Encyclopedia of Social Sciences

A topical collection in Encyclopedia (ISSN 2673-8392). This collection belongs to the section "Social Sciences".

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Editors


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Collection Editor
Department of Finance, College of Management, Asia University, Taichung 41354, Taiwan
Interests: economics; financial econometrics; quantitative finance; risk and financial management; econometrics; statistics; time series analysis; energy economics and finance; sustainability; environmental modelling; carbon emissions; climate change econometrics; forecasting; informatics; data mining
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
1. Department of Applied Economics and Department of Finance, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan
2. Department of Finance, College of Management, Asia University, Taichung 41354, Taiwan
Interests: economics; econometrics; financial econometrics; statistics; quantitative finance; risk and financial management; energy economics and finance; time series analysis; forecasting; technology and innovation; industrial organization; health and medical economics; tourism research and management
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Encyclopedia of Social Sciences provides a comprehensive reference work covering the following disciplines and subdisciplines in the Social Sciences, highlighting Economics, Finance, Business, and Other Social Sciences.

Chapter 1: Economic Theory and Econometrics
Coverage includes: Economic Theory, Microeconomics, Macroeconomics, Econometrics and Statistics, Mathematical Economics, Organizational Economics.

Chapter 2: Finance
Coverage includes: Investment Finance, Risk and Volatility, Corporate Finance, Behavioral Finance, Energy Finance, Industrial Organization, Health Economics.

Chapter 3: Business
Coverage includes: Accounting, Marketing Science, Management Science, Behavioral Science, Administrative Science, Decision Sciences, Public Policy, Tourism and Hospitality.

Chapter 4: Other Social Sciences
Coverage includes: Political Science, Social Psychology, Sociology, Education, Law, Library and Information Science.

We will release this topical collection as an independent encyclopedia book once a certain amount of entries are published. Book chapters are not limited to the above four disciplines. Additional chapters may be created based on the number of entry papers published under a specific topic. If you are a social science researcher or interested in the Social Sciences, please feel free to share what you know as an entry paper in this collection.

Prof. Dr. Michael McAleer
Prof. Dr. Chia-Lin Chang
Collection Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Encyclopedia is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

 

Published Papers (44 papers)

2024

Jump to: 2023, 2022, 2021

19 pages, 288 KiB  
Entry
The Ecumene: A Research Program for Future Knowledge and Governance
by Paulo Castro Seixas and Nadine Lobner
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(2), 799-817; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4020051 - 12 May 2024
Viewed by 466
Definition
The ecumene defines a beyond-border space of strong cultural encounters, flows, and merging, grounded within the traditions of world-systems, globalization, transnationalism, and cosmopolitanism discourses. Furthermore, the ecumene links directly with international regions as core political platforms in the making. As such, there are [...] Read more.
The ecumene defines a beyond-border space of strong cultural encounters, flows, and merging, grounded within the traditions of world-systems, globalization, transnationalism, and cosmopolitanism discourses. Furthermore, the ecumene links directly with international regions as core political platforms in the making. As such, there are several ecumenes on the forefront, as evidenced by the literature, which can be clustered into ideal types. Epistemologically, it is a relevant concept and tool for a science-of-the-future that focuses on conviviality and transformation for the yet-to-come. Analytically, the ecumene has a descriptive, normative, and critical dimension, and can be empirically accessed through operational concepts such as triggers, hubs, and types of beyond-border conviviality. To apply the ecumene as a research program means to detect convivial common-sense spaces within the global context. Full article
17 pages, 235 KiB  
Entry
Developing Emotional Intelligence
by Lucas Filice and W. James Weese
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(1), 583-599; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4010037 - 19 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1936
Definition
Daniel Goleman perceptively and accurately noted that emotional intelligence is critical to leadership success, claiming that emotional intelligence is far more important to leadership emergence and effectiveness than intellectual capacity. Goleman’s research later confirmed an 85% relationship between emotional intelligence and leader effectiveness. [...] Read more.
Daniel Goleman perceptively and accurately noted that emotional intelligence is critical to leadership success, claiming that emotional intelligence is far more important to leadership emergence and effectiveness than intellectual capacity. Goleman’s research later confirmed an 85% relationship between emotional intelligence and leader effectiveness. It may be the most critical area for current and aspiring leaders to develop. While leadership scholars accept the importance of emotional intelligence for leadership and the fact that emotional intelligence can be developed, there appears to be some uncertainty around how emotional intelligence can be developed. The authors shed light on that area and provide current and aspiring leaders with some proven strategies for developing the four predominant components of emotional intelligence. The importance of emotional intelligence to leadership is well documented, and leaders would be well served by working to heighten their levels of emotional intelligence and, in doing so, increase their leadership potential, efficacy, and impact. Full article
15 pages, 906 KiB  
Entry
The Balancing Act of Repurposing Feature Films and TV Series for University Teaching
by Ngoc Nhu Nguyen
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(1), 497-511; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4010033 - 8 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1539
Definition
Contemporary educators have increasingly recognised the diversity of their student population and, hence, have attempted to use multimodal teaching methods for additional student learning benefits. One popular example is repurposing film and TV content for higher education pedagogies. However, integrating these materials into [...] Read more.
Contemporary educators have increasingly recognised the diversity of their student population and, hence, have attempted to use multimodal teaching methods for additional student learning benefits. One popular example is repurposing film and TV content for higher education pedagogies. However, integrating these materials into teaching effectively often proves more complex than lecturers might anticipate. This entry investigates the merits and challenges of using FF/TV in teaching to determine the factors that impact development of an effective FF/TV pedagogy for student learning, through an interdisciplinary review of the existing literature, followed by a qualitative survey and semi-structured interviews with lecturers across disciplines at Australian universities. Using visual literacy theory, cognitive load theory, and dual coding theory, data analysis reveals that the pros and cons of integrating film and TV in teaching are in fact interconnected, and the main role of the teacher is to pedagogically balance them. Evidence-based and theory-grounded suggestions for application are detailed throughout the discussions. Full article
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27 pages, 3182 KiB  
Entry
Unpacking Transdisciplinary Research Scenarios in Architecture and Urbanism
by Ashraf M. Salama and Madhavi P. Patil
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(1), 352-378; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4010025 - 11 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1783
Definition
Research in architecture and urbanism is a complex undertaking. It involves a multitude of challenges, approaches, variables, diverse scales, and types of environments to examine. This entry dives into the complexities of architectural and urban research and explores the integration of diverse approaches [...] Read more.
Research in architecture and urbanism is a complex undertaking. It involves a multitude of challenges, approaches, variables, diverse scales, and types of environments to examine. This entry dives into the complexities of architectural and urban research and explores the integration of diverse approaches into various research topics or domains. Recognizing the dynamic interplay of human, cultural, technological, and environmental factors in architecture and urbanism, it proposes a transdisciplinary approach to bridge existing disciplinary and methodological boundaries. This entry adopts and operationalizes a comprehensive approach that encompasses hybrid scenario development, integrated socio-spatial analysis, a revised experiential approach, and the integration of environmental psychology into architectural and urban studies. These components are envisioned to harmonize various methodologies and to depict a picture of what research in architecture and urbanism could be within an identified set of domains. This approach is grounded in a rigorous literature review, empirical evidence, and relevant validation through case studies. The application of this approach instigates a series of research scenarios which act as frameworks that provide new insights into design and practice-based research, building anatomy research, city dynamics research, housing dynamics research, and user perception studies. Each scenario demonstrates the applicability of combining theoretical insights with empirical investigations. The implications of these scenarios for architectural and urban research emphasize the significance of transdisciplinarity and highlights the importance of integrating diverse theoretical tenets and methodological insights to address the complex challenges of research in architecture and urbanism. Full article
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22 pages, 311 KiB  
Entry
Labor Market Institutions and Employment
by Georgios Giotis
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(1), 273-294; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4010021 - 4 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1314
Definition
The role of labor market institutions and policies has received great attention throughout the history of labor economics. Labor market institutions are responsible for a wide range of policies, regulations, and organizations that affect the labor market, though their impact on employment can [...] Read more.
The role of labor market institutions and policies has received great attention throughout the history of labor economics. Labor market institutions are responsible for a wide range of policies, regulations, and organizations that affect the labor market, though their impact on employment can vary depending on the specific institutions and the economic context across countries. This entry attempts to provide an overview of five main labor market institutions and policies, i.e., the minimum wage, employment protection, the power of unions, active labor market policies, and unemployment insurance/unemployment benefits. It also presents theoretical expectations of their effects on employment outcomes and collates relevant results from the related literature, focusing mainly on the most recent empirical evidence. Finally, this entry provides insights regarding labor market institutions and offers proposals for shaping the labor market landscape. Full article
8 pages, 209 KiB  
Entry
Director Interlocks: Information Transfer in Board Networks
by Ziqi Ma, Linna Shi, Katherine (Kexin) Yu and Nan Zhou
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(1), 117-124; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4010010 - 10 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1135
Definition
Director interlocks occur when a board member or an executive of a firm sits on the board of directors of another firm. As an essential social network application in the business world, interlocking directorates are documented to be non-trivial from the 1930s and [...] Read more.
Director interlocks occur when a board member or an executive of a firm sits on the board of directors of another firm. As an essential social network application in the business world, interlocking directorates are documented to be non-trivial from the 1930s and continue to gain popularity thereafter. Corporate information and business practices can be transferred to another firm through an interlocking director sitting on both companies’ boards. Such information dissemination leads to changes in an interlocking firm’s decision-making processes. Existing business research attempts to decipher the underlying reasons why board interlocks become prevalent, how and what information is being transferred through this channel, and the intended or unintended consequences to firm strategic, governance, financing, and accounting practices. We first introduce theoretical research on board interlocks in management and then follow up with empirical evidence in finance and accounting. Since extant studies have not reached a consensus on various consequences of board interlocks, we contribute to the literature by summarizing the findings from multi-business disciplines, discussing their advantages and disadvantages, and calling for more research on the topic. Full article

2023

Jump to: 2024, 2022, 2021

19 pages, 362 KiB  
Entry
Public School Choice Options in the United States
by Shelby L. Smith, Margaret Dawson-Amoah, Tong Tong, Nicolas Pardo, Elizabeth Ann Alonso-Morris and Adam Kho
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(1), 60-78; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4010006 - 31 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1831
Definition
Under the structure of compulsory education, students in the United States are required to attend school until at least 16 years of age, which can be done at a variety of educational institutions, both public and private. Amongst public schools, students are each [...] Read more.
Under the structure of compulsory education, students in the United States are required to attend school until at least 16 years of age, which can be done at a variety of educational institutions, both public and private. Amongst public schools, students are each assigned a neighborhood school but also frequently have the option to attend a choice school. While the purpose of neighborhood schools is to provide a guaranteed educational option that accommodates most students, choice schools serve varied purposes that accommodate specific learning styles and societal goals. Four types of publicly funded choice schools are magnet, charter, alternative, and virtual schools. While each was established to serve a specific societal goal, their purposes have shifted over time and have produced varied student outcomes, both academic and non-academic. Full article
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14 pages, 857 KiB  
Entry
Understanding the Education Policymaking Process in the United States
by Margaret Dawson-Amoah, Shelby L. Smith, Desiree O’Neal, Isabel Clay, Elizabeth Ann Alonso-Morris and Adam Kho
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(1), 46-59; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4010005 - 30 Dec 2023
Viewed by 2902
Definition
Considering the broad implications of education policy, it is important to understand the various facets of the education policymaking process. There are different stages of the process (i.e., issue definition, policy adoption, implementation, and evaluation) which, at times, can be difficult to comprehend [...] Read more.
Considering the broad implications of education policy, it is important to understand the various facets of the education policymaking process. There are different stages of the process (i.e., issue definition, policy adoption, implementation, and evaluation) which, at times, can be difficult to comprehend when considering the competing goals of education and multiple stakeholders. Understanding the process can also be difficult due to the historical and contemporary influences of power and racism at play within and outside of society’s educational landscape—especially within the United States context. The process is highlighted as an iterative one which provides room for adjustments and changes across different contexts. By navigating the complex landscape of education policymaking, one can be better equipped to understand the intricacies of policymaking and its transformative capacity. Full article
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14 pages, 937 KiB  
Systematic Review
Analyzing Cultural Routes and Their Role in Advancing Cultural Heritage Management within Tourism: A Systematic Review with a Focus on the Integration of Digital Technologies
by Eleftheria Iakovaki, Markos Konstantakis, Alexandros Teneketzis and George Konstantakis
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(4), 1509-1522; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3040108 - 15 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1295
Abstract
This review constitutes a comprehensive systematic review analyzing cultural routes, with a particular focus on the concept of the cultural route as a tourist–cultural product. Within this framework, the paper offers an overview of contemporary technological challenges, concerns, and limitations. It thoroughly explores [...] Read more.
This review constitutes a comprehensive systematic review analyzing cultural routes, with a particular focus on the concept of the cultural route as a tourist–cultural product. Within this framework, the paper offers an overview of contemporary technological challenges, concerns, and limitations. It thoroughly explores cutting-edge technologies pertaining to the promotion of cultural heritage, both in general and in the specific context of realizing the concept of the cultural route, a tourist–cultural service enriched by the utilization of new media. Additionally, it extensively references the latest techniques and models for enhancing the user experience of digital cultural tourism products. Moreover, the paper showcases existing digital platforms and tools that encapsulate and emphasize the notion of cultural tourism. It assesses the respective methodologies, technologies, and techniques employed in each case, accompanied by illustrative instances of their applications. Finally, an empirical evaluation was conducted focusing on user needs and expectations during a cultural route. Full article
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9 pages, 672 KiB  
Entry
Pandemic Economic Crises
by Kristián Kalamen, František Pollák and Peter Markovič
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(4), 1489-1497; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3040106 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 935
Definition
The market serves as the convergence point of supply and demand and represents the process through which market relations between economic units materialize. From a global perspective, the focus shifts to the world market, which is the fundamental structure on which the global [...] Read more.
The market serves as the convergence point of supply and demand and represents the process through which market relations between economic units materialize. From a global perspective, the focus shifts to the world market, which is the fundamental structure on which the global economy is based. The world economy operates as a very complex ecosystem. When it is exposed to the extremely damaging effects of a global pandemic, the term of a pandemic economic crisis becomes relevant. Full article
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20 pages, 2068 KiB  
Entry
Health-Promoting Nature-Based Paradigms in Urban Planning
by Patrik Grahn, Jonathan Stoltz, Erik Skärbäck and Anna Bengtsson
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(4), 1419-1438; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3040102 - 8 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1768
Definition
Since the 19th century, urban planning has largely been guided by ambitions to improve the population’s wellbeing and living conditions. Parks and green areas have played a significant role in this work. However, the confidence in the function of green areas, and thus [...] Read more.
Since the 19th century, urban planning has largely been guided by ambitions to improve the population’s wellbeing and living conditions. Parks and green areas have played a significant role in this work. However, the confidence in the function of green areas, and thus the motives for creating urban parks and green open spaces, have shifted over the years, which has affected both the planning and design of green areas. This entry describes three overarching paradigm shifts in urban planning, from the end of the 18th century to today, and the focus is on the major paradigm shift that is underway: how green areas can mitigate climate effects, increase biodiversity and at the same time support people’s health and living conditions in a smart city. Full article
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8 pages, 202 KiB  
Entry
Residential Segregation
by Matthias Bernt and Anne Volkmann
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(4), 1401-1408; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3040100 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1468
Definition
Residential segregation refers to the disproportionate distribution of population groups across a geographical area. Groups can be segregated on the basis of any characteristic (such as occupation, income, religion, age or ethnicity) and at any geographical scale. In most cases, segregation is, however, [...] Read more.
Residential segregation refers to the disproportionate distribution of population groups across a geographical area. Groups can be segregated on the basis of any characteristic (such as occupation, income, religion, age or ethnicity) and at any geographical scale. In most cases, segregation is, however, measured with regard to residential areas of a city. The extent of the unequal distribution of selected characteristics can be expressed by different statistical measures. Sociologists, economists and demographers have long studied how social groups tend to be differentiated in residential space and developed a broad range of explanations. As a consequence, segregation has been explained by a variety of theories, which are discussed in this paper. The topics examined by empirical research include temporal dynamics, geographical patterns, societal causes and effects on life chances. This entry focuses on major conceptual facts regarding residential segregation and only marginally discusses the methodological issues connected with its measurement. Full article
14 pages, 701 KiB  
Review
Disinformation Perception by Digital and Social Audiences: Threat Awareness, Decision-Making and Trust in Media Organizations
by Samia Benaissa Pedriza
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(4), 1387-1400; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3040099 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 2344
Abstract
The effects of disinformation in the media and social networks have been extensively studied from the perspective of reception studies. However, the perception of this media phenomenon expressed by different types of audiences in distant geographic locations and with different media cultures has [...] Read more.
The effects of disinformation in the media and social networks have been extensively studied from the perspective of reception studies. However, the perception of this media phenomenon expressed by different types of audiences in distant geographic locations and with different media cultures has hardly been addressed by experts. This theoretical review study aims to analyze the relationship between the actual level of disinformation and the perception expressed by the audiences themselves. The results of the study reveal, firstly, that users of social networks and digital media do not perceive being surrounded by an excessively worrying volume of disinformation, a fact that contrasts with the data recorded, which are visibly higher. This situation reveals that the audience tends to normalize disinformation, which is intensively consumed on a daily basis and does not seem to worry the public in general terms, although some differences can be detected depending on variables such as gender, age or education. On the other hand, paradoxically, audiences visibly express rejection attitudes towards the channels that disseminate false information, with media outlets being the least trusted, despite recognizing that social networks are the place where more disinformation is generated and circulated at the same time. Full article
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21 pages, 1509 KiB  
Review
Social Networks in Crisis Management: A Literature Review to Address the Criticality of the Challenge
by Bashar Abboodi, Salvatore Flavio Pileggi and Gnana Bharathy
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(3), 1157-1177; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3030084 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4679
Abstract
This review proposes a concise literature review aimed at identifying the current body of knowledge on the adoption of Social Networks in crisis management. The major input is a structured research question based on the initial reading about the topic. Before the recent [...] Read more.
This review proposes a concise literature review aimed at identifying the current body of knowledge on the adoption of Social Networks in crisis management. The major input is a structured research question based on the initial reading about the topic. Before the recent pandemic, most literature focused on local crises, with relatively few exceptions. Additionally, self-organising systems are spontaneously established between people who are affected by a crisis. The fundamental assumption underlying this study is the huge potential of Social Networks in the field of crisis management. That is supported, directly or indirectly, by a number of previous studies, which emphasise how effective adoption leads to better decision-making for crisis managers and local communities. Among the identified challenges is the need to integrate official communication by emergency agencies with citizen-generated content in a contest for credibility and trustworthiness. In certain cases, it has been reported that there is a lack of specific competence, knowledge, and expertise, as well as a lack of sufficient policies and guidelines for the use of Social Networks. Those challenges need to be framed by considering the classic difficulties of providing timely and accurate information to deal with fake news, unverified or misleading information, and information overload. Bridging major gaps through advanced analytics and AI-based technology is expected to provide a key contribution to establishing and safely enabling the practice of effective and efficient communication. This technology can help contrast dissonant mental models, which are often fostered by Social Networks, and enable shared situational awareness. Future research may take a closer look at AI technology and its impact on the role of Social Networks in managing crises. Full article
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12 pages, 264 KiB  
Entry
Integrating Positive Psychology into Substance Use Treatments
by Bryant M. Stone
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(3), 1133-1144; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3030082 - 12 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2753
Definition
Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding and recent empirical. interdisciplinary research topic (i.e., within the last 25 years). Early evidence supported that targeting positive variables (i.e., empathy or kindness) has numerous benefits, including improving health outcomes, vocational success, psychological well-being, and interpersonal connectedness. [...] Read more.
Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding and recent empirical. interdisciplinary research topic (i.e., within the last 25 years). Early evidence supported that targeting positive variables (i.e., empathy or kindness) has numerous benefits, including improving health outcomes, vocational success, psychological well-being, and interpersonal connectedness. Positive Psychological Interventions (PPIs) are activities and behavioral interventions that target positive variables to promote adaptive functioning (e.g., reducing depression or promoting psychological well-being). PPIs may make excellent contributions to treating substance use, substance use disorders (SUDs), and substance use problems because the interventions can partially shift the notable negative treatment focus (e.g., avoiding the consequences of using) onto positive aspects (e.g., pursuing an ideal future). Current substance use treatment outcomes demonstrate a need for improvements (e.g., low abstinence rates and lifetime symptom remission of SUDs), and positive psychology may provide a framework for improving existing treatments. In the current paper, the author reviewed research supporting the use of PPIs in substance use treatments, provide suggestions for PPI applications, examine advantages and practical issues, outline the current limitations, and provide future directions for continuing this line of work. The author aimed to encourage researchers to advance substance use treatment improvements with positive psychology because the growing consequences from substance use (e.g., the growing frequency of accidental fatal overdose) and the variable, limited treatment outcomes, placing those who use substances in a uniquely vulnerable position. Full article
10 pages, 268 KiB  
Entry
Social Cohesion: Definitions, Causes and Consequences
by Louis Moustakas
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(3), 1028-1037; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3030075 - 29 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 23043
Definition
Viewed as the glue that binds societies, social cohesion is considered an essential ingredient to address common societal challenges. Definitions and associated conceptual frameworks usually summarise social cohesion as collective attributes and behaviours characterised by positive social relations, a sense of identification or [...] Read more.
Viewed as the glue that binds societies, social cohesion is considered an essential ingredient to address common societal challenges. Definitions and associated conceptual frameworks usually summarise social cohesion as collective attributes and behaviours characterised by positive social relations, a sense of identification or belonging, and an orientation towards the common good. However, there are a large variety of definitions, and disagreement exists about what constitutes the core components, causes and consequences of social cohesion. Full article
8 pages, 235 KiB  
Entry
Affective Economy: A Theoretical Outline
by Michele Filippo Fontefrancesco
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(3), 1020-1027; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3030074 - 25 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3974
Definition
The affective economy is a concept that emerged within the field of social sciences, focusing on the interplay between emotions, affects, and economic processes. It explores how emotions and affective experiences shape economic practices, consumption patterns, and the production of goods and services. [...] Read more.
The affective economy is a concept that emerged within the field of social sciences, focusing on the interplay between emotions, affects, and economic processes. It explores how emotions and affective experiences shape economic practices, consumption patterns, and the production of goods and services. In the affective economy framework, emotions are seen as not merely individual but deeply embedded in social and political contexts, shaping and being shaped by social structures and power dynamics. The affective economy emphasizes how emotions circulate and contribute to the construction and maintenance of social orders, impacting economic actions. It acknowledges the profound impact of emotions and affects on economic behavior. Thus, this concept sheds light on the intricate relationship between emotions and economic processes, demonstrating how affective experiences influence consumption, production, labor, financial decisions, and the overall dynamics of the market economy. It emphasizes the need for a more nuanced understanding of human behavior in economic contexts, recognizing the significance of emotions and affective responses as integral components of economic activities. This concept is connected to notions of dwelling, topophilia, and affective atmospheres, providing insights into the complexities of economic transactions in diverse cultural contexts. Full article
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11 pages, 523 KiB  
Entry
Positioning Theory in Education
by Sonia Martins Felix and Sikunder Ali
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(3), 1009-1019; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3030073 - 23 Aug 2023
Viewed by 3817
Definition
Positioning theory is a social theorization that aims to capture the dynamic analysis of conversations and discourses taking place in a social setting. Conversations as part of language assume interlocutors. As one engages in the interactive speech acts in the social setting, there [...] Read more.
Positioning theory is a social theorization that aims to capture the dynamic analysis of conversations and discourses taking place in a social setting. Conversations as part of language assume interlocutors. As one engages in the interactive speech acts in the social setting, there comes the importance of interlocutors involved in these speech acts in creating a social reality, as language forms the knowledge of reality. Certain types of rights and duties can be observed in interactions between speakers and hearers in a social communicative context of interlocutors. The cluster of rights and duties, recognized in a certain social setting, can be termed as a position. One of the critical aspects is that positions are not always intentional or even conscious. Therefore, positioning theory has been redefined as a method of analysis with a focus on storylines. Storylines reveal implicit ascriptions and resistances of rights and duties through the performance of a variety of actions in a social setting where appropriateness of social acts are established and recognized by the participants engaged within the social situation. The education setting presents a dynamic situation where a variety of moral orders come into actions that set possibilities for different actors to engage in shifting positioning to accomplish certain educational actions. This entry presents the use of positioning theory in an educational setting. Full article
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13 pages, 305 KiB  
Entry
Financial Interdependence: A Social Perspective
by Jeffrey Anvari-Clark and Julie Miller
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(3), 996-1008; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3030072 - 23 Aug 2023
Viewed by 3093
Definition
Financial interdependence refers to the practice of sharing money as an expression of mutuality. Forms of financial interdependence are often rooted in cultural norms and values and may be carried out as a commitment to the well-being of the family through financial transfers, [...] Read more.
Financial interdependence refers to the practice of sharing money as an expression of mutuality. Forms of financial interdependence are often rooted in cultural norms and values and may be carried out as a commitment to the well-being of the family through financial transfers, practiced as informal savings groups, or even established as legally constructed agreements. Financial interdependence can result in either beneficial or harmful outcomes, depending upon the nature of the relationships and the available resources. As a social and cultural concept, it has been generally neglected in the discourse on financial independence, yet it has important implications for society as a basis for collective prosperity. Full article
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9 pages, 998 KiB  
Entry
Unraveling Neurodiversity: Insights from Neuroscientific Perspectives
by Hagar Goldberg
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(3), 972-980; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3030070 - 10 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 14408
Definition
Neurodiversity is a concept and a social movement that addresses and normalizes human neurocognitive heterogeneity to promote acceptance and inclusion of neuro-minorities (e.g., learning disabilities, attention disorders, psychiatric disorders, and more) in contemporary society. Neurodiversity is attributed to nature and nurture factors, and [...] Read more.
Neurodiversity is a concept and a social movement that addresses and normalizes human neurocognitive heterogeneity to promote acceptance and inclusion of neuro-minorities (e.g., learning disabilities, attention disorders, psychiatric disorders, and more) in contemporary society. Neurodiversity is attributed to nature and nurture factors, and about a fifth of the human population is considered neurodivergent. What does neurodiversity mean neuroscientifically? This question forms the foundation of the present entry, which focuses on existing scientific evidence on neurodiversity including neurodiversity between and within individuals, and the evolutional perspective of neurodiversity. Furthermore, the neuroscientific view will be synergistically integrated with social approaches, particularly in the context of the normalization of neurodiversity and its association with the medical and social models of disability. This multidimensional analysis offers a cohesive and comprehensive understanding of neurodiversity, drawing insights from various vantage points, such as social, psychological, clinical, and neuroscientific viewpoints. This integrated approach fosters a nuanced and holistic discussion on the topic of human diversity. Full article
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8 pages, 219 KiB  
Entry
Need for Widely Applicable Cultural Competencies in the Healthcare of Humans and Animals
by Costas S. Constantinou
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(3), 956-963; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3030068 - 4 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1029
Definition
This entry discusses the importance of cultural competence in the healthcare of humans and animals, its challenges, its mixed research results, and the need for widely applicable competencies. Although there is research evidence showing that cultural competence is linked with patient satisfaction, better [...] Read more.
This entry discusses the importance of cultural competence in the healthcare of humans and animals, its challenges, its mixed research results, and the need for widely applicable competencies. Although there is research evidence showing that cultural competence is linked with patient satisfaction, better doctor–patient relationships, adherence to therapy, and to some extent, better health outcomes, there is a huge variety of models and competencies in the literature, which has sometimes resulted in inclusive outcomes, confusion as to what constitutes the necessary competencies, and patchy implementation. In spite of the development of cultural competence in human healthcare, its implementation in veterinary medicine remains poor. On this note, the aims of this entry are to provide a brief overview of the cultural competence in healthcare and veterinary medicine and education, to outline the important facts, and to highlight the need for more standardisation in implementing and testing widely applicable cultural competencies for both human and veterinary healthcare. Full article
17 pages, 609 KiB  
Entry
Employment in the 21st Century: Pre- and Post-COVID-19 Changes
by Antonios Th. Malousis, Panagiotis N. Zefkilis and Theodoros Daglis
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(3), 853-869; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3030061 - 14 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 5603
Definition
In the 21st century, prior to the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, numerous transformations were already underway in the field of employment. However, this unprecedented global health crisis has had a profound influence on employment worldwide, yielding both positive and negative outcomes across [...] Read more.
In the 21st century, prior to the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, numerous transformations were already underway in the field of employment. However, this unprecedented global health crisis has had a profound influence on employment worldwide, yielding both positive and negative outcomes across various labor aspects. Consequently, while certain effects are anticipated to be temporary, others are likely to instigate enduring changes in employment practices. Full article
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8 pages, 469 KiB  
Entry
Brazilian Urban Policy: Sustainability as a Driving Force
by Felipe Teixeira Dias, Marcos Esdras Leite, Priscila Cembranel, José Baltazar S. O. de Andrade Guerra and Robert S. Birch
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(2), 614-621; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3020044 - 15 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1404
Definition
Defining global themes such as Urban Policy, Urban Sustainability, and even the Right to the City (RTTC) is fundamental to stimulating and establishing a continuous dialogue with the scientific community, mainly in the social sciences. Thus, understanding the dynamics around the scope of [...] Read more.
Defining global themes such as Urban Policy, Urban Sustainability, and even the Right to the City (RTTC) is fundamental to stimulating and establishing a continuous dialogue with the scientific community, mainly in the social sciences. Thus, understanding the dynamics around the scope of urban sustainability requires an analysis that is focused on multiple global realities. Taking a holistic view of Brazilian Urban Policy, this entry looks at the historical contexts that make urban sustainability the driving force behind this policy. In addition, an interdisciplinary consideration of urban sustainability is proposed using an analysis that is based on the connection between urban policies and social functions that reflect the idea of a sustainable city. The results of this analysis also point to the need for a continuous debate on the subject that primarily promotes new discoveries; this is so that the driving force of urban policy can gain new meanings and new guidelines can be implemented. Full article
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8 pages, 252 KiB  
Entry
Human Resources Churning
by Olga Alexandra Chinita Pirrolas and Pedro Miguel Alves Ribeiro Correia
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(2), 582-589; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3020041 - 9 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1567
Definition
The term churning is defined by a multifaceted approach and is quite a complex concept that has been gaining relevance in the field of human resources, due to the problematic loss of investment, originating from the voluntary exits of worker-associated costs. This phenomenon [...] Read more.
The term churning is defined by a multifaceted approach and is quite a complex concept that has been gaining relevance in the field of human resources, due to the problematic loss of investment, originating from the voluntary exits of worker-associated costs. This phenomenon is a direct result of the rising competitive job market, causing employees to leave organizations and carry with them all the knowledge and experience acquired in the starting organization, an organization which invested in the development of its workers. Even though churning is aligned with human resource practices, it is considered a multifaceted concept because of the different contexts in which it interferes, such as economic context, per activity sector, clients, the type of organization, geographic location, etc. Although, despite its own complexity, churning is related to turnover; however, there are differences between these two concepts. While turnover is linked to the workers’ rotation within an organization, churning is mainly focused on the costs associated with voluntary exits from workers. It is simply linked to investment losses inside an organization, which has the main goal of creating mechanisms that allow the creation of awareness in organizations about the relevancy of action using strategic measurements of holding in order to minimize the churning rate, and in this way, reducing the unexpected costs, creating revenue, increasing proficiency, standing out in business activity, bettering nimbleness and expanding profits. This initial manuscript introduces the churning concept in human resources, the main causes of churning, as well as approaching how organizations take action in order to appease this event using literature, which lacks major advertising and given relevance to its pertinence in human resources. Through the analysis of the existing, this entry was guided with the objective of demystifying the subject of human resource churning. Full article
12 pages, 273 KiB  
Entry
Experiences of Parenting Multiple Expressions of Relationally Challenging Childhood Behaviours across Contexts
by Harriet Smart, Rosemary Lodge and Joanne Lusher
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(2), 549-560; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3020039 - 25 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1763
Definition
This entry delves into the parenting literature and reveals the complexities, perspectives, and multiple expressions of parenting challenging childhood behavior that distress or negatively impact the parent-child relationship so that we can better understand how to support families who are struggling to cope. [...] Read more.
This entry delves into the parenting literature and reveals the complexities, perspectives, and multiple expressions of parenting challenging childhood behavior that distress or negatively impact the parent-child relationship so that we can better understand how to support families who are struggling to cope. The entry specifically focuses on the period of transition to school for children aged five to eight years. This transition can illuminate vulnerabilities previously hidden as children attempt to navigate the demands of their unfamiliar environment, meaning that parents can experience distress and emotional challenges. The entry explores the various expressions of relationally challenging behavior and comments on the intersectionality and reciprocity of explicit and implicit expressions of affect such as frustration and anxiety. To gain context, the entry examines common antecedents associated with relationally challenging behavior, such as academic comparison, forming friendships, hidden neurodiverse development, neglect, attachment dysfunction, and family conflict. Qualitative literature enriches understanding and identifies problems such as parental distress related to social stigma and minority stress and reveals specific struggles, including stress, related to homeschooling children with special educational needs, homeschooling during the recent pandemic, single parenting, grandparenting, parenting neurodiverse children, and the triangulated tensions that exist between the parent, the child, and the school. Holding in mind these diverse and context-orientated perspectives, this entry examines research that evaluates helpfulness and illuminates deficiencies of popular structured parent programs. Lastly, the entry identifies and illuminates the need to know more about the ways in which parent programs work, and it is anticipated that this new knowledge will help practitioners to better respond to the complexities of need and expectations of families who struggle to cope with relationally challenging behavior. Full article
10 pages, 271 KiB  
Entry
Immersive Learning
by Stylianos Mystakidis and Vangelis Lympouridis
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(2), 396-405; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3020026 - 27 Mar 2023
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 6984
Definition
Immersive learning conceptualizes education as a set of active phenomenological experiences that are based on presence. Immersive learning can be implemented using both physical and digital means, such as virtual reality and augmented reality. Full article
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9 pages, 240 KiB  
Entry
Charter Schools: An Alternative Option in American Schooling
by Tong Tong, Shelby Leigh Smith, Michael Fienberg and Adam Kho
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(1), 362-370; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3010022 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4383
Definition
Charter schools are educational institutions in the United States funded through taxation but operated privately under a charter or contract with a public entity, providing alternative public education options to families. Charter schools are subject to fewer rules and regulations and have greater [...] Read more.
Charter schools are educational institutions in the United States funded through taxation but operated privately under a charter or contract with a public entity, providing alternative public education options to families. Charter schools are subject to fewer rules and regulations and have greater autonomy than traditional public schools over operations, curriculum, and instruction, although have greater stakes in school accountability. Full article
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2022

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2021

14 pages, 254 KiB  
Entry
Local Government Emergency Management
by Christopher L. Atkinson
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(1), 1-14; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3010001 - 24 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 5205
Definition
According to the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), emergency management is “charged with creating the framework within which communities reduce vulnerability to threats/hazards and cope with disasters” (FEMA, n.d.). Local government emergency management involves the efforts of municipalities, cities, counties, and special [...] Read more.
According to the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), emergency management is “charged with creating the framework within which communities reduce vulnerability to threats/hazards and cope with disasters” (FEMA, n.d.). Local government emergency management involves the efforts of municipalities, cities, counties, and special government entities in responding to threats/hazards and coping with emergencies. Full article
9 pages, 1108 KiB  
Entry
Inhabited Institutionalism
by Callie Cleckner and Tim Hallett
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1494-1502; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030101 - 16 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2775
Definition
Inhabited Institutionalism is a meso-level theoretical approach for evaluating the recursive relationships among institutions, social interactions, and organizations. This theoretical framework offers organizational scholars a multi-faceted consideration of coupling configurations that highlight how institutional processes are maintained, challenged, and transformed without reverting to [...] Read more.
Inhabited Institutionalism is a meso-level theoretical approach for evaluating the recursive relationships among institutions, social interactions, and organizations. This theoretical framework offers organizational scholars a multi-faceted consideration of coupling configurations that highlight how institutional processes are maintained, challenged, and transformed without reverting to nested yet binary arguments about individual agency and structural conditions. Full article
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11 pages, 248 KiB  
Entry
Society, Work and Precarity
by Norbert Ebert
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1384-1394; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030093 - 22 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1839
Definition
One of sociology’s core tasks is to explain how societies work and change. Work plays a crucial and fundamental role in the formation of societies and is also a major driver of social change. It is therefore of key sociological interest to understand [...] Read more.
One of sociology’s core tasks is to explain how societies work and change. Work plays a crucial and fundamental role in the formation of societies and is also a major driver of social change. It is therefore of key sociological interest to understand how work creates and changes the social conditions we call societies. However, work also creates different levels of freedom and equality; which manifest as different types and degrees of precarity in what I call ‘work societies’. Full article
9 pages, 259 KiB  
Entry
Organizational Justice: Typology, Antecedents and Consequences
by Jennifer Wiseman and Amelia Stillwell
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1287-1295; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030086 - 6 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 5070
Definition
Organizational Justice is an individual’s perception that events, actions, or decisions within an organization adhere to a standard of fairness. Justice researchers have categorized justice into four types, differentiated by how fairness is evaluated by employees: distributive, procedural, interpersonal, and informational justice. Organizational [...] Read more.
Organizational Justice is an individual’s perception that events, actions, or decisions within an organization adhere to a standard of fairness. Justice researchers have categorized justice into four types, differentiated by how fairness is evaluated by employees: distributive, procedural, interpersonal, and informational justice. Organizational justice perceptions have consequences for the employee and the organization: increasing job satisfaction, commitment, and trust; and decreasing turnover, counterproductive work behaviors, and even workplace violence. Contemporary organizational justice research seeks to understand how to restore justice after an injustice has occurred. Full article
17 pages, 562 KiB  
Entry
Social, Cultural, and Economic Determinants of Well-Being
by Val Livingston, Breshell Jackson-Nevels and Velur Vedvikash Reddy
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1183-1199; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030079 - 27 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 11092
Definition
Individual well-being is influenced by a number of economic and social factors that include income, mental health, physical health, education, social relationships, employment, discrimination, government policies, and neighborhood conditions. Well-being involves both physical and mental health as part of a holistic approach to [...] Read more.
Individual well-being is influenced by a number of economic and social factors that include income, mental health, physical health, education, social relationships, employment, discrimination, government policies, and neighborhood conditions. Well-being involves both physical and mental health as part of a holistic approach to health promotion and disease prevention. The well-being of a society’s people has the potential to impact the well-being and productivity of the society as a whole. Though it may be assessed at the individual level, well-being becomes an important population outcome at the macro level and therefore represents a public health issue. Full article
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23 pages, 690 KiB  
Entry
Unveiling Neuromarketing and Its Research Methodology
by Marcelo Royo-Vela and Ákos Varga
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(2), 729-751; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2020051 - 13 Apr 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 5698
Definition
Neuromarketing is the union of cognitive psychology, which studies mental processes, neurology and neurophysiology, which study the functioning and responses of the brain and body physiology to external stimuli, and marketing, which studies valuable exchanges, to explain marketing effects on customers’ and consumers’ [...] Read more.
Neuromarketing is the union of cognitive psychology, which studies mental processes, neurology and neurophysiology, which study the functioning and responses of the brain and body physiology to external stimuli, and marketing, which studies valuable exchanges, to explain marketing effects on customers’ and consumers’ behaviours and on buying and decision processes. It includes a set of research techniques that, by observing and evaluating how the brain and other body parts respond, avoids possible biases and provides truthful and objective information on consumer subconscious. The term “consumer neuroscience” covers academic approaches using techniques such as fMRI, Eye Tracking, or EED. The objectives of this entry are to show what neuromarketing is and what added value it brings to the study of consumer behaviour and purchase decision processes. The conclusions show a favourable future and positive attitudes towards neuromarketing. Full article
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8 pages, 235 KiB  
Entry
Buddhism in Addiction Recovery
by Vanessa Wang and Bryant M. Stone
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 530-537; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2010035 - 22 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4616
Definition
Buddhism was established by Guatama Buddha as a practice to liberate sentient beings from suffering. Mindfulness-Based interventions (MBIs) are Western psychologists’ adaptation of mindfulness/Vipassana to treat mental illnesses. In addition to mindfulness, Buddhist recovery peer-support programs also adopt the Four Noble Truths, the [...] Read more.
Buddhism was established by Guatama Buddha as a practice to liberate sentient beings from suffering. Mindfulness-Based interventions (MBIs) are Western psychologists’ adaptation of mindfulness/Vipassana to treat mental illnesses. In addition to mindfulness, Buddhist recovery peer-support programs also adopt the Four Noble Truths, the Noble Eightfold Path, and the Five Precepts, which are the Buddha’s prescription to cease suffering and to discipline one’s ethical conduct. Full article
7 pages, 207 KiB  
Entry
Role of Happiness When Evaluating Society
by Bjørn Grinde
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 230-236; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2010014 - 21 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2639
Definition
Happiness, or life satisfaction, has become an important factor when considering what should be the objective of a society. Understanding the nature of happiness is thus important. The text offers a biological—specifically evolutionary—framework, which suggests that happiness can be described as the net [...] Read more.
Happiness, or life satisfaction, has become an important factor when considering what should be the objective of a society. Understanding the nature of happiness is thus important. The text offers a biological—specifically evolutionary—framework, which suggests that happiness can be described as the net impact of positive and negative feelings. It follows that a key issue is to explain what these feelings are about. The present situation and options for improving the score of happiness are discussed. Full article

2021

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2022

8 pages, 496 KiB  
Entry
Interdisciplinary and Integrated STEM
by Premnadh Madhava Kurup, Yunying Yang, Xia Li and Yan Dong
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(4), 1192-1199; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1040090 - 11 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4715
Definition
Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) is an approach and movement in innovative educational practices from the primary level internationally. This would provide a platform for an inquiry approach, creativity, and innovation in young children and formulate a path for changes in existing [...] Read more.
Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) is an approach and movement in innovative educational practices from the primary level internationally. This would provide a platform for an inquiry approach, creativity, and innovation in young children and formulate a path for changes in existing practices. The STEM approach is widely accepted as a key educational practice; however, it is dealt with as a combination of disciplines in actual teaching and learning practice. Coherence in this interdisciplinarity and integration has yet to be evolved as a practice in synthesising and designing instruction and could be harbinger for an effective design for future practice. Integrated and interdisciplinary STEM can only generate powerful knowledge to deal with issues that are affecting the planet and bring abiotic and biotic equilibrium. Interdisciplinary and integrated powerful knowledge (IIPK) can act as a roadmap for innovation that can bring changes in existing practices, produce informed citizens, build capacity for informed decisions, and generate sustainable living practices. Interdisciplinary and integrated STEM could lay foundations for IIPK and generate a mindset, approach, and practice. IIPK could lead to the formation of new paths for energy generation, transport, agricultural practices, medical treatment, and clean environment. Interdisciplinary and integrated STEM is not seen in actual practice anywhere nowadays. For coherence in curriculum, implications in instructions need reform and development by the governments across the world. That could lead to a new policy for interdisciplinary and integrated STEM. Full article
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12 pages, 788 KiB  
Entry
Inward FDI: Characterizations and Evaluation
by Aneta Bobenič Hintošová
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(4), 1026-1037; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1040078 - 8 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 6807
Definition
Foreign direct investment can be defined as an investment made by an entity (usually a company) incorporated in a home country in the business interests of a host country, in the form of either establishing new business operations or acquiring controlling interest in [...] Read more.
Foreign direct investment can be defined as an investment made by an entity (usually a company) incorporated in a home country in the business interests of a host country, in the form of either establishing new business operations or acquiring controlling interest in existing business assets. Foreign direct investment is expected to meet the following characteristics: (1) the capital movement is typically accompanied by further technological, material, information, financial or personnel flows; (2) the foreign direct investor effectively controls facilities abroad; and (3) the investor has a long-term interest in the host country. Full article
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10 pages, 258 KiB  
Entry
Deep Meaningful Learning
by Stylianos Mystakidis
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 988-997; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030075 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 8681
Definition
Deep meaningful learning is the higher-order thinking and development through manifold active intellectual engagement aiming at meaning construction through pattern recognition and concept association. It includes inquiry, critical thinking, creative thinking, problem-solving, and metacognitive skills. It is a theory with a long academic [...] Read more.
Deep meaningful learning is the higher-order thinking and development through manifold active intellectual engagement aiming at meaning construction through pattern recognition and concept association. It includes inquiry, critical thinking, creative thinking, problem-solving, and metacognitive skills. It is a theory with a long academic record that can accommodate the demand for excellence in teaching and learning at all levels of education. Its achievement is verified through knowledge application in authentic contexts. Full article
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10 pages, 596 KiB  
Entry
The Barnett Critique
by William A. Barnett, Hyun Park and Sohee Park
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 964-973; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030073 - 13 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3325
Definition
The Barnett critique states that there is an internal inconsistency between the theory that is implied by simple sum monetary aggregation (perfect substitutability among components) and the economic theory that produces the models within which those aggregates are used. That inconsistency causes the [...] Read more.
The Barnett critique states that there is an internal inconsistency between the theory that is implied by simple sum monetary aggregation (perfect substitutability among components) and the economic theory that produces the models within which those aggregates are used. That inconsistency causes the appearance of unstable demand and supply for money. The incorrect inference of unstable money demand has caused serious harm to the field of monetary economics. Full article
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8 pages, 378 KiB  
Entry
Digital Literacy and Electronic Business
by Paul Grefen
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 934-941; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030071 - 7 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3520
Definition
Digital literacy is a term that traditionally describes the extent to which a person is able to use interactive digital devices for living and working, such as computers and smartphones, as well as services delivered through these devices. The advent of the digital [...] Read more.
Digital literacy is a term that traditionally describes the extent to which a person is able to use interactive digital devices for living and working, such as computers and smartphones, as well as services delivered through these devices. The advent of the digital society at large and electronic business, specifically in the past decades, has broadened the use of digital devices beyond the isolated uses of working and simple communication; this advent has created digital ecosystems in which workers and consumers are embedded to various degrees, such as social media platforms or integrated shopping and media platforms. This embedding implies that a traditional, narrow notion of digital literacy needs to be extended and made more precise. For this purpose, we use the related notions of digital dexterity, digital proficiency and digital awareness. The term digital dexterity describes the extent to which an individual can handle or operate digital devices or services from a physical perspective. The term digital proficiency describes the extent to which an individual can use digital means to effectively and efficiently facilitate their living and working. The term digital awareness describes the extent to which individuals can understand what their position in digital ecosystems is, including the opportunities and threats of participating in these ecosystems. Digital literacy in the modern, broad interpretation is then the combination of digital dexterity, digital proficiency and digital awareness. Full article
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19 pages, 1057 KiB  
Entry
The Capital Asset Pricing Model
by James Ming Chen
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 915-933; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030070 - 3 Sep 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 14461
Definition
The capital asset pricing model (CAPM) is an influential paradigm in financial risk management. It formalizes mean-variance optimization of a risky portfolio given the presence of a risk-free investment such as short-term government bonds. The CAPM defines the price of financial assets according [...] Read more.
The capital asset pricing model (CAPM) is an influential paradigm in financial risk management. It formalizes mean-variance optimization of a risky portfolio given the presence of a risk-free investment such as short-term government bonds. The CAPM defines the price of financial assets according to the premium demanded by investors for bearing excess risk. Full article
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9 pages, 259 KiB  
Entry
The New Sociology of Religion
by Roberto Cipriani
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 822-830; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030063 - 18 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3663
Definition
The new sociology of religion differs from the classical and mainstream sociology, which was in force until the end of the last century, in that it no longer considers religion only as an independent variable, but places it together with other dependent variables, [...] Read more.
The new sociology of religion differs from the classical and mainstream sociology, which was in force until the end of the last century, in that it no longer considers religion only as an independent variable, but places it together with other dependent variables, so that it becomes possible to investigate new themes, especially those that do not consider religious involvement—from atheism to the phenomenon of ‘nones’ (non-believers and non-practicing), from spirituality to forms of para-religions and quasi-religions and the varied set of multiple religions. Full article
9 pages, 1377 KiB  
Entry
Working Capital
by Grzegorz Zimon
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 764-772; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030058 - 6 Aug 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 5046
Definition
The simplest net working capital can be defined as the difference between the value of current assets and short-term liabilities together with other short-term accruals. It is equivalent to the part of the current assets financed with equity, provisions for liabilities, long-term liabilities, [...] Read more.
The simplest net working capital can be defined as the difference between the value of current assets and short-term liabilities together with other short-term accruals. It is equivalent to the part of the current assets financed with equity, provisions for liabilities, long-term liabilities, and the remaining part of accruals. Therefore, it is the capital that finances only that part of the current assets that are not financed with short-term liabilities. This amount is financed with fixed capital. Summing up, net working capital is the fixed capital that finances the company’s current assets. Full article
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8 pages, 509 KiB  
Entry
Non-Patent Literature
by Gema Velayos-Ortega and Rosana López-Carreño
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(1), 198-205; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1010019 - 12 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 8664
Definition
Non-patent literature is defined as scientific publications, technical standards, conference proceedings, clinical trials, books, manuals, technical or research reports, or any other technical scientific material which is cited in patents to show what has already been published and disseminated about the invention to [...] Read more.
Non-patent literature is defined as scientific publications, technical standards, conference proceedings, clinical trials, books, manuals, technical or research reports, or any other technical scientific material which is cited in patents to show what has already been published and disseminated about the invention to be patented, in order to justify its novelty. These documents are considered technically relevant to the patent granting procedure and are cited along with other patents related to the same subject matter. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: European Monetary Union

Authors: Ralf Fendel, Andre Schmidt

WHU - Otto Beisheim School of Management, Burgplatz 2, 56179 Vallendar, Germany

Title: Typology, Antecedents, and Consequences

Authors:  Amelia Stillwell                                                                                                             

Assistant Professor of Management at the David Eccles School of Business, University of Utah.

Title: Financial Integration in Preindustrial Europe
Authors: Pilar Nogues-Marco

Université de Genèvedisabled, Geneva, Switzerland

Title: Social and Economic Determinant of Well-being

Authors:  Valjean Livingston                                                                                                           

Norfolk State University, 700 Park Ave, Norfolk, VA 23504, USA

Title: The Subject of Codesign/Participatory Design

Authors:  Kimberley Gomez

                                                                                             

                                                                                                              

 

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