronavirus because of its dual antiviral action, in addition to its capacity to lessen the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 penetration into cells. However, future clinical trials are required to confirm the role of TQ in overcoming the complications of COVID-19 infection. Full article
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9 pages, 2597 KiB  
Case Report
Intravascular Large B-Cell Lymphoma: Two Cases Observed at a Single Institution
by Rosanna Maria Miccolis, Gaetano De Santis, Caterina Buquicchio, Teresa Maria Santeramo, Mariangela Leo, Candida Rosaria Germano, Giovanna Lerario, Vera Carluccio, Sonia Mallano, Lina Cardisciani, Luisa Di Sciascio and Giuseppe Tarantini
BioMed 2023, 3(1), 50-58; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomed3010004 - 06 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1459
Abstract
Intravascular large B-cell Lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a rare subtype of extranodal non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma that is challenging to diagnose and has a poor prognosis. Here, we describe two patients newly diagnosed with IVLBCL at our institution: an African man with hemophagocytic-syndrome-associated IVLBCL and an [...] Read more.
Intravascular large B-cell Lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a rare subtype of extranodal non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma that is challenging to diagnose and has a poor prognosis. Here, we describe two patients newly diagnosed with IVLBCL at our institution: an African man with hemophagocytic-syndrome-associated IVLBCL and an Italian woman with a cutaneous variant of IVLBCL. They presented with very different clinical manifestations. Both cases were diagnosed in a timely manner, successfully treated, and achieved long-lasting remissions. Full article
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18 pages, 54645 KiB  
Article
Development and Usability of a Prototype Upper Extremities Lever-Driven Exercise System
by Themistoklis Tsatalas, George Bellis, Evangeli Karampina, Charalampos Krommidas, Fotios Tsilfoglou, Athanasios Patas, Christos Fotos, Christos Kokkotis, Athanasios Z. Jamurtas and Giannis Giakas
BioMed 2023, 3(1), 32-49; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomed3010003 - 27 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1743
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to present the design, construction, and technical aspects of a prototype upper extremities lever-driven exercise system, called FIT-WHEEL (Functional and Intelligent Training system for WHEELchair users), as well as the preliminary experimental measurements conducted to test the [...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper is to present the design, construction, and technical aspects of a prototype upper extremities lever-driven exercise system, called FIT-WHEEL (Functional and Intelligent Training system for WHEELchair users), as well as the preliminary experimental measurements conducted to test the device’s usability in healthy individuals. FIT-WHEEL was developed to provide a training modality that combines the known benefits of eccentric exercise and lever-propelled wheelchairs. Eleven healthy male participants performed, seven days apart, a moderate intensity concentric and eccentric exercise protocol on FIT-WHEEL consisting of 30 trials of both upper extremities at 30% of peak concentric and peak eccentric force, respectively. At the end of each exercise bout, participants completed a number of valid and reliable instruments examining attitudes, intention and enjoyment during concentric or eccentric exercise on the FIT-WHEEL system as well as the usability of the two exercise protocols on the novel lever-driven exercise system. Statistical analyses revealed high scores in all the examined parameters (attitudes, intention, enjoyment, and usability) in both eccentric and concentric exercise protocols, without any significant differences emerging between them. Moreover, total mechanical work during eccentric exercise was 18.3% higher compared to concentric exercise performed on the FIT-WHEEL training system (p = 0.001). The preliminary experimental results discussed serve as an initial step to implement lever-driven eccentric exercise in wheelchair dependent populations in the future and evaluate the potential long-term benefits and limitations. Full article
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11 pages, 632 KiB  
Review
Chlamydia trachomatis: The Long Road to Describe Its Association with Disease in the Amazon Region of Brazil
by Ricardo Ishak, Antonio Carlos Rosário Vallinoto, Izaura Maria Vieira Cayres-Vallinoto, Maria Alice Freitas Queiroz, Glenda Roberta Ferreira Naiff, Luiz Fernando Almeida Machado and Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak
BioMed 2023, 3(1), 21-31; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomed3010002 - 27 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1836
Abstract
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) represent a worldwide public health burden, but many infections and diseases continue to be neglected. Areas with a low human development index, including the northern areas of Brazil, particularly the immense geographic Amazon region, present a high frequency of [...] Read more.
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) represent a worldwide public health burden, but many infections and diseases continue to be neglected. Areas with a low human development index, including the northern areas of Brazil, particularly the immense geographic Amazon region, present a high frequency of STIs because of variables that contribute to disseminate the infection, including lack of access to education, prevention measures and treatment to these vulnerable population groups. This review describes the chronological investigation of the etiology of pathologies associated with infection by Chlamydia trachomatis, including its prevalence, distribution, and clinical, descriptive and molecular epidemiology in regard to STIs, trachoma and heart disease. Long-term investigations among urban and nonurban populations are discussed and show the need for and effects of continuous surveillance to diminish the burden among vulnerable populations (female sex workers, quilombos and indigenous peoples) and to define new etiological associations of diseases with infections by C. trachomatis. Full article
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20 pages, 1299 KiB  
Review
Machine Learning Techniques for the Prediction of Functional Outcomes in the Rehabilitation of Post-Stroke Patients: A Scoping Review
by Christos Kokkotis, Serafeim Moustakidis, Georgios Giarmatzis, Erasmia Giannakou, Evangelia Makri, Paraskevi Sakellari, Dimitrios Tsiptsios, Stella Karatzetzou, Foteini Christidi, Konstantinos Vadikolias and Nikolaos Aggelousis
BioMed 2023, 3(1), 1-20; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomed3010001 - 27 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2624
Abstract
Stroke is one of the main causes of long-term disabilities, increasing the cost of national healthcare systems due to the elevated costs of rigorous treatment that is required, as well as personal cost because of the decreased ability of the patient to work. [...] Read more.
Stroke is one of the main causes of long-term disabilities, increasing the cost of national healthcare systems due to the elevated costs of rigorous treatment that is required, as well as personal cost because of the decreased ability of the patient to work. Traditional rehabilitation strategies rely heavily on individual clinical data and the caregiver’s experience to evaluate the patient and not in data extracted from population data. The use of machine learning (ML) algorithms can offer evaluation tools that will lead to new personalized interventions. The aim of this scoping review is to introduce the reader to key directions of ML techniques for the prediction of functional outcomes in stroke rehabilitation and identify future scientific research directions. The search of the relevant literature was performed using PubMed and Semantic Scholar online databases. Full-text articles were included if they focused on ML in predicting the functional outcome of stroke rehabilitation. A total of 26 out of the 265 articles met our inclusion criteria. The selected studies included ML approaches and were directly related to the inclusion criteria. ML can play a key role in supporting decision making during pre- and post-treatment interventions for post-stroke survivors, by utilizing multidisciplinary data sources. Full article
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