Encyclopedia of Engineering

A topical collection in Encyclopedia (ISSN 2673-8392). This collection belongs to the section "Engineering".

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Editors


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Collection Editor
Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering, University “La Sapienza”, Rome, Italy
Interests: continuum mechanics; structural stability; beam theory; damage modeling and identification; history of mechanics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Collection Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bialystok University of Technology, Wiejska 45C, 15-351 Bialystok, Poland
Interests: applied mathematics; linear and non-linear mechanics of composite structures at macro, micro, and nano scale; non-local continuum mechanics; smart materials and structures; composite materials
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Collection Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA
Interests: computational fluid dynamics (CFD); computational magnetohydrodynamics (MHD); electromagnetics; computational aeroacoustics; multidisciplinary design and optimization; rarefied gas dynamics and hypersonic flows, bio-fluid dynamics; flow and flight control
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Collection Editor
Department of Structures for Engineering and Architecture, University of Naples Federico II, 80125 Naples, Italy
Interests: continuum mechanics; nanostructures; nonlocal models
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

In ancient times, Engineering Science was considered to be an art and led civilization and innovation for the progress of humanity. Machines and structures have been designed and built up thanks to applications of technical methodologies conceived by engineers. Aerospace, chemical, civil, electrical, and mechanical disciplines are the main branches of Engineering which thereby signify it has, nowadays, reached the status of being a multidisciplinary science.

This book is intended to provide a first collection of entries falling within the following topics:

(1) History of Mechanics – Editor: Giuseppe Ruta

(2) Civil Engineering – Editor: Raffaele Barretta

(3) Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering – Editor: Ramesh Agarwal

(4) Nanoengineering – Editor: Krzysztof Kamil Zur

A second book of Encyclopedia will subsequently be announced to complement the topical collection of Engineering outlined above.

Prof. Dr. Raffaele Barretta
Prof. Dr. Ramesh Agarwal
Prof. Dr. Krzysztof Kamil Żur
Prof. Dr. Giuseppe Ruta
Collection Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Encyclopedia is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (37 papers)

2024

Jump to: 2023, 2022, 2021

15 pages, 2506 KiB  
Entry
Smart Factories for Mass Individualization
by Xi Gu and Yoram Koren
Encyclopedia 2024, 4(1), 415-429; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia4010028 - 26 Feb 2024
Viewed by 883
Definition
With the rise of individualism as a social trend and the wide use of the Internet and social media, today’s customers increasingly want to design and build unique products that fit their individual preferences and needs. Mass individualization is defined as a manufacturing [...] Read more.
With the rise of individualism as a social trend and the wide use of the Internet and social media, today’s customers increasingly want to design and build unique products that fit their individual preferences and needs. Mass individualization is defined as a manufacturing paradigm that aims to produce individualized products cost-effectively. This paradigm differs from the previous paradigms in which the manufacturing company designed and manufactured the products, and the customer chose a product. In the mass individualization paradigm, the customers will be actively involved in product design, and the manufacturer will produce a unique product for each customer at a reasonable cost and of reliable quality. Due to the need for smooth communication and interactions between the buyer and the factory, new factories for individualized products will be located near potential buyers, which will have a significant impact on local economies. This entry explores the relationship between mass individualization and other emerging manufacturing paradigms and concepts in the Industry 4.0/5.0 era, and discusses how smart factories can improve manufacturing efficiency and facilitate the realization of the mass individualization paradigm. Full article
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2023

Jump to: 2024, 2022, 2021

9 pages, 549 KiB  
Entry
The Infusion of Gamification in Promoting Chemical Engineering Laboratory Classes
by Jude A. Okolie and Patrick U. Okoye
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(3), 1058-1066; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3030077 - 31 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1623
Definition
Active learning strategies are increasingly implemented in chemical engineering education, yet challenges persist in stimulating student participation and motivation. The rigorous demands placed on students in this field, from complex practical requirements to extensive programming and computational skills, underscore the need for innovative [...] Read more.
Active learning strategies are increasingly implemented in chemical engineering education, yet challenges persist in stimulating student participation and motivation. The rigorous demands placed on students in this field, from complex practical requirements to extensive programming and computational skills, underscore the need for innovative educational tools. Gamification emerges as a pivotal instrument in this context, fostering active student engagement, enhancing practical application of knowledge, increasing motivation, and providing a more precise assessment of student comprehension. These educational games serve as a powerful adjunct to traditional teaching strategies, equipping students with necessary skills for their future careers in the field. These games include laboratory course games, process simulators, games used in foundational courses, and those centered around reaction kinetics. This entry primarily investigates the various games employed to bolster student learning during chemical engineering laboratory courses. A thorough analysis is conducted on the survey of existing games used specifically in chemical engineering labs. The gamut of games discussed includes escape games, along with Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) games, all aiming to enhance laboratory experiences in areas such as fluid mechanics, organic reactions, and process control. This entry concludes by examining the prospective trajectory of gamification in chemical engineering labs, offering insights into future potential and advancements in this innovative educational approach. Full article
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16 pages, 1178 KiB  
Entry
The Principle of Action and Reaction According to Newton
by Danilo Capecchi
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(2), 705-720; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3020051 - 8 Jun 2023
Viewed by 4038
Definition
The principle of action and reaction is generally considered the least problematic and interesting of Newton’s three laws of dynamics—least problematic because it seems self-evident, and least interesting because Newton’s mechanics of Principia essentially represents the dynamics of a mass point, while the [...] Read more.
The principle of action and reaction is generally considered the least problematic and interesting of Newton’s three laws of dynamics—least problematic because it seems self-evident, and least interesting because Newton’s mechanics of Principia essentially represents the dynamics of a mass point, while the principle of action and reaction is mainly important in the case of a set of bodies that interact with each other. However, reading Newton’s text is enough for the principle to appear equally problematic and interesting as the other two. This entry aims to justify this statement and to help clarify the meaning of the principle. Full article
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19 pages, 1831 KiB  
Review
Elevator Technology Improvements: A Snapshot
by Kheir Al-Kodmany
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(2), 530-548; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3020038 - 24 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 9831
Abstract
Efficient vertical transportation is vital to a skyscraper’s functional operation and the convenience and satisfaction of its tenants. This review complements the author’s previously published research by updating the readers on innovative hardware and software-based solutions. It lays out, organizes, and combines extensive [...] Read more.
Efficient vertical transportation is vital to a skyscraper’s functional operation and the convenience and satisfaction of its tenants. This review complements the author’s previously published research by updating the readers on innovative hardware and software-based solutions. It lays out, organizes, and combines extensive and scattered material on numerous aspects of elevator design in a straightforward and non-technical narrative. Rope-less elevators, the MULTI, artificial intelligence (AI), the Internet of Things (IoT), and extended reality technologies are some of the developments and advancements this article examines. The analysis also contextualizes current technical developments by reviewing how they are used in significant projects such as the One World Trade Center in New York City. Lastly, the paper examines innovative technologies, such as holographic elevator buttons and ultraviolet rays that disinfect elevators, in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
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32 pages, 1220 KiB  
Review
Nonlocal Elasticity for Nanostructures: A Review of Recent Achievements
by Raffaele Barretta, Francesco Marotti de Sciarra and Marzia Sara Vaccaro
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(1), 279-310; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3010018 - 27 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2334
Abstract
Recent developments in modeling and analysis of nanostructures are illustrated and discussed in this paper. Starting with the early theories of nonlocal elastic continua, a thorough investigation of continuum nano-mechanics is provided. Two-phase local/nonlocal models are shown as possible theories to recover consistency [...] Read more.
Recent developments in modeling and analysis of nanostructures are illustrated and discussed in this paper. Starting with the early theories of nonlocal elastic continua, a thorough investigation of continuum nano-mechanics is provided. Two-phase local/nonlocal models are shown as possible theories to recover consistency of the strain-driven purely integral theory, provided that the mixture parameter is not vanishing. Ground-breaking nonlocal methodologies based on the well-posed stress-driven formulation are shown and commented upon as effective strategies to capture scale-dependent mechanical behaviors. Static and dynamic problems of nanostructures are investigated, ranging from higher-order and curved nanobeams to nanoplates. Geometrically nonlinear problems of small-scale inflected structures undergoing large configuration changes are addressed in the framework of integral elasticity. Nonlocal methodologies for modeling and analysis of structural assemblages as well as of nanobeams laying on nanofoundations are illustrated along with benchmark applicative examples. Full article
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22 pages, 4915 KiB  
Entry
From Bioinspiration to Biomimicry in Architecture: Opportunities and Challenges
by Natasha Chayaamor-Heil
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(1), 202-223; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3010014 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 7675
Definition
The term “bioinspiration” defines a creative approach based on the observation of biological principles and transfer to design. Biomimicry is the recent approach, which describes a large field of scientific and technical activities dealing with an interdisciplinary cooperation between biology and other fields [...] Read more.
The term “bioinspiration” defines a creative approach based on the observation of biological principles and transfer to design. Biomimicry is the recent approach, which describes a large field of scientific and technical activities dealing with an interdisciplinary cooperation between biology and other fields with the goal of solving practical problems addressing innovation or sustainable development. Architecture has been influenced by many aspects of natural and social sciences, among these, biology is currently blending into design activities. Bioinspiration has evolved and shifted architectural practices towards numerous innovative approaches through different bioarchitectural movements from the past until the present. However, there is a blur of biomimicry within bioinspiration in architecture between the direct copy of mere natural forms and the true understanding of biological principles, which is the pivot of sustainable development. The main challenge remains in the gap between the profound knowledge of biology, its related scientific fields and the creative process of architectural design, including cross-disciplinary collaboration between architects and biologists. This entry presents main bioarchitectural movements and how it leads to today’s biomimicry. It proposes to define biomimicry methodologies and how this approach applies to architectural design contexts through the study of existing case studies. The opportunities, challenges and the future outlook of the field will also be discussed. Full article
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21 pages, 6223 KiB  
Entry
Challenges in Sewer System Maintenance
by Dino Obradović, Marija Šperac and Saša Marenjak
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(1), 122-142; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3010010 - 17 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 5176
Definition
A sewer system is an important infrastructure of every settlement. A sewer system is a set of construction facilities used for the quick removal of wastewater from the humans’ immediate environment and its transport to a wastewater treatment plant or direct discharge into [...] Read more.
A sewer system is an important infrastructure of every settlement. A sewer system is a set of construction facilities used for the quick removal of wastewater from the humans’ immediate environment and its transport to a wastewater treatment plant or direct discharge into an appropriate recipient. In order for the sewer system to perform its purpose properly, its proper maintenance is required. Maintenance of a sewer system is very demanding since the system is mostly underground which makes it difficult to be accessed and maintained. The maintenance of a sewer system can be preventive (regular) or corrective (reactive). The regular maintenance occurs at certain intervals, whereas the reactive maintenance occurs in the case of some unforeseen event. This paper presents the history of sewer systems, as well as basic and alternative types of sewer systems. Furthermore, challenges that arise during sewer system maintenance and difficulties that maintenance employees face in their work are presented in this paper, as well as the ways in which sewer systems are maintained. Full article
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2022

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2021

15 pages, 1109 KiB  
Entry
Road Markings and Signs in Road Safety
by Darko Babić, Dario Babić, Mario Fiolic and Marija Ferko
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(4), 1738-1752; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2040119 - 12 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 14531
Definition
Due to the dynamic nature and complexity of road traffic, road safety is one of the most demanding social challenges. Therefore, contemporary road safety strategies incorporate a multidisciplinary and comprehensive approaches to address this problem and improve the safety of each individual element, [...] Read more.
Due to the dynamic nature and complexity of road traffic, road safety is one of the most demanding social challenges. Therefore, contemporary road safety strategies incorporate a multidisciplinary and comprehensive approaches to address this problem and improve the safety of each individual element, i.e., the human, vehicle, and road. Traffic control devices are an important part of road infrastructure, among which road markings and road signs play a significant role. In general, road markings and signs represent basic means of communication between the road authorities and road users and, as such, provide road users with necessary information about the rules, warnings, obligations, and other information related to the upcoming situations and road alignment. The aim of this entry is to briefly present the main functions and characteristics of road markings and signs, and their role in road safety. In addition, practical issues and future trends and directions regarding road markings and signs are discussed. Full article
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21 pages, 12603 KiB  
Entry
Solar Architecture in Energy Engineering
by Alexandre Pavlovski
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1432-1452; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030097 - 9 Aug 2022
Viewed by 2856
Definition
Solar Architecture represents the confluence of the two disciplines of energy engineering and architecture. The concept of Solar Architecture defines a decision-making process to select, design, deploy, and operate solar energy-enabled solutions for environments where solar energy resources are part of the energy [...] Read more.
Solar Architecture represents the confluence of the two disciplines of energy engineering and architecture. The concept of Solar Architecture defines a decision-making process to select, design, deploy, and operate solar energy-enabled solutions for environments where solar energy resources are part of the energy mix. The principles of Solar Architecture include maximizing solar energy harvesting from solution’s surfaces with a positive balance of energy, carbon, and cost provided by the solution. Solar Architecture application selection is built on two major cornerstones, features and groups, defining the best options in energy engineering of a solar solution. Solar surfaces are key to solar architecture. They are the “heart”, and balance-of-system components are the “muscles” of solar solutions. Addressing energy losses in photovoltaic, solar to thermal, and solar to chemical energy conversion allows for increasing energy harvesting yield. Life Cycle Assessment and solar energy harvesting methodologies based on solar surface characteristics define Solar Architecture Balance. This balance allows for defining energy, carbon, and cost return on investment for solar solutions and selecting the best solution for related assets/environment. Full article
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11 pages, 249 KiB  
Entry
Mechanics and Natural Philosophy in History
by Danilo Capecchi and Giuseppe Ruta
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1333-1343; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030089 - 11 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1692
Definition
This entry presents a historical view of the meaning attributed to the terms mechanics and natural philosophy, from a hint to ancient Greece, the Middle Ages, and the Renaissance to a special focus on the 18th Century, which represents a turning point for [...] Read more.
This entry presents a historical view of the meaning attributed to the terms mechanics and natural philosophy, from a hint to ancient Greece, the Middle Ages, and the Renaissance to a special focus on the 18th Century, which represents a turning point for the development of modern physics and science in general. Since we are not concerned with the summation of the histories of natural philosophy and mechanics, but only with their interrelations, this makes a detailed description of the two disciplines unnecessary. Full article
27 pages, 9623 KiB  
Entry
Structural Systems for Tall Buildings
by Mir M. Ali and Kheir Al-Kodmany
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1260-1286; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030085 - 5 Jul 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 18764
Definition
Structural systems for tall buildings have gone through an evolutionary process. The rigid frame became popular in the first half of the 20th century but proved to be structurally inefficient beyond a certain height of tall buildings. The invention of the tubular structure [...] Read more.
Structural systems for tall buildings have gone through an evolutionary process. The rigid frame became popular in the first half of the 20th century but proved to be structurally inefficient beyond a certain height of tall buildings. The invention of the tubular structure in the 1960s allowed buildings to be built taller with low material consumption. Due to the obstructive nature of the closely spaced exterior columns of framed tubes and bracings of braced tubes, the core-outrigger system gained acceptance by the architects as it allowed them to freely articulate the façade design. However, the conventional tubular structures continued to retain their use for tall buildings to a lesser degree and later underwent a resurgence in modified forms. These and other advanced tubular forms in cutting-edge structural systems developed later continue to find application in modern times. This study presents a detailed narrative of different structural systems for tall buildings that is expected to assist structural engineers and architects to collaboratively select appropriate structural systems for tall buildings. Full article
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13 pages, 1368 KiB  
Entry
The Role of GNSS-RTN in Transportation Applications
by Sajid Raza, Ahmed Al-Kaisy, Rafael Teixeira and Benjamin Meyer
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(3), 1237-1249; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2030083 - 4 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 6825
Definition
The Global Navigation Satellite System—Real-Time Network (GNSS-RTN) is a satellite-based positioning system using a network of ground receivers (also called continuously operating reference stations (CORSs)) and a central processing center that provides highly accurate location services to the users in real-time over a [...] Read more.
The Global Navigation Satellite System—Real-Time Network (GNSS-RTN) is a satellite-based positioning system using a network of ground receivers (also called continuously operating reference stations (CORSs)) and a central processing center that provides highly accurate location services to the users in real-time over a broader geographic region. Such systems can provide geospatial location data with centimeter-level accuracy anywhere within the network. Geospatial location services are not only used in measuring ground distances and mapping topography; they have also become vital in many other fields such as aerospace, aviation, natural disaster management, and agriculture, to name but a few. The innovative and multi-disciplinary applications of geospatial data drive technological advancement towards precise and accurate location services available in real-time. Although GNSS-RTN technology is currently utilized in a few industries such as precision farming, construction industry, and land surveying, the implications of precise real-time location services would be far-reaching and more critical to many advanced transportation applications. The GNSS-RTN technology is promising in meeting the needs of automation in most advanced transportation applications. This article presents an overview of the GNSS-RTN technology, its current applications in transportation-related fields, and a perspective on the future use of this technology in advanced transportation applications. Full article
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15 pages, 1209 KiB  
Entry
Characteristics, Impacts and Trends of Urban Transportation
by Yuan Gao and Jiaxing Zhu
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(2), 1168-1182; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2020078 - 15 Jun 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 6994
Definition
Economic growth, urban development and the prosperity of the automobile industry have driven a huge shift in global urban transportation from walking to public transportation and then to automobiles. Private mobility has become an important part of residents’ daily trips. Cities, especially automobile-dependent [...] Read more.
Economic growth, urban development and the prosperity of the automobile industry have driven a huge shift in global urban transportation from walking to public transportation and then to automobiles. Private mobility has become an important part of residents’ daily trips. Cities, especially automobile-dependent cities, face a variety of negative impacts such as increased commuting distances, higher congestion costs, traffic accidents, traffic pollution including climate change, etc. Therefore, how to balance the relationship between people’s growing demand for private motorization with the development of urbanization, modernization and motorization and the huge economic, social and environmental costs brought about by them, so as to realize the sustainable development of cities and transportation, is the main problem facing cities around the world. The entry focuses on trends in the sustainable development of urban transportation such as restrictions in private car ownership and use, electrification of urban transportation, intelligent transportation systems (including shared mobility, customized buses and Mobility as a Service/MaaS) and transit-oriented development (TOD). China, as the largest global automobile producer and consumer, represents and leads the growth and evolution of other emerging countries. Full article
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23 pages, 2121 KiB  
Entry
Numerical Solution of Desiccation Cracks in Clayey Soils
by Hector U. Levatti
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(2), 1036-1058; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2020068 - 24 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1848
Definition
This entry presents the theoretical fundamentals, the mathematical formulation, and the numerical solution for the problem of desiccation cracks in clayey soils. The formulation uses two stress state variables (total stress and suction) and results in a non-symmetric and nonlinear system of transient [...] Read more.
This entry presents the theoretical fundamentals, the mathematical formulation, and the numerical solution for the problem of desiccation cracks in clayey soils. The formulation uses two stress state variables (total stress and suction) and results in a non-symmetric and nonlinear system of transient partial differential equations. A release node algorithm technique is proposed to simulate cracking, and the strategy to implement it in the hydromechanical framework is explained in detail. This general framework was validated with experimental results, and several numerical examples were published at international conferences and in journal papers. Full article
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7 pages, 498 KiB  
Entry
Two-Lane Highways: Indispensable Rural Mobility
by Ahmed Al-Kaisy
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 625-631; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2010042 - 15 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 11951
Definition
Two-lane highways refer to roadways consisting of two lanes in the cross section, one for each direction of travel. Occasionally, passing lanes may be added to one or two sides of the roadway extending the cross section to three or four lanes at [...] Read more.
Two-lane highways refer to roadways consisting of two lanes in the cross section, one for each direction of travel. Occasionally, passing lanes may be added to one or two sides of the roadway extending the cross section to three or four lanes at those locations. In this entry, two-lane highways strictly refer to roads in rural areas meeting the previous definition and do not include urban and suburban streets. Full article
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13 pages, 7670 KiB  
Entry
Reinforced Concrete Infilled Frames
by Matteo Bagnoli, Ernesto Grande and Gabriele Milani
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 473-485; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2010030 - 9 Feb 2022
Viewed by 2855
Definition
Masonry-Infilled Reinforced Concrete Frames are a very widespread structural typology all over the world for civil, strategic or productive uses. The damages due to these masonry panels can be life threatening to humans and can severely impact economic losses, as shown during past [...] Read more.
Masonry-Infilled Reinforced Concrete Frames are a very widespread structural typology all over the world for civil, strategic or productive uses. The damages due to these masonry panels can be life threatening to humans and can severely impact economic losses, as shown during past earthquakes. In fact, during a seismic event, most victims are caused by the collapse of buildings or due to nonstructural elements. The damage caused by an earthquake on nonstructural elements, i.e., those not belonging to the actual structural body of the building, is important for the purposes of a more general description of the effects and, of course, for economic estimates. In fact, after an earthquake, albeit of a low entity, it is very frequent to find even widespread damages of nonstructural elements causing major inconveniences even if the primary structure has reported minor damages. In recent years, many territories have been hit worldwide by strong seismic sequences, which caused widespread damages to the nonstructural elements and in particular to the masonry internal partitions and the masonry infill panels of the buildings in reinforced concrete, with damage to the floor and out-of-plane expulsions/collapses of single layers. Unfortunately, these critical issues have arisen not only in historic, but also in recent buildings with reinforced concrete, in many cases exhibiting inadequate seismic behavior, only partly attributable to the intrinsic vulnerability of the masonry panels against seismic actions. Such problems are due to the following aspects: lack of attention to construction details in the realization of the construction, use of poor-quality materials, and above all lack of design tools for the infill masonry walls. In 2018, regarding the design of nonstructural elements, the formulation of floor spectra has been recently introduced in Italy. This entry article wants to focus on all these aspects, describing the state of the art, the literature studies and the design problems to be solved. Full article
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13 pages, 957 KiB  
Entry
Substance Release from Polyelectrolyte Microcapsules
by Egor V. Musin, Aleksandr L. Kim and Sergey A. Tikhonenko
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 428-440; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2010026 - 4 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2096
Definition
Controlled release of substance from polyelectrolyte microcapsules is a triggered degradation of the microcapsule membrane that is extensive enough to release the contained substances out into the environment. Membrane degradation can be a result of enzymatic digestion, ultrasound or light exposure, heating, application [...] Read more.
Controlled release of substance from polyelectrolyte microcapsules is a triggered degradation of the microcapsule membrane that is extensive enough to release the contained substances out into the environment. Membrane degradation can be a result of enzymatic digestion, ultrasound or light exposure, heating, application of a magnetic field, pH or ionic strength changes in the solution or bacteria-mediated processes. This technology can be used for the targeted release of drugs, and for the development of self-healing materials and new generation pesticides. Full article
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17 pages, 16134 KiB  
Entry
Tsunami Alert Efficiency
by Amir Yahav and Amos Salamon
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 383-399; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2010023 - 1 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3376
Definition
“Tsunami Alert Efficiency” is the rapid, accurate and reliable conduct of tsunami warning messaging, from the detection of potential tsunamigenic earthquakes to dissemination to all people under threat, and the successful survival of every person at risk on the basis of prior awareness [...] Read more.
“Tsunami Alert Efficiency” is the rapid, accurate and reliable conduct of tsunami warning messaging, from the detection of potential tsunamigenic earthquakes to dissemination to all people under threat, and the successful survival of every person at risk on the basis of prior awareness and preparedness. Full article
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24 pages, 2548 KiB  
Entry
Energy Storage Flywheel Rotors—Mechanical Design
by Miles Skinner and Pierre Mertiny
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 301-324; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2010019 - 28 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 7890
Definition
Energy storage flywheel systems are mechanical devices that typically utilize an electrical machine (motor/generator unit) to convert electrical energy in mechanical energy and vice versa. Energy is stored in a fast-rotating mass known as the flywheel rotor. The rotor is subject to high [...] Read more.
Energy storage flywheel systems are mechanical devices that typically utilize an electrical machine (motor/generator unit) to convert electrical energy in mechanical energy and vice versa. Energy is stored in a fast-rotating mass known as the flywheel rotor. The rotor is subject to high centripetal forces requiring careful design, analysis, and fabrication to ensure the safe operation of the storage device. Full article
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11 pages, 1322 KiB  
Entry
Mechanics and Mathematics in Ancient Greece
by Danilo Capecchi and Giuseppe Ruta
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 140-150; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2010010 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3172
Definition
This entry presents an overview on how mechanics in Greece was linked to geometry. In ancient Greece, mechanics was about lifting heavy bodies, and mathematics almost coincided with geometry. Mathematics interconnected with mechanics at least from the 5th century BCE and became dominant [...] Read more.
This entry presents an overview on how mechanics in Greece was linked to geometry. In ancient Greece, mechanics was about lifting heavy bodies, and mathematics almost coincided with geometry. Mathematics interconnected with mechanics at least from the 5th century BCE and became dominant in the Hellenistic period. The contributions by thinkers such as Aristotle, Euclid, and Archytas on fundamental problems such as that of the lever are sketched. This entry can be the starting point for a deeper investigation on the connections of the two disciplines through the ages until our present day. Full article
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26 pages, 7610 KiB  
Entry
Prefabricated Building Systems—Design and Construction
by Tharaka Gunawardena and Priyan Mendis
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 70-95; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2010006 - 6 Jan 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 22926
Definition
Modern Methods of Construction with Offsite Manufacturing is an advancement from prefabricated technologies that existed for decades in the construction industry, and is a platform to integrate various disciplines into providing a more holistic solution. Due to the rapid speed of construction, reduced [...] Read more.
Modern Methods of Construction with Offsite Manufacturing is an advancement from prefabricated technologies that existed for decades in the construction industry, and is a platform to integrate various disciplines into providing a more holistic solution. Due to the rapid speed of construction, reduced requirement of labour and minimised work on site, offsite manufacturing and prefabricated building systems are becoming more popular, and perhaps a necessity for the future of the global construction industry. The approach to the design and construction of prefab building systems demands a thorough understanding of their unique characteristics. Full article
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14 pages, 2142 KiB  
Entry
Aircraft Icing Severity Evaluation
by Sibo Li and Roberto Paoli
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 56-69; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2010005 - 6 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2699
Definition
Aircraft icing refers to the ice buildup on the surface of an aircraft flying in icing conditions. The ice accretion on the aircraft alters the original aerodynamic configuration and degrades the aerodynamic performances and may lead to unsafe flight conditions. Evaluating the flow [...] Read more.
Aircraft icing refers to the ice buildup on the surface of an aircraft flying in icing conditions. The ice accretion on the aircraft alters the original aerodynamic configuration and degrades the aerodynamic performances and may lead to unsafe flight conditions. Evaluating the flow structure, icing mechanism and consequences is of great importance to the development of an anti/deicing technique. Studies have shown computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and machine learning (ML) to be effective in predicting the ice shape and icing severity under different flight conditions. CFD solves a set of partial differential equations to obtain the air flow fields, water droplets trajectories and ice shape. ML is a branch of artificial intelligence and, based on the data, the self-improved computer algorithms can be effective in finding the nonlinear mapping relationship between the input flight conditions and the output aircraft icing severity features. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2022

20 pages, 2946 KiB  
Entry
Opportunities for Catalytic Reactions and Materials in Buildings
by Praveen Cheekatamarla
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(1), 36-55; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2010004 - 28 Dec 2021
Viewed by 2532
Definition
Residential and commercial buildings are responsible for over 30% of global final energy consumption and accounts for ~40% of annual direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions. Energy efficient and sustainable technologies are necessary to not only lower the energy footprint but also lower [...] Read more.
Residential and commercial buildings are responsible for over 30% of global final energy consumption and accounts for ~40% of annual direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions. Energy efficient and sustainable technologies are necessary to not only lower the energy footprint but also lower the environmental burden. Many proven and emerging technologies are being pursued to meet the ever-increasing energy demand. Catalytic science has a significant new role to play in helping address sustainable energy challenges, particularly in buildings, compared to transportation and industrial sectors. Thermally driven heat pumps, dehumidification, cogeneration, thermal energy storage, carbon capture and utilization, emissions suppression, waste-to-energy conversion, and corrosion prevention technologies can tap into the advantages of catalytic science in realizing the full potential of such approaches, quickly, efficiently, and reliably. Catalysts can help increase energy conversion efficiency in building related technologies but must utilize low cost, easily available and easy-to-manufacture materials for large scale deployment. This entry presents a comprehensive overview of the impact of each building technology area on energy demand and environmental burden, state-of-the-art of catalytic solutions, research, and development opportunities for catalysis in building technologies, while identifying requirements, opportunities, and challenges. Full article
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11 pages, 1140 KiB  
Entry
Ionospheric Remote Sensing with GNSS
by YuXiang Peng and Wayne A. Scales
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(4), 1246-1256; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1040094 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 4161
Definition
The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) plays a pivotal role in our modern positioning, navigation and timing (PNT) technologies. GNSS satellites fly at altitudes of approximately 20,000 km or higher. This altitude is above an ionized layer of the Earth’s upper atmosphere, the [...] Read more.
The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) plays a pivotal role in our modern positioning, navigation and timing (PNT) technologies. GNSS satellites fly at altitudes of approximately 20,000 km or higher. This altitude is above an ionized layer of the Earth’s upper atmosphere, the so called “ionosphere”. Before reaching a typical GNSS receiver on the ground, GNSS satellite signals penetrate through the Earth’s ionosphere. The ionosphere is a plasma medium consisting of free charged particles that can slow down, attenuate, refract, or scatter the GNSS signals. Ionospheric density structures (also known as irregularities) can cause GNSS signal scintillations (phase and intensity fluctuations). These ionospheric impacts on GNSS signals can be utilized to observe and study physical processes in the ionosphere and is referred to ionospheric remote sensing. This entry introduces some fundamentals of ionospheric remote sensing using GNSS. Full article
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31 pages, 5615 KiB  
Entry
Natural Disasters—Origins, Impacts, Management
by Muhammad T. Chaudhary and Awais Piracha
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(4), 1101-1131; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1040084 - 30 Oct 2021
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 63541
Definition
Natural hazards are processes that serve as triggers for natural disasters. Natural hazards can be classified into six categories. Geophysical or geological hazards relate to movement in solid earth. Their examples include earthquakes and volcanic activity. Hydrological hazards relate to the movement of [...] Read more.
Natural hazards are processes that serve as triggers for natural disasters. Natural hazards can be classified into six categories. Geophysical or geological hazards relate to movement in solid earth. Their examples include earthquakes and volcanic activity. Hydrological hazards relate to the movement of water and include floods, landslides, and wave action. Meteorological hazards are storms, extreme temperatures, and fog. Climatological hazards are increasingly related to climate change and include droughts and wildfires. Biological hazards are caused by exposure to living organisms and/or their toxic substances. The COVID-19 virus is an example of a biological hazard. Extraterrestrial hazards are caused by asteroids, meteoroids, and comets as they pass near earth or strike earth. In addition to local damage, they can change earth inter planetary conditions that can affect the Earth’s magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere. This entry presents an overview of origins, impacts, and management of natural disasters. It describes processes that have potential to cause natural disasters. It outlines a brief history of impacts of natural hazards on the human built environment and the common techniques adopted for natural disaster preparedness. It also lays out challenges in dealing with disasters caused by natural hazards and points to new directions in warding off the adverse impact of such disasters. Full article
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8 pages, 1514 KiB  
Entry
Silicon Micro-Strip Detectors
by Gregorio Landi and Giovanni E. Landi
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(4), 1076-1083; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1040082 - 25 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3098
Definition
Silicon micro-strip detectors are fundamental tools for the high energy physics. Each detector is formed by a large set of parallel narrow strips of special surface treatments (diode junctions) on a slab of very high quality silicon crystals. Their development and use required [...] Read more.
Silicon micro-strip detectors are fundamental tools for the high energy physics. Each detector is formed by a large set of parallel narrow strips of special surface treatments (diode junctions) on a slab of very high quality silicon crystals. Their development and use required a large amount of work and research. A very synthetic view is given of these important components and of their applications. Some details are devoted to the basic subject of the track reconstruction in silicon strip trackers. Recent demonstrations substantially modified the usual understanding of this argument. Full article
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12 pages, 1909 KiB  
Entry
Low-Pressure Turbine Cooling Systems
by Krzysztof Marzec
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 893-904; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030068 - 31 Aug 2021
Viewed by 3099
Definition
Modern low-pressure turbine engines are equipped with casings impingement cooling systems. Those systems (called Active Clearance Control) are composed of an array of air nozzles, which are directed to strike turbine casing to absorb generated heat. As a result, the casing starts to [...] Read more.
Modern low-pressure turbine engines are equipped with casings impingement cooling systems. Those systems (called Active Clearance Control) are composed of an array of air nozzles, which are directed to strike turbine casing to absorb generated heat. As a result, the casing starts to shrink, reducing the radial gap between the sealing and rotating tip of the blade. Cooling air is delivered to the nozzles through distribution channels and collector boxes, which are connected to the main air supply duct. The application of low-pressure turbine cooling systems increases its efficiency and reduces engine fuel consumption. Full article
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12 pages, 4229 KiB  
Entry
Automobile Tires’ High-Carbon Steel Wire
by Marina Polyakova and Alexey Stolyarov
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 859-870; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030066 - 24 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 5779
Definition
It is a well-known fact that to manufacture an automobile tire more than 200 different materials are used, including high-carbon steel wire. In order to withstand the affecting forces, the tire tread is reinforced with steel wire or other products such as ropes [...] Read more.
It is a well-known fact that to manufacture an automobile tire more than 200 different materials are used, including high-carbon steel wire. In order to withstand the affecting forces, the tire tread is reinforced with steel wire or other products such as ropes or strands. These ropes are called steel cord. Steel cord can be of different constructions. To ensure a good adhesive bond between the rubber of the tire and the steel cord, the cord is either brass-plated or bronzed. The reason brass or bronze is used is because copper, which is a part of these alloys, makes a high-strength chemical composition with sulfur in rubber. For steel cord, the high carbon steel is usually used at 0.70–0.95% C. This amount of carbon ensures the high strength of the steel cord. This kind of high-quality, unalloyed steel has a pearlitic structure which is designed for multi-pass drawing. To ensure the specified technical characteristics, modern metal reinforcing materials for automobile tires, metal cord and bead wire, must withstand, first of all, a high breaking load with a minimum running meter weight. At present, reinforcing materials of the strength range 2800–3200 MPa are increasingly used, the manufacture of which requires high-strength wire. The production of such wire requires the use of a workpiece with high carbon content, changing the drawing regimes, patenting, and other operations. At the same time, it is necessary to achieve a reduction in the cost of wire manufacturing. In this context, the development and implementation of competitive processes for the manufacture of high-quality, high-strength wire as a reinforcing material for automobile tires is an urgent task. Full article
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20 pages, 1134 KiB  
Entry
Knowledge Integration in Smart Factories
by Johannes Zenkert, Christian Weber, Mareike Dornhöfer, Hasan Abu-Rasheed and Madjid Fathi
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 792-811; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030061 - 16 Aug 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3790
Definition
Knowledge integration is well explained by the human–organization–technology (HOT) approach known from knowledge management. This approach contains the horizontal and vertical interaction and communication between employees, human-to-machine, but also machine-to-machine. Different organizational structures and processes are supported with the help of appropriate technologies [...] Read more.
Knowledge integration is well explained by the human–organization–technology (HOT) approach known from knowledge management. This approach contains the horizontal and vertical interaction and communication between employees, human-to-machine, but also machine-to-machine. Different organizational structures and processes are supported with the help of appropriate technologies and suitable data processing and integration techniques. In a Smart Factory, manufacturing systems act largely autonomously on the basis of continuously collected data. The technical design concerns the networking of machines, their connectivity and the interaction between human and machine as well as machine-to-machine. Within a Smart Factory, machines can be considered as intelligent manufacturing systems. Such manufacturing systems can autonomously adapt to events through the ability to intelligently analyze data and act as adaptive manufacturing systems that consider changes in production, the supply chain and customer requirements. Inter-connected physical devices, sensors, actuators, and controllers form the building block of the Smart Factory, which is called the Internet of Things (IoT). IoT uses different data processing solutions, such as cloud computing, fog computing, or edge computing, to fuse and process data. This is accomplished in an integrated and cross-device manner. Full article
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24 pages, 6696 KiB  
Entry
Geometric Design of Suburban Roundabouts
by Saša Ahac and Vesna Dragčević
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 720-743; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030056 - 5 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 10874
Definition
A modern roundabout is an intersection with a circulatory roadway at which the vehicle speed is low, and the traffic is continuous and circulating in one direction around the central island towards the exits at the approach legs. Modern roundabout design is an [...] Read more.
A modern roundabout is an intersection with a circulatory roadway at which the vehicle speed is low, and the traffic is continuous and circulating in one direction around the central island towards the exits at the approach legs. Modern roundabout design is an iterative process that is composed of the following steps: (1) the identification of the roundabout as the optimal traffic solution; (2) the definition of the number of lanes at the intersection based on the required capacity and the level of service; (3) the initial design of the roundabout geometry; (4) design vehicle swept path, the fastest path analysis, and visibility performance checks; and (5) detailed roundabout design if the results of the performance checks are in line with the design recommendations. Initial roundabout geometry design elements are not independent of each other; therefore, care must be taken to provide compatibility between them. An overview and a comparative analysis of the initial geometric design elements for suburban single-lane roundabouts defined in roundabout design guidelines and norms used in Croatia, Austria, France, the Netherlands, Germany, Serbia, and Switzerland is given in this entry. Full article
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24 pages, 10038 KiB  
Entry
High-Speed Railway
by Inara Watson
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 665-688; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030053 - 27 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 7470
Definition
Union Internationale des Chemins (UIC) defines the high-speed railway (HSR) as a high-speed railway system that contains the infrastructure and the rolling stock. The infrastructure can be newly built dedicated lines enabled for trains to travel with speed above 250 km/h or upgraded [...] Read more.
Union Internationale des Chemins (UIC) defines the high-speed railway (HSR) as a high-speed railway system that contains the infrastructure and the rolling stock. The infrastructure can be newly built dedicated lines enabled for trains to travel with speed above 250 km/h or upgraded conventional lines with a speed up to 200 or even 220 km/h. HSR requires specially built trains with increased power to weight ratio and must have an in-cab signalling system as traditional signalling systems are incapable of above 200 km/h. Full article
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33 pages, 3307 KiB  
Entry
Novel Bioactive Extraction and Nano-Encapsulation
by Shaba Noore, Navin Kumar Rastogi, Colm O’Donnell and Brijesh Tiwari
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 632-664; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030052 - 26 Jul 2021
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 5621
Definition
An extraction technology works on the principle of two consecutive steps that involves mixture of solute with solvent and the movement of soluble compounds from the cell into the solvent and its consequent diffusion and extraction. The conventional extraction techniques are mostly based [...] Read more.
An extraction technology works on the principle of two consecutive steps that involves mixture of solute with solvent and the movement of soluble compounds from the cell into the solvent and its consequent diffusion and extraction. The conventional extraction techniques are mostly based on the use of mild/high temperatures (50–90 °C) that can cause thermal degradation, are dependent on the mass transfer rate, being reflected on long extraction times, high costs, low extraction efficiency, with consequent low extraction yields. Due to these disadvantages, it is of interest to develop non-thermal extraction methods, such as microwave, ultrasounds, supercritical fluids (mostly using carbon dioxide, SC-CO2), and high hydrostatic pressure-assisted extractions which works on the phenomena of minimum heat exposure with reduced processing time, thereby minimizing the loss of bioactive compounds during extraction. Further, to improve the stability of these extracted compounds, nano-encapsulation is required. Nano-encapsulation is a process which forms a thin layer of protection against environmental degradation and retains the nutritional and functional qualities of bioactive compounds in nano-scale level capsules by employing fats, starches, dextrins, alginates, protein and lipid materials as encapsulation materials. Full article
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14 pages, 1207 KiB  
Entry
Challenges for Nanotechnology
by Johann Michael Köhler
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 618-631; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030051 - 25 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 5144
Definition
The term “Nanotechnology” describes a large field of scientific and technical activities dealing with objects and technical components with small dimensions. Typically, bodies that are in–at least–two dimensions smaller than 0.1 µm are regarded as “nanobjects”. By this definition, a lot of advanced [...] Read more.
The term “Nanotechnology” describes a large field of scientific and technical activities dealing with objects and technical components with small dimensions. Typically, bodies that are in–at least–two dimensions smaller than 0.1 µm are regarded as “nanobjects”. By this definition, a lot of advanced materials, as well as the advanced electronic devices, are objects of nanotechnology. In addition, many aspects of molecular biotechnology as well as macromolecular and supermolecular chemistry and nanoparticle techniques are summarized under “nanotechnology”. Despite this size-oriented definition, nanotechnology is dealing with physics and chemistry as well as with the realization of technical functions in the area between very small bodies and single particles and molecules. This includes the shift from classical physics into the quantum world of small molecules and low numbers or single elementary particles. Besides the already established fields of nanotechnology, there is a big expectation about technical progress and solution to essential economic, medical, and ecological problems by means of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology can only meet these expectations if fundamental progress behind the recent state of the art can be achieved. Therefore, very important challenges for nanotechnology are discussed here. Full article
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13 pages, 985 KiB  
Entry
Machine Learning for Additive Manufacturing
by Dean Grierson, Allan E. W. Rennie and Stephen D. Quayle
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 576-588; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030048 - 19 Jul 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 5625
Definition
Additive manufacturing (AM) is the name given to a family of manufacturing processes where materials are joined to make parts from 3D modelling data, generally in a layer-upon-layer manner. AM is rapidly increasing in industrial adoption for the manufacture of end-use parts, which [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing (AM) is the name given to a family of manufacturing processes where materials are joined to make parts from 3D modelling data, generally in a layer-upon-layer manner. AM is rapidly increasing in industrial adoption for the manufacture of end-use parts, which is therefore pushing for the maturation of design, process, and production techniques. Machine learning (ML) is a branch of artificial intelligence concerned with training programs to self-improve and has applications in a wide range of areas, such as computer vision, prediction, and information retrieval. Many of the problems facing AM can be categorised into one or more of these application areas. Studies have shown ML techniques to be effective in improving AM design, process, and production but there are limited industrial case studies to support further development of these techniques. Full article
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15 pages, 3097 KiB  
Entry
Metal Nanoparticles as Free-Floating Electrodes
by Johann Michael Köhler, Jonas Jakobus Kluitmann and Peter Mike Günther
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(3), 551-565; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1030046 - 12 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2407
Definition
Colloidal metal nanoparticles in an electrolyte environment are not only electrically charged but also electrochemically active objects. They have the typical character of metal electrodes with ongoing charge transfer processes on the metal/liquid interface. This picture is valid for the equilibrium state and [...] Read more.
Colloidal metal nanoparticles in an electrolyte environment are not only electrically charged but also electrochemically active objects. They have the typical character of metal electrodes with ongoing charge transfer processes on the metal/liquid interface. This picture is valid for the equilibrium state and also during the formation, growth, aggregation or dissolution of nanoparticles. This behavior can be understood in analogy to macroscopic mixed-electrode systems with a free-floating potential, which is determined by the competition between anodic and cathodic partial processes. In contrast to macroscopic electrodes, the small size of nanoparticles is responsible for significant effects of low numbers of elementary charges and for self-polarization effects as they are known from molecular systems, for example. The electrical properties of nanoparticles can be estimated by basic electrochemical equations. Reconsidering these fundamentals, the assembly behavior, the formation of nonspherical assemblies of nanoparticles and the growth and the corrosion behavior of metal nanoparticles, as well as the formation of core/shell particles, branched structures and particle networks, can be understood. The consequences of electrochemical behavior, charging and self-polarization for particle growth, shape formation and particle/particle interaction are discussed. Full article
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14 pages, 253 KiB  
Entry
The Foundation of Classical Mechanics
by Danilo Capecchi
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(2), 482-495; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1020040 - 19 Jun 2021
Viewed by 4302
Definition
Mechanics is the science of the equilibrium and motion of bodies subject to forces. The adjective classical, hence Classical Mechanics, was added in the 20th century to distinguish it from relativistic mechanics which studies motion with speed close to light speed and quantum [...] Read more.
Mechanics is the science of the equilibrium and motion of bodies subject to forces. The adjective classical, hence Classical Mechanics, was added in the 20th century to distinguish it from relativistic mechanics which studies motion with speed close to light speed and quantum mechanics which studies motion at a subatomic level. Full article
12 pages, 1133 KiB  
Entry
Vibration-Assisted Ball Burnishing
by Ramón Jerez-Mesa, Jordi Llumà and J. Antonio Travieso-Rodríguez
Encyclopedia 2021, 1(2), 460-471; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia1020038 - 11 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3128
Definition
Vibration-Assisted Ball Burnishing is a finishing processed based on plastic deformation by means of a preloaded ball on a certain surface that rolls over it following a certain trajectory previously programmed while vibrating vertically. The dynamics of the process are based on the [...] Read more.
Vibration-Assisted Ball Burnishing is a finishing processed based on plastic deformation by means of a preloaded ball on a certain surface that rolls over it following a certain trajectory previously programmed while vibrating vertically. The dynamics of the process are based on the activation of the acoustoplastic effect on the material by means of the vibratory signal transmitted through the material lattice as a consequence of the mentioned oscillation of the ball. Materials processed by VABB show a modified surface in terms of topology distribution and scale, superior if compared to the results of the non-assisted process. Subgrain formation one of the main drivers that explain the change in hardness and residual stress resulting from the process. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Process Synthesis and Intensification (PS+I) Framework
Authors: Cristopher Antonio Villegas Uribe 1, Josué Julián Herrera Velazquez 2, Jullián Cabrera Ruiz 2, J. Rafael Alcántara Avila 1
Affiliations:
1 Department of Chemical Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura Campus Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510, Japan;
2 Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato 36050, Mexico
 
Title: Development in Materials and Processing Technologies of Razor Blades
Author: Julfikar Haider
Affiliation: Manchester Metropolitan University, UK
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