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Encyclopedia, Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2024) – 37 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In the early 1960s, Drs. Hungate and Bryant laid the foundation for the field of rumen microbiology, emphasizing the need to explore the intricate ecosystem of the rumen within ruminant animals. This environment, known as the rumen microbiome, is comprised of a diverse set of microorganisms, including bacteria, archaea, protozoa, and fungi. These microorganisms play a pivotal role in the digestion and fermentation of complex plant material. Next-generation sequencing has allowed for a deeper insight into the abundance and diversity of these microorganisms. By understanding rumen microbiology, we are able to unravel the microbial ecosystem to optimize ruminant health, nutrition, and environmental sustainability. View this paper
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22 pages, 3279 KiB  
Entry
Techniques for Theoretical Prediction of Immunogenic Peptides
by Robert Friedman
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(1), 600-621; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4010038 - 19 Mar 2024
Viewed by 821
Definition
Small peptides are an important component of the vertebrate immune system. They are important molecules for distinguishing proteins that originate in the host from proteins derived from a pathogenic organism, such as a virus or bacterium. Consequently, these peptides are central for the [...] Read more.
Small peptides are an important component of the vertebrate immune system. They are important molecules for distinguishing proteins that originate in the host from proteins derived from a pathogenic organism, such as a virus or bacterium. Consequently, these peptides are central for the vertebrate host response to intracellular and extracellular pathogens. Computational models for prediction of these peptides have been based on a narrow sample of data with an emphasis on the position and chemical properties of the amino acids. In past literature, this approach has resulted in higher predictability than models that rely on the geometrical arrangement of atoms. However, protein structure data from experiment and theory are a source for building models at scale, and, therefore, knowledge on the role of small peptides and their immunogenicity in the vertebrate immune system. The following sections introduce procedures that contribute to theoretical prediction of peptides and their role in immunogenicity. Lastly, deep learning is discussed as it applies to immunogenetics and the acceleration of knowledge by a capability for modeling the complexity of natural phenomena. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biology & Life Sciences)
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17 pages, 235 KiB  
Entry
Developing Emotional Intelligence
by Lucas Filice and W. James Weese
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(1), 583-599; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4010037 - 19 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1094
Definition
Daniel Goleman perceptively and accurately noted that emotional intelligence is critical to leadership success, claiming that emotional intelligence is far more important to leadership emergence and effectiveness than intellectual capacity. Goleman’s research later confirmed an 85% relationship between emotional intelligence and leader effectiveness. [...] Read more.
Daniel Goleman perceptively and accurately noted that emotional intelligence is critical to leadership success, claiming that emotional intelligence is far more important to leadership emergence and effectiveness than intellectual capacity. Goleman’s research later confirmed an 85% relationship between emotional intelligence and leader effectiveness. It may be the most critical area for current and aspiring leaders to develop. While leadership scholars accept the importance of emotional intelligence for leadership and the fact that emotional intelligence can be developed, there appears to be some uncertainty around how emotional intelligence can be developed. The authors shed light on that area and provide current and aspiring leaders with some proven strategies for developing the four predominant components of emotional intelligence. The importance of emotional intelligence to leadership is well documented, and leaders would be well served by working to heighten their levels of emotional intelligence and, in doing so, increase their leadership potential, efficacy, and impact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Social Sciences)
25 pages, 12767 KiB  
Review
Climate Change Challenges in Temperate and Sub-Tropical Fruit Tree Cultivation
by Petros A. Roussos
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(1), 558-582; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4010036 - 15 Mar 2024
Viewed by 952
Abstract
In the last few years, the world has experienced the impacts of climate change, such as elevated mean annual temperature, extreme weather events, drought, etc. Among living organisms, perennial plant species are the ones mostly exposed to climate change impacts, as they may [...] Read more.
In the last few years, the world has experienced the impacts of climate change, such as elevated mean annual temperature, extreme weather events, drought, etc. Among living organisms, perennial plant species are the ones mostly exposed to climate change impacts, as they may experience different extreme events within the same year, such as flooding during some periods and drought in summer months, extremely low temperatures in winter but excessively high temperatures in summer, etc. Climate change affects a range of physiological functions of temperate fruit and nut tree species, such as their phenophases, bud dormancy release and vernalization, pollination and fruit set, fruit growth and quality, as well as bud sprouting and growth initiation. Besides these, the impact of climate change on pests, diseases, and weeds may generate significant negative interactions with tree physiology, threatening food production, food safety, and human welfare. In the present manuscript, a general aspect of climate change impacts on fruits’ and nut trees’ physiological functions is described and commented on. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biology & Life Sciences)
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14 pages, 1036 KiB  
Review
The Effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the Angiopoietin/Tie Axis and the Vascular Endothelium
by Dolgormaa Janchivlamdan, Maitreyi Shivkumar and Harprit Singh
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(1), 544-557; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4010035 - 11 Mar 2024
Viewed by 816
Abstract
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can cause potentially life-threatening coronavirus disease (COVID-19). COVID-19 is a multisystem disease and is associated with significant respiratory distress, systemic hyperinflammation, vasculitis, and multi-organ failure. SARS-CoV-2 causes the deterioration of numerous systems, with increasing evidence [...] Read more.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can cause potentially life-threatening coronavirus disease (COVID-19). COVID-19 is a multisystem disease and is associated with significant respiratory distress, systemic hyperinflammation, vasculitis, and multi-organ failure. SARS-CoV-2 causes the deterioration of numerous systems, with increasing evidence implying that COVID-19 affects the endothelium and vascular function. The endothelium is important for preserving vascular tone and homeostasis. The overactivation and dysfunction of endothelial cells are significant outcomes of severity in patients with COVID-19. The Angiopoietin 1/Tie 2 pathway plays an important role in endothelium quiescence and vessel stability. The disruption of Angiopoietin/Tie balance affects the vessel contact barrier and leads to vessel leakage, and this in turn causes endothelial dysfunction. Although vascular instability through SARS-CoV-2 is associated with endothelial dysfunction, it is still not understood if the virus affects the Angiopoietin/Tie axis directly or via other mechanisms such as cytokine storm and/or immune response associated with the infection. This review provides an overview of the impact SARS-CoV-2 has on endothelial function and more specifically on the Angiopoietin/Tie pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of COVID-19)
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32 pages, 10632 KiB  
Review
Proto-Neurons from Abiotic Polypeptides
by Panagiotis Mougkogiannis and Andrew Adamatzky
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(1), 512-543; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4010034 - 08 Mar 2024
Viewed by 808
Abstract
To understand the origins of life, we must first gain a grasp of the unresolved emergence of the first informational polymers and cell-like assemblies that developed into living systems. Heating amino acid mixtures to their boiling point produces thermal proteins that self-assemble into [...] Read more.
To understand the origins of life, we must first gain a grasp of the unresolved emergence of the first informational polymers and cell-like assemblies that developed into living systems. Heating amino acid mixtures to their boiling point produces thermal proteins that self-assemble into membrane-bound protocells, offering a compelling abiogenic route for forming polypeptides. Recent research has revealed the presence of electrical excitability and signal processing capacities in proteinoids, indicating the possibility of primitive cognitive functions and problem-solving capabilities. This review examines the characteristics exhibited by proteinoids, including electrical activity and self-assembly properties, exploring the possible roles of such polypeptides under prebiotic conditions in the emergence of early biomolecular complexity. Experiments showcasing the possibility of unconventional computing with proteinoids as well as modelling proteinoid assemblies into synthetic proto-brains are given. Proteinoids’ robust abiogenic production, biomimetic features, and computational capability shed light on potential phases in the evolution of polypeptides and primitive life from the primordial environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biology & Life Sciences)
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15 pages, 906 KiB  
Entry
The Balancing Act of Repurposing Feature Films and TV Series for University Teaching
by Ngoc Nhu Nguyen
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(1), 497-511; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4010033 - 08 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1336
Definition
Contemporary educators have increasingly recognised the diversity of their student population and, hence, have attempted to use multimodal teaching methods for additional student learning benefits. One popular example is repurposing film and TV content for higher education pedagogies. However, integrating these materials into [...] Read more.
Contemporary educators have increasingly recognised the diversity of their student population and, hence, have attempted to use multimodal teaching methods for additional student learning benefits. One popular example is repurposing film and TV content for higher education pedagogies. However, integrating these materials into teaching effectively often proves more complex than lecturers might anticipate. This entry investigates the merits and challenges of using FF/TV in teaching to determine the factors that impact development of an effective FF/TV pedagogy for student learning, through an interdisciplinary review of the existing literature, followed by a qualitative survey and semi-structured interviews with lecturers across disciplines at Australian universities. Using visual literacy theory, cognitive load theory, and dual coding theory, data analysis reveals that the pros and cons of integrating film and TV in teaching are in fact interconnected, and the main role of the teacher is to pedagogically balance them. Evidence-based and theory-grounded suggestions for application are detailed throughout the discussions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Social Sciences)
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9 pages, 242 KiB  
Entry
Human Resources’ Burnout
by Olga Alexandra Chinita Pirrolas and Pedro Miguel Alves Ribeiro Correia
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(1), 488-496; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4010032 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1235
Definition
The reality of the occurrence of burnout in human resources has been increasingly recognised as a result of today’s transforming and competitive society, which exerts a very high level of stress and anxiety on workers, generating a notorious problem in the field of [...] Read more.
The reality of the occurrence of burnout in human resources has been increasingly recognised as a result of today’s transforming and competitive society, which exerts a very high level of stress and anxiety on workers, generating a notorious problem in the field of human resource management. Problems related to symptoms of exhaustion, mental weakness, personal devaluation, inability to solve professional problems, restlessness, and eating disorders. These problems manifest themselves in terms of personality, triggering feelings of threat, panic, nervousness, or suicide. Such disorders pose a threat not only to the person but also to the quality of their professional activities. In this way, burnout syndrome can cause a mental and physical breakdown requiring complex medical assistance. In view of the above, it is imperative that organisations take preventative and corrective measures to tackle this phenomenon. This entry covers topics such as the history of the concept of burnout, the concept, its causes and consequences, and predictive methods. By approaching the aforementioned topics using the existing literature on burnout syndrome, this entry aims to demystify the subject of burnout in human resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Sciences)
10 pages, 934 KiB  
Entry
Antitumor Strategies Targeting Peptidergic Systems
by Francisco D. Rodríguez and Rafael Coveñas
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(1), 478-487; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4010031 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 614
Definition
Peptidergic systems show promise as targets for fighting tumors. While some peptides encourage the growth and spread of tumor cells and angiogenic mechanisms, others display antitumor properties. As such, peptide ligands and receptor antagonists could be used as antitumor agents alone or in [...] Read more.
Peptidergic systems show promise as targets for fighting tumors. While some peptides encourage the growth and spread of tumor cells and angiogenic mechanisms, others display antitumor properties. As such, peptide ligands and receptor antagonists could be used as antitumor agents alone or in conjunction with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Peptide receptor antagonists can counteract the oncogenic effects of specific peptides by inducing apoptosis in various types of tumor cells, hindering cancer cell migration and inhibiting angiogenesis. Peptides and peptide receptor antagonists are not currently used in clinical practice as antitumor agents. Still, aprepitant, a neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist, is a promising candidate due to its ability to promote apoptosis in many cancer cells. However, to utilize aprepitant as an anticancer agent, the dosage must be increased and administered for a more extended period. Moving beyond current protocols for aprepitant’s use as an antiemetic is essential. Additionally, a common anticancer strategy with aprepitant is possible regardless of cancer cell type. Finally, combining aprepitant with chemotherapy or radiotherapy is encouraged. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicine & Pharmacology)
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35 pages, 68707 KiB  
Entry
The Lost Shantytowns of Barcelona
by Martin Wynn
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(1), 444-477; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4010030 - 03 Mar 2024
Viewed by 781
Definition
Shantytowns still existed in many of Southern Europe’s major cities in the second half of the 20th century, although many have now been demolished. The purpose of this article is to highlight the history and evolution of some of the main shantytowns that [...] Read more.
Shantytowns still existed in many of Southern Europe’s major cities in the second half of the 20th century, although many have now been demolished. The purpose of this article is to highlight the history and evolution of some of the main shantytowns that remained in Barcelona in the mid-1970s, track their subsequent demolition, and reflect on the fate of the shanty dwellers. This form of self-build housing, usually lacking in basic services, played a vital role in providing shelter for immigrant families and the urban poor. A strong neighbourhood identity existed in many of these shantytowns, and national and local policies that aimed at their demolition and the re-housing of residents, often in low-quality housing blocks, proved problematic. The shantytowns studied here are La Perona, the Tres Turons, Campo de la Bota, and Ramon Casellas, which together comprised over 2000 shanty dwellings in the 1970s. Drawing on photographs taken at the time and existing literature, and using recent images from Google Earth, the demise of these shantytowns is examined, and the policies and plans that determined their fate are discussed. This article finds that the shanty dwellers experienced mixed fortunes, some being forcibly removed and re-housed in tower blocks with associated social-economic problems, whilst others played an active part in the design of replacement housing, implemented in situ where the shanty dwellings once existed. This article contributes to existing studies on shantytowns in Barcelona, which received scant attention from academics at the time, and which only now are being recognised as an important aspect of Barcelona’s urban history. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Sciences)
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14 pages, 595 KiB  
Review
The Evolution of Human Social Behavior
by Bjørn Grinde
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(1), 430-443; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4010029 - 27 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1006
Abstract
Social life is a key feature in humans; without it, language, science, and technology would not have appeared. The inclination to engage with others is also a main source of pleasure and pain and as such a key factor for quality of life. [...] Read more.
Social life is a key feature in humans; without it, language, science, and technology would not have appeared. The inclination to engage with others is also a main source of pleasure and pain and as such a key factor for quality of life. In this paper, I shall present current knowledge on the evolutionary trajectory leading to the four main types of relations: parent–child, pair-bonding, kinship, and social life (bonding between non-kin for purposes other than breeding). These relationships are not unique to humans; they have evolved independently multiple times across the animal kingdom. In our lineage, the origins of parent–child bonding may be traced back to the early amniotes some 320 Mya (million years ago). Pair-bonding and social life most likely evolved recently. Understanding how these affiliations are rooted in the brain, particularly the role of feelings, provides valuable insights that can help us improve society. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Behavioral Sciences)
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15 pages, 2506 KiB  
Entry
Smart Factories for Mass Individualization
by Xi Gu and Yoram Koren
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(1), 415-429; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4010028 - 26 Feb 2024
Viewed by 767
Definition
With the rise of individualism as a social trend and the wide use of the Internet and social media, today’s customers increasingly want to design and build unique products that fit their individual preferences and needs. Mass individualization is defined as a manufacturing [...] Read more.
With the rise of individualism as a social trend and the wide use of the Internet and social media, today’s customers increasingly want to design and build unique products that fit their individual preferences and needs. Mass individualization is defined as a manufacturing paradigm that aims to produce individualized products cost-effectively. This paradigm differs from the previous paradigms in which the manufacturing company designed and manufactured the products, and the customer chose a product. In the mass individualization paradigm, the customers will be actively involved in product design, and the manufacturer will produce a unique product for each customer at a reasonable cost and of reliable quality. Due to the need for smooth communication and interactions between the buyer and the factory, new factories for individualized products will be located near potential buyers, which will have a significant impact on local economies. This entry explores the relationship between mass individualization and other emerging manufacturing paradigms and concepts in the Industry 4.0/5.0 era, and discusses how smart factories can improve manufacturing efficiency and facilitate the realization of the mass individualization paradigm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Engineering)
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20 pages, 2554 KiB  
Review
Triticale: A General Overview of Its Use in Poultry Production
by Olena V. Gaviley, Oleg O. Katerynych, Igor A. Ionov, Olena O. Dekhtiarova, Darren K. Griffin and Michael N. Romanov
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(1), 395-414; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4010027 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1094
Abstract
Triticale, a hybrid of wheat and rye, is one of the most promising grain crops. In terms of productivity, the level of metabolizable energy, and the composition of essential amino acids, triticale surpasses rye and is not inferior to wheat. It is resistant [...] Read more.
Triticale, a hybrid of wheat and rye, is one of the most promising grain crops. In terms of productivity, the level of metabolizable energy, and the composition of essential amino acids, triticale surpasses rye and is not inferior to wheat. It is resistant to the most dangerous diseases and pests. In terms of nutritional value, triticale can compete with wheat, corn, sorghum, and barley. The presence, however, of antinutrients in triticale such as non-starch polysaccharides, alkylresorcinols, and trypsin inhibitors significantly reduces the biological value of this crop. In the global practice of compound feed production, there are many methods and technologies for processing grain raw materials to increase their nutritional value. Enzymatic treatment and extrusion technologies are worthy of special attention. The high content of triticale in the compound feed of poultry breeder flocks should be used effectively, taking into account the characteristics of triticale varieties and climatic conditions. An optimal triticale level in feed (15% for layer and broiler chicks) may improve body weight gain and reduce feed costs when raising replacement young stock. Layer breeder flocks fed a 20% triticale-based diet may have increased egg production, high viability, and flock uniformity. Producing triticale–soy and triticale–sunflower extrudates and supplementing the diet of poultry flocks with essential amino acids represent promising avenues for maximizing the benefits of triticale. Innovative methods of achieving this goal should be further developed and put into practice, particularly given the expansion of triticale’s cultivation areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biology & Life Sciences)
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16 pages, 910 KiB  
Review
Modulation of the Host Defence System by Nematophagous Fungi and Chitosan
by Carla Mariel Berosich, Federico Lopez-Moya and Luis Vicente Lopez-Llorca
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(1), 379-394; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4010026 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 870
Abstract
Nematophagous fungi (NFs), which are responsible for soil suppression of plant-parasitic nematodes, are multitrophic biocontrol agents. This raises the question of the transition between lifestyles (e.g., endophytism vs. egg parasitism). The NF Pochonia chlamydosporia colonises food crops and promotes their growth and yield. [...] Read more.
Nematophagous fungi (NFs), which are responsible for soil suppression of plant-parasitic nematodes, are multitrophic biocontrol agents. This raises the question of the transition between lifestyles (e.g., endophytism vs. egg parasitism). The NF Pochonia chlamydosporia colonises food crops and promotes their growth and yield. When colonising the plant, P. chlamydosporia induces the plant immunity (PI). However, it also evades the PI. To do this, both endophytic NF and pathogenic fungi (PF) secrete LysM effectors (LysM-effs). LysM effectors have been shown to have diverse functions in different organisms, including the protection of fungal chitin from plant chitinases. P. chlamydosporia is resistant to chitosan, which modulates gene expression in fungi and plants and has antimicrobial properties. P. chlamydosporia chitin deacetylases (CDA) and chitosanases (CSN) also help P. chlamydosporia evade plant immunity, resist exogenous chitosan, and are induced during fungal infection of nematode eggs. NF-chitosan formulations are new biomanagement tools against plant parasitic nematodes, fungal wilt pathogens and insect pests that currently threaten food security crops. Furthermore, omics techniques are useful tools to elucidate the role of CDAs, CSNs, LysM-effs, adhesion proteins and carbohydrate-active enzymes in pathogen–BCA–plant interactions, adhesion and infection to nematode eggs and their modulation by chitosan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Fungi)
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27 pages, 3182 KiB  
Entry
Unpacking Transdisciplinary Research Scenarios in Architecture and Urbanism
by Ashraf M. Salama and Madhavi P. Patil
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(1), 352-378; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4010025 - 11 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1551
Definition
Research in architecture and urbanism is a complex undertaking. It involves a multitude of challenges, approaches, variables, diverse scales, and types of environments to examine. This entry dives into the complexities of architectural and urban research and explores the integration of diverse approaches [...] Read more.
Research in architecture and urbanism is a complex undertaking. It involves a multitude of challenges, approaches, variables, diverse scales, and types of environments to examine. This entry dives into the complexities of architectural and urban research and explores the integration of diverse approaches into various research topics or domains. Recognizing the dynamic interplay of human, cultural, technological, and environmental factors in architecture and urbanism, it proposes a transdisciplinary approach to bridge existing disciplinary and methodological boundaries. This entry adopts and operationalizes a comprehensive approach that encompasses hybrid scenario development, integrated socio-spatial analysis, a revised experiential approach, and the integration of environmental psychology into architectural and urban studies. These components are envisioned to harmonize various methodologies and to depict a picture of what research in architecture and urbanism could be within an identified set of domains. This approach is grounded in a rigorous literature review, empirical evidence, and relevant validation through case studies. The application of this approach instigates a series of research scenarios which act as frameworks that provide new insights into design and practice-based research, building anatomy research, city dynamics research, housing dynamics research, and user perception studies. Each scenario demonstrates the applicability of combining theoretical insights with empirical investigations. The implications of these scenarios for architectural and urban research emphasize the significance of transdisciplinarity and highlights the importance of integrating diverse theoretical tenets and methodological insights to address the complex challenges of research in architecture and urbanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Social Sciences)
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15 pages, 290 KiB  
Entry
Supporting the Professional and Career Development of Doctoral Students
by Carol Rivas
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(1), 337-351; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4010024 - 09 Feb 2024
Viewed by 956
Definition
A doctoral student is someone studying for a doctoral degree, which is generally considered to be the highest academic qualification a university can award. The student develops research experience, while making an in-depth and original contribution to knowledge. They are supervised by university [...] Read more.
A doctoral student is someone studying for a doctoral degree, which is generally considered to be the highest academic qualification a university can award. The student develops research experience, while making an in-depth and original contribution to knowledge. They are supervised by university staff members (usually there are two, or a small panel) who train, mentor, and support the doctoral student. Professional and career development refers to support that helps students to not only grow as individuals and independent researchers, but to also have the option to successfully pursue either academic or non-academic roles after graduation. While this entry considers some international contexts, it is particularly oriented to the United Kingdom (UK) model, and to the most common doctoral degree, the Doctor of Philosophy (PhD). Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Doctoral Supervision)
24 pages, 610 KiB  
Review
Optimisation of Small-Scale Aquaponics Systems Using Artificial Intelligence and the IoT: Current Status, Challenges, and Opportunities
by Abdul Aziz Channa, Kamran Munir, Mark Hansen and Muhammad Fahim Tariq
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(1), 313-336; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4010023 - 08 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1690
Abstract
Environment changes, water scarcity, soil depletion, and urbanisation are making it harder to produce food using traditional methods in various regions and countries. Aquaponics is emerging as a sustainable food production system that produces fish and plants in a closed-loop system. Aquaponics is [...] Read more.
Environment changes, water scarcity, soil depletion, and urbanisation are making it harder to produce food using traditional methods in various regions and countries. Aquaponics is emerging as a sustainable food production system that produces fish and plants in a closed-loop system. Aquaponics is not dependent on soil or external environmental factors. It uses fish waste to fertilise plants and can save up to 90–95% water. Aquaponics is an innovative system for growing food and is expected to be very promising, but it has its challenges. It is a complex ecosystem that requires multidisciplinary knowledge, proper monitoring of all crucial parameters, and high maintenance and initial investment costs to build the system. Artificial intelligence (AI) and the Internet of Things (IoT) are key technologies that can overcome these challenges. Numerous recent studies focus on the use of AI and the IoT to automate the process, improve efficiency and reliability, provide better management, and reduce operating costs. However, these studies often focus on limited aspects of the system, each considering different domains and parameters of the aquaponics system. This paper aims to consolidate the existing work, identify the state-of-the-art use of the IoT and AI, explore the key parameters affecting growth, analyse the sensing and communication technologies employed, highlight the research gaps in this field, and suggest future research directions. Based on the reviewed research, energy efficiency and economic viability were found to be a major bottleneck of current systems. Moreover, inconsistencies in sensor selection, lack of publicly available data, and the reproducibility of existing work were common issues among the studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Data Science)
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18 pages, 317 KiB  
Entry
Optimization Examples for Water Allocation, Energy, Carbon Emissions, and Costs
by Angelos Alamanos and Jorge Andres Garcia
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(1), 295-312; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4010022 - 08 Feb 2024
Viewed by 703
Definition
The field of Water Resources Management (WRM) is becoming increasingly interdisciplinary, realizing its direct connections with energy, food, and social and economic sciences, among others. Computationally, this leads to more complex models, wherein the achievement of multiple goals is sought. Optimization processes have [...] Read more.
The field of Water Resources Management (WRM) is becoming increasingly interdisciplinary, realizing its direct connections with energy, food, and social and economic sciences, among others. Computationally, this leads to more complex models, wherein the achievement of multiple goals is sought. Optimization processes have found various applications in such complex WRM problems. This entry considers the main factors involved in modern WRM, and puts them in a single optimization problem, including water allocation from different sources to different uses and non-renewable and renewable energy supplies, with their associated carbon emissions and costs. The entry explores the problem mathematically by presenting different optimization approaches, such as linear, fuzzy, dynamic, goal, and non-linear programming models. Furthermore, codes for each model are provided in Python, an open-source language. This entry has an educational character, and the examples presented are easily reproducible, so this is expected to be a useful resource for students, modelers, researchers, and water managers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Earth Sciences)
22 pages, 311 KiB  
Entry
Labor Market Institutions and Employment
by Georgios Giotis
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(1), 273-294; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4010021 - 04 Feb 2024
Viewed by 975
Definition
The role of labor market institutions and policies has received great attention throughout the history of labor economics. Labor market institutions are responsible for a wide range of policies, regulations, and organizations that affect the labor market, though their impact on employment can [...] Read more.
The role of labor market institutions and policies has received great attention throughout the history of labor economics. Labor market institutions are responsible for a wide range of policies, regulations, and organizations that affect the labor market, though their impact on employment can vary depending on the specific institutions and the economic context across countries. This entry attempts to provide an overview of five main labor market institutions and policies, i.e., the minimum wage, employment protection, the power of unions, active labor market policies, and unemployment insurance/unemployment benefits. It also presents theoretical expectations of their effects on employment outcomes and collates relevant results from the related literature, focusing mainly on the most recent empirical evidence. Finally, this entry provides insights regarding labor market institutions and offers proposals for shaping the labor market landscape. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Social Sciences)
22 pages, 2821 KiB  
Entry
Oblique Aerial Images: Geometric Principles, Relationships and Definitions
by Styliani Verykokou and Charalabos Ioannidis
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(1), 234-255; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4010019 - 02 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1462
Definition
Aerial images captured with the camera optical axis deliberately inclined with respect to the vertical are defined as oblique aerial images. Throughout the evolution of aerial photography, oblique aerial images have held a prominent place since its inception. While vertical airborne images dominated [...] Read more.
Aerial images captured with the camera optical axis deliberately inclined with respect to the vertical are defined as oblique aerial images. Throughout the evolution of aerial photography, oblique aerial images have held a prominent place since its inception. While vertical airborne images dominated in photogrammetric applications for over a century, the advancements in photogrammetry and computer vision algorithms, coupled with the growing accessibility of oblique images in the market, have propelled the rise of oblique images in recent times. Their emergence is attributed to inherent advantages they offer over vertical images. In this entry, basic definitions, geometric principles and relationships for oblique aerial images, necessary for understanding their underlying geometry, are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Engineering)
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19 pages, 1304 KiB  
Review
Animal Models in Neuroscience: What Is the “Culture of Care”?
by Martina Montanari, Paola Bonsi, Giuseppina Martella and Annarita Wirz
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(1), 215-233; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4010018 - 01 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1097
Abstract
In situations where animal models (AMs) are necessary, as in the field of neuroscience, a strong culture of care must be supported and established. The pivotal question remains: how can we uphold a robust “culture of care”? In the multifaceted domain of neuroscience [...] Read more.
In situations where animal models (AMs) are necessary, as in the field of neuroscience, a strong culture of care must be supported and established. The pivotal question remains: how can we uphold a robust “culture of care”? In the multifaceted domain of neuroscience research, AMs traverse a spectrum shaped by conflicting viewpoints, anthropocentrism and pathocentrism, where established scientific norms intersect with ethical deliberations. Anthropocentrism, representative of conventional scientific approaches, may prioritize scientific goals potentially to the detriment of animal welfare. Conversely, pathocentrism places significant importance on the ethical treatment and well-being of AMs. This divergence of approach prompts the imperative development of a robust culture of care framework within research institutions, advocating for animal welfare, ethical responsibility, and adherence to regulatory standards. In this review, we refer to a European view of animal care, discussing internationally valid concepts that find rebuttal in the current European legislation. This review meticulously analyzes the many facets of the culture of care, particularly for neuroscience studies involving AMs, illustrating the principles, practices, and collaborations critical to overcoming ethical expectations. This commitment increases credibility and builds trust in the public and research spheres, underscoring the critical importance of a culture of care in the ethics of neuroscience research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biology & Life Sciences)
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14 pages, 3621 KiB  
Review
Sustainable Ground Transportation and the E-Commerce Revolution: Innovations and Challenges at the Intersection
by Mark Ching-Pong Poo, Yui-yip Lau, Baomin Qi and Cecilia Fung-kan Pun
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(1), 201-214; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4010017 - 30 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 840
Abstract
This review paper offers a comprehensive exploration of the symbiotic relationship between sustainable ground transportation and the dynamic realm of e-commerce. It delves into the critical intersection of environmental sustainability, technological innovation, and the evolving landscape of online commerce. This review synthesises cutting-edge [...] Read more.
This review paper offers a comprehensive exploration of the symbiotic relationship between sustainable ground transportation and the dynamic realm of e-commerce. It delves into the critical intersection of environmental sustainability, technological innovation, and the evolving landscape of online commerce. This review synthesises cutting-edge technologies and strategies aimed at reducing energy requirements and environmental impacts in ground transportation. It explores advancements in lightweight materials, aerodynamics, and alternative fuels, emphasising their potential to mitigate the environmental footprint of vehicles. Additionally, the transition towards zero-emission vehicles, including battery-operated and fuel-cell vehicles, is analysed, taking into account both short-term and long-term outlooks. Simultaneously, the paper delves into the evolving landscape of e-commerce, which has become an integral part of modern consumer behaviour. It investigates the influence of e-commerce on ground transportation practices, emphasising the importance of efficient logistics, last-mile delivery, and sustainability in meeting the demands of the digital commerce era. By providing a holistic view of the challenges and opportunities at the nexus of sustainable ground transportation and e-commerce, this review paper offers valuable insights for researchers, policymakers, and industry stakeholders striving to shape a more sustainable and responsive future for ground transportation in the digital age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Sciences)
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15 pages, 614 KiB  
Review
Inclusive Supervision: Bridging the Cultural Divide
by Victoria Showunmi, Fatima Younas and Leslie Morrison Gutman
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(1), 186-200; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4010016 - 29 Jan 2024
Viewed by 856
Abstract
Inclusive supervision is an approach to supervision that prioritizes multicultural competencies and an ethic of inclusion. Inclusivity in doctoral (or PhD) supervision is of key significance due to the collaborative nature of the relationship between supervisors and supervisees. Scant research has been conducted [...] Read more.
Inclusive supervision is an approach to supervision that prioritizes multicultural competencies and an ethic of inclusion. Inclusivity in doctoral (or PhD) supervision is of key significance due to the collaborative nature of the relationship between supervisors and supervisees. Scant research has been conducted that considers the multiple, intersectional influences and their impact within this relationship. This study employs a rapid review method to synthesize findings on the research evidence encapsulating inclusive doctoral supervision. A search of academic literature spanning the last ten years (2013–2023) led to the inclusion of nine empirical, qualitative research studies on inclusive supervision. A synthesis of the findings resulted in five key challenges to inclusive supervision that diverse students face: power dynamics and feedback, a lack of belonging and support, a racial lens on academic competence, (mis)understandings of cultural differences, and communication and language barriers. In discussing these findings, we employ an intersectional lens and introduce a conceptual framework for an inclusive collaboration between supervisors and supervisees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Doctoral Supervision)
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15 pages, 4276 KiB  
Entry
Behavior Mapping and Its Application in Smart Social Spaces
by Kate Bishop, Nancy Marshall, Homa Rahmat, Susan Thompson, Christine Steinmetz-Weiss, Linda Corkery, Christian Tietz and Miles Park
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(1), 171-185; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4010015 - 29 Jan 2024
Viewed by 909
Definition
Behavior mapping is the systematic observation of people using their environments. The Smart Social Spaces research project, recently completed in Sydney, Australia, is used as a vehicle to illustrate the usefulness of this method for understanding the relationships between people and public spaces [...] Read more.
Behavior mapping is the systematic observation of people using their environments. The Smart Social Spaces research project, recently completed in Sydney, Australia, is used as a vehicle to illustrate the usefulness of this method for understanding the relationships between people and public spaces in cities. Behavior mapping was the central method used to establish what impact the inclusion of smart technology and street furniture had on people’s use of two public spaces. Using this method, it is possible to record real-time patterns of people’s use of public space, enabling local authorities to better support the social use of public space and the management of its infrastructure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Digital Society, Industry 5.0 and Smart City)
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13 pages, 738 KiB  
Systematic Review
Astragalus membranaceus (Huangqi) Supplementation in Sports Training: A Systematic Review
by Michele Antonelli and Davide Donelli
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(1), 158-170; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4010014 - 28 Jan 2024
Viewed by 884
Abstract
The aim of this systematic review is to study the effects of Astragalus membranaceus (Huangqi) supplementation for sports activity and physical performance. PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar were systematically searched for relevant studies from inception up until October [...] Read more.
The aim of this systematic review is to study the effects of Astragalus membranaceus (Huangqi) supplementation for sports activity and physical performance. PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar were systematically searched for relevant studies from inception up until October 2023. Eleven clinical studies were considered eligible for inclusion (six of them involved the administration of Huangqi alone, while, in the remaining trials, this herb was supplemented in combination with other remedies). On average, the number of study participants ranged from 8 to 120, and the sports activities practiced by the subjects included martial arts, mountain hiking, basketball, rowing, running, aerobic exercises, and strength training. When a dried extract was used, Astragalus was taken at a daily dose of 1 to 4 g for several weeks. Huangqi supplementation was associated with improvements in aerobic performance, oxidative status, reticulocytes percentage, and response to acclimatization, without a specific effect on the athletes’ strength. Better post-exercise immune functions were also observed, especially with regard to NK cell activity, IL-2 levels, CD4+/CD8+ ratio, and lymphocyte turnover. No adverse effects were described. In conclusion, Astragalus supplementation has the potential to decrease fatigue, enhance aerobic performance, and mitigate post-exercise immune suppression in athletes. It is advisable to conduct additional research on the subject to enhance the robustness of the existing evidence through larger-scale controlled trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicine & Pharmacology)
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10 pages, 253 KiB  
Entry
Understanding Rumen Microbiology: An Overview
by Hunter G. Perez, Claire K. Stevenson, Jeferson M. Lourenco and Todd R. Callaway
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(1), 148-157; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4010013 - 26 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1525
Definition
The rumen is the largest of the four chambers of the “stomach” in ruminant animals, which harbors an incredibly dense, diverse, and dynamic microbial community crucial for feedstuff degradation, animal health, and production. The primary objective of this article is to enhance knowledge [...] Read more.
The rumen is the largest of the four chambers of the “stomach” in ruminant animals, which harbors an incredibly dense, diverse, and dynamic microbial community crucial for feedstuff degradation, animal health, and production. The primary objective of this article is to enhance knowledge and comprehension of rumen microbiology by providing an introductory-level overview of the field of rumen microbiology. Ruminants possess a distinctive digestive system optimized for the microbial breakdown of complex plant materials. The ruminant ”stomach” consists of four chambers (e.g., reticulum, rumen, omasum, and abomasum), which is home to a microbial population that degrades feedstuffs consumed by ruminant animals. Dr. Robert Hungate and Dr. Marvin Bryant’s groundbreaking research in the 1960s laid the foundation for understanding the function of the ruminal microbial ecosystem. Recent advancements (e.g., next-generation sequencing) have provided the field with deeper insight into populations, boosting our understanding of how the microbial population of the rumen functions in a variety of conditions. The ruminal microbial ecosystem is comprised of bacteria, along with archaea, protozoa, bacteriophage, and fungi, each contributing to the symbiotic relationship between the microbial ecosystem and the host animal that is essential for optimal animal health and efficient animal production. Traditional anaerobic growth techniques have facilitated the study of individual anaerobic bacteria but have been limited by dependence on growth in laboratory conditions. The development of 16S rRNA sequencing allows the identification of microbial populations that cannot be grown and allows an unbiased view of microbial diversity. Diet shapes the rumen microbial population composition, influencing animal production metrics such as feed efficiency, methane emissions, and immunological functions. Feed additives (e.g., essential oils, eubiotics) hold promise by manipulating and unraveling the microbial biochemical potential for improving animal health, feed efficiency, environmental impacts, and overall production sustainability. Future research impacts include the development of probiotics, prebiotics, and genetic strategies for optimizing the rumen microbiome’s multifaceted impacts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biology & Life Sciences)
11 pages, 251 KiB  
Entry
Co-Creation
by Myriam Ertz
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(1), 137-147; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4010012 - 12 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1029
Definition
Co-creation has gained traction in recent years and various fields, including marketing, product development, and innovation studies, as it leverages the collective expertise and insights of multiple parties to enhance outcomes. Broadly, co-creation refers to the collaborative process of involving stakeholders, such as [...] Read more.
Co-creation has gained traction in recent years and various fields, including marketing, product development, and innovation studies, as it leverages the collective expertise and insights of multiple parties to enhance outcomes. Broadly, co-creation refers to the collaborative process of involving stakeholders, such as customers, suppliers, employees, or the public, in creating or improving products, services, or experiences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Sciences)
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12 pages, 659 KiB  
Entry
A Journey to Hear: The Evolution of Cochlear Implants
by Michail Athanasopoulos, Pinelopi Samara and Ioannis Athanasopoulos
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(1), 125-136; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4010011 - 12 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1522
Definition
Cochlear implants (CIs), a revolutionary breakthrough in auditory technology, have profoundly impacted the lives of individuals with severe hearing impairment. Surgically implanted behind the ear and within the delicate cochlea, these devices represent a direct pathway to restoring the sense of hearing. Implanting [...] Read more.
Cochlear implants (CIs), a revolutionary breakthrough in auditory technology, have profoundly impacted the lives of individuals with severe hearing impairment. Surgically implanted behind the ear and within the delicate cochlea, these devices represent a direct pathway to restoring the sense of hearing. Implanting hope alongside innovation, their captivating history unfolds through pivotal dates and transformative milestones. From the first human implantation by Drs. William House and John Doyle in 1961 to FDA approval in 1984, each step in their evolution mirrors a triumph of human ingenuity. The 1990s witnessed significant miniaturization, enhancing accessibility, while the 21st century brought about improvements in speech processing and electrode technology. These strides have elevated CIs beyond functional devices to life-changing instruments, enriching both auditory experiences and communication skills. This entry delves into the captivating history of CIs, spotlighting key dates that paint a vivid picture of challenges overcome and remarkable progress achieved. It explores the people and moments that defined their development, ultimately shaping these implants into indispensable tools that continually redefine the landscape of hearing assistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicine & Pharmacology)
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8 pages, 209 KiB  
Entry
Director Interlocks: Information Transfer in Board Networks
by Ziqi Ma, Linna Shi, Katherine (Kexin) Yu and Nan Zhou
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(1), 117-124; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4010010 - 10 Jan 2024
Viewed by 945
Definition
Director interlocks occur when a board member or an executive of a firm sits on the board of directors of another firm. As an essential social network application in the business world, interlocking directorates are documented to be non-trivial from the 1930s and [...] Read more.
Director interlocks occur when a board member or an executive of a firm sits on the board of directors of another firm. As an essential social network application in the business world, interlocking directorates are documented to be non-trivial from the 1930s and continue to gain popularity thereafter. Corporate information and business practices can be transferred to another firm through an interlocking director sitting on both companies’ boards. Such information dissemination leads to changes in an interlocking firm’s decision-making processes. Existing business research attempts to decipher the underlying reasons why board interlocks become prevalent, how and what information is being transferred through this channel, and the intended or unintended consequences to firm strategic, governance, financing, and accounting practices. We first introduce theoretical research on board interlocks in management and then follow up with empirical evidence in finance and accounting. Since extant studies have not reached a consensus on various consequences of board interlocks, we contribute to the literature by summarizing the findings from multi-business disciplines, discussing their advantages and disadvantages, and calling for more research on the topic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Social Sciences)
16 pages, 848 KiB  
Entry
Graphene Nanocomposite Materials for Supercapacitor Electrodes
by Md. Ikram Ul Hoque, Scott W. Donne and Rudolf Holze
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(1), 101-116; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4010009 - 05 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1187
Definition
Graphene and related materials (graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide) as a subclass of carbon materials and their composites have been examined in various functions as materials in supercapacitor electrodes. They have been suggested as active masses for electrodes in electrochemical double-layer capacitors, tested [...] Read more.
Graphene and related materials (graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide) as a subclass of carbon materials and their composites have been examined in various functions as materials in supercapacitor electrodes. They have been suggested as active masses for electrodes in electrochemical double-layer capacitors, tested as conducting additives for redox-active materials showing only poor electronic conductivity, and their use as a coating of active materials for corrosion and dissolution protection has been suggested. They have also been examined as a corrosion-protection coating of metallic current collectors; paper-like materials prepared from them have been proposed as mechanical support and as a current collector of supercapacitor electrodes. This entry provides an overview with representative examples. It outlines advantages, challenges, and future directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Material Sciences)
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10 pages, 680 KiB  
Entry
Saprophytic Filamentous Fungi against Helminths Affecting Captive Wild Animals
by Rami Salmo, Cándido Viña, João Lozano, Antonio M. Palomero, José Ángel Hernández, Rodrigo Bonilla, Rita Sánchez-Andrade, Adolfo Paz-Silva, Luis M. Madeira de Carvalho, María Sol Arias and Cristiana Cazapal-Monteiro
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(1), 91-100; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4010008 - 05 Jan 2024
Viewed by 616
Definition
In recent decades, important modifications have been introduced in zoos in order to guarantee the welfare of captive wild animals. Thus, many of these species are housed in enclosures with access to vegetation, where they can enjoy habitats close to those in their [...] Read more.
In recent decades, important modifications have been introduced in zoos in order to guarantee the welfare of captive wild animals. Thus, many of these species are housed in enclosures with access to vegetation, where they can enjoy habitats close to those in their natural surroundings, interact with the environment, etc. These habitats present beneficial conditions for some species of parasites to survive and spread. This is a very similar problem to that affecting livestock, and the same solution, based on deworming, is currently being applied. However, the free-living stages of certain parasites that develop in the soil are responsible for high rates of ground contamination throughout the year, so that animals become infected soon after successful deworming, resulting in chemical parasiticides being frequently administered. Preventive measures are seldom considered, which worsens the situation. This entry summarizes the usefulness of the dissemination of certain saprophytic filamentous fungi with proven antagonism against some of the parasites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Fungi)
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