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Encyclopedia, Volume 3, Issue 4 (December 2023) – 26 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Since the 19th century, urban planning has largely been guided by ambitions to improve the population’s well-being and living conditions. Parks and green areas have played a significant role in this work. However, the confidence in the function of green areas, and thus the motives for creating urban parks and green open spaces, have shifted over the years, which has affected both the planning and design of green areas. This entry describes three overarching paradigm shifts in urban planning from the end of the 18th century to today, and the focus is on the major paradigm shift that is underway: how green areas can mitigate climate effects, increase biodiversity, and at the same time support people’s health and living conditions in a smart city. View this paper
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28 pages, 2643 KiB  
Entry
Implementation and Improvement of the Total Productive Maintenance Concept in an Organization
by Marta Wolska, Tadeusz Gorewoda, Marek Roszak and Lesław Gajda
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(4), 1537-1564; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3040110 - 18 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2152
Definition
Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) is an infrastructure-managing methodology that leads to improvements in production efficiency, quality, and safety. It includes a set of processes, techniques, and strategies based on forecasting, maintenance, the optimized cooperation of different company departments, and the minimization of costs [...] Read more.
Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) is an infrastructure-managing methodology that leads to improvements in production efficiency, quality, and safety. It includes a set of processes, techniques, and strategies based on forecasting, maintenance, the optimized cooperation of different company departments, and the minimization of costs related to downtime or accidents caused by equipment failure. This article discusses the history, assumptions of the TPM concept, and approach to implementing Total Productive Maintenance in organizations in detail. The right ingredients required for successful TPM implementation and barriers to implementation are also reviewed. The benefits of implementing TPM in organizations are presented and supported with examples of implementations in production and non-production organizations. The article is addressed to representatives of the manufacturing industry. TPM also indicates a high potential for implementation in non-production areas, which may be interesting, for example, for the service, medical, or laboratory industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Engineering)
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14 pages, 302 KiB  
Entry
Understanding the Mental Health of Doctoral Students
by Chloe Casey, Julia Taylor, Fiona Knight and Steven Trenoweth
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(4), 1523-1536; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3040109 - 15 Dec 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1261
Definition
Doctoral degrees include Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) and other professional doctorates such as Engineering Doctorate (EngD), Doctor of Education (EdD) or Doctor of Clinical Psychology (DClinPsy). Unlike undergraduate or postgraduate taught students, doctoral students focus upon a single, autonomous piece of research. Research [...] Read more.
Doctoral degrees include Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) and other professional doctorates such as Engineering Doctorate (EngD), Doctor of Education (EdD) or Doctor of Clinical Psychology (DClinPsy). Unlike undergraduate or postgraduate taught students, doctoral students focus upon a single, autonomous piece of research. Research indicates a high occurrence of mental health problems, mental distress, and symptoms of anxiety or depression in doctoral students. Additionally, there is concern that they may be less likely to disclose existing mental health problems or access support services than undergraduate or postgraduate taught students. This entry explores the known factors that contribute to the mental health of doctoral students studying in the United Kingdom. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Doctoral Supervision)
14 pages, 937 KiB  
Systematic Review
Analyzing Cultural Routes and Their Role in Advancing Cultural Heritage Management within Tourism: A Systematic Review with a Focus on the Integration of Digital Technologies
by Eleftheria Iakovaki, Markos Konstantakis, Alexandros Teneketzis and George Konstantakis
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(4), 1509-1522; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3040108 - 15 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1064
Abstract
This review constitutes a comprehensive systematic review analyzing cultural routes, with a particular focus on the concept of the cultural route as a tourist–cultural product. Within this framework, the paper offers an overview of contemporary technological challenges, concerns, and limitations. It thoroughly explores [...] Read more.
This review constitutes a comprehensive systematic review analyzing cultural routes, with a particular focus on the concept of the cultural route as a tourist–cultural product. Within this framework, the paper offers an overview of contemporary technological challenges, concerns, and limitations. It thoroughly explores cutting-edge technologies pertaining to the promotion of cultural heritage, both in general and in the specific context of realizing the concept of the cultural route, a tourist–cultural service enriched by the utilization of new media. Additionally, it extensively references the latest techniques and models for enhancing the user experience of digital cultural tourism products. Moreover, the paper showcases existing digital platforms and tools that encapsulate and emphasize the notion of cultural tourism. It assesses the respective methodologies, technologies, and techniques employed in each case, accompanied by illustrative instances of their applications. Finally, an empirical evaluation was conducted focusing on user needs and expectations during a cultural route. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Social Sciences)
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11 pages, 671 KiB  
Entry
Interaction of Prokineticin Receptors with Accessory Proteins
by Roberta Lattanzi and Rossella Miele
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(4), 1498-1508; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3040107 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 972
Definition
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are transmembrane proteins that mediate the intracellular pathway of signals not only through heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (G proteins) but also through their associations with a variety of additional partner proteins. Prokineticin receptors 1 (PKR1) and 2 (PKR2) are new [...] Read more.
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are transmembrane proteins that mediate the intracellular pathway of signals not only through heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (G proteins) but also through their associations with a variety of additional partner proteins. Prokineticin receptors 1 (PKR1) and 2 (PKR2) are new members of the GPCRs whose ligands are the novel chemokines prokineticin 1 (PK1) and prokineticin 2 (PK2). The multiplicity of G proteins coupled to PKRs, the ability of PKR2 to heterodimerize, the interaction of PKR2 with accessory proteins, and the existence of alternative splice isoforms of PKR2/PK2 explain the complexity of the system in the signal transduction pathway and, consequently, in the modulation of various physiological and pathological functions. Knowledge of these mechanisms provides the basis for the development of targeted drugs with therapeutic efficacy in PK-dependent diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicine & Pharmacology)
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9 pages, 672 KiB  
Entry
Pandemic Economic Crises
by Kristián Kalamen, František Pollák and Peter Markovič
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(4), 1489-1497; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3040106 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 829
Definition
The market serves as the convergence point of supply and demand and represents the process through which market relations between economic units materialize. From a global perspective, the focus shifts to the world market, which is the fundamental structure on which the global [...] Read more.
The market serves as the convergence point of supply and demand and represents the process through which market relations between economic units materialize. From a global perspective, the focus shifts to the world market, which is the fundamental structure on which the global economy is based. The world economy operates as a very complex ecosystem. When it is exposed to the extremely damaging effects of a global pandemic, the term of a pandemic economic crisis becomes relevant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Social Sciences)
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15 pages, 327 KiB  
Entry
Managing the Expectations of Doctoral Students and Their Supervisors: A UK Perspective
by Clive Palmer, Andrew Sprake and Chris Hughes
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(4), 1474-1488; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3040105 - 28 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1291
Definition
The management of expectations in doctoral education relates to the negotiation and agreement of a learning contract denoting actions and initiatives between a student and a supervisor. A learning contract is a set of understandings of what things, actions and initiatives might reasonably [...] Read more.
The management of expectations in doctoral education relates to the negotiation and agreement of a learning contract denoting actions and initiatives between a student and a supervisor. A learning contract is a set of understandings of what things, actions and initiatives might reasonably be expected from whom, in the course of learning, where there is a natural power imbalance. This is important so that both scholarly and material progress can be made along all points of the doctoral learning experience, i.e., that learning is personalised, professional and productive towards an original contribution of knowledge. It is the evidencing of this continual learning process through research that is deemed to be doctoral at the final examination stage. A doctoral student is a learner on the highest degree pathway that is available at all UK universities. This typically results in a thesis, marking the end point of being supervised whereupon an assessment or examination takes place, which, in UK universities, is called a viva voce (Latin: the living voice). This is a verbal account or defence of the thesis document by the student, made to two or three examiners who comprise the examination team. In the UK, the viva examination is a private event, while elsewhere, for example, across Europe and North America, the examination can be a public event. A student on a doctoral programme usually has a period of registration that is 3 years full-time or 6 years part-time. Other terms that can be used interchangeably around doctoral supervision are candidate (for the student) and candidature, which is their period of registration. Supervisors also have roles denoted as the Director of Studies (DoS) or Principal Investigator (PI). The supervision team is led by a Director of Studies (or PI) who is often the most experienced scholar who teaches, guides and mentors their student’s learning through the research they conduct. There are usually at least two supervisors in a supervision team in the UK, but there can be more as required depending upon the specialisms and topics being researched. Expectations formed by either the student or the supervisor(s) can be about physical resources to embark upon a passage of learning through a doctoral programme, or more typically, the discussion of expectations relates to managing the behaviours of students and supervisors in their respective roles. Managed expectations help to achieve a balance between the intellectual sharing of expertise by the supervisor with the self-directed initiatives for learning, which are taken by the student. The aim of managing expectations is to help a student move from dependence in their learning at the start of their programme to becoming an independent doctoral-level scholar who, once graduated as doctor, can act autonomously to conduct their own research, or even embark upon supervising others’ research in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Doctoral Supervision)
13 pages, 4180 KiB  
Entry
Perovskite-Type Oxides as Exsolution Catalysts in CO2 Utilization
by Thomas Ruh, Florian Schrenk, Tobias Berger and Christoph Rameshan
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(4), 1461-1473; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3040104 - 23 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1138
Definition
Perovskite-type oxides (ABO3) are a highly versatile class of materials. They are compositionally flexible, as their constituents can be chosen from a wide range of elements across the periodic table with a vast number of possible combinations. This flexibility enables the [...] Read more.
Perovskite-type oxides (ABO3) are a highly versatile class of materials. They are compositionally flexible, as their constituents can be chosen from a wide range of elements across the periodic table with a vast number of possible combinations. This flexibility enables the tuning of the materials’ properties by doping the A- and/or B-sites of the base structure, facilitating the application-oriented design of materials. The ability to undergo exsolution under reductive conditions makes perovskite-type oxides particularly well-suited for catalytic applications. Exsolution is a process during which B-site elements migrate to the surface of the material where they form anchored and finely dispersed nanoparticles that are crucially important for obtaining a good catalytic performance, while the perovskite base provides a stable support. Recently, exsolution catalysts have been investigated as possible materials for CO2 utilization reactions like reverse water–gas shift reactions or methane dry reforming. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemistry)
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22 pages, 765 KiB  
Entry
Physical-Chemical Properties of Nano-Sized Phyllosilicates: Recent Environmental and Industrial Advancements
by Chiara Elmi
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(4), 1439-1460; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3040103 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1307
Definition
Phyllosilicates are common minerals that include the most widely known micas and clay minerals. These minerals are found in several natural environments and have unique physical-chemical features, such as cation exchange capacity (CEC) and surface charge properties. When phyllosilicates are nano-sized, their physical-chemical [...] Read more.
Phyllosilicates are common minerals that include the most widely known micas and clay minerals. These minerals are found in several natural environments and have unique physical-chemical features, such as cation exchange capacity (CEC) and surface charge properties. When phyllosilicates are nano-sized, their physical-chemical properties are enhanced from those of the micro-sized counterpart. Because of their unique crystal chemical and physical-chemical features, kinetics, and particle size, nano-sized clay minerals (i.e., kaolinite, montmorillonite/illite) and micas (i.e., muscovite) are of great interest in several fields spanning from environmental applications to engineered materials. This paper aims to overview the recent developments of environmental protection and technological applications employing nano-sized natural micas and clay minerals. Emphasis is given to the role that the unique physical-chemical properties of montmorillonite, vermiculite, kaolinite, and muscovite play in nanoparticle formulations, manufacture, and technical performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemistry)
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20 pages, 2068 KiB  
Entry
Health-Promoting Nature-Based Paradigms in Urban Planning
by Patrik Grahn, Jonathan Stoltz, Erik Skärbäck and Anna Bengtsson
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(4), 1419-1438; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3040102 - 08 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1613
Definition
Since the 19th century, urban planning has largely been guided by ambitions to improve the population’s wellbeing and living conditions. Parks and green areas have played a significant role in this work. However, the confidence in the function of green areas, and thus [...] Read more.
Since the 19th century, urban planning has largely been guided by ambitions to improve the population’s wellbeing and living conditions. Parks and green areas have played a significant role in this work. However, the confidence in the function of green areas, and thus the motives for creating urban parks and green open spaces, have shifted over the years, which has affected both the planning and design of green areas. This entry describes three overarching paradigm shifts in urban planning, from the end of the 18th century to today, and the focus is on the major paradigm shift that is underway: how green areas can mitigate climate effects, increase biodiversity and at the same time support people’s health and living conditions in a smart city. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Social Sciences)
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10 pages, 254 KiB  
Entry
Monitoring the Progress of Doctoral Students
by Jane Brooks
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(4), 1409-1418; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3040101 - 07 Nov 2023
Viewed by 946
Definition
Doctoral students, graduate students, or postgraduate researchers (PGRs) are those students who undertake a research degree culminating in a thesis of original work. In this entry-level paper, they will generally be referred to as PGRs, as this demonstrates the importance of their contribution [...] Read more.
Doctoral students, graduate students, or postgraduate researchers (PGRs) are those students who undertake a research degree culminating in a thesis of original work. In this entry-level paper, they will generally be referred to as PGRs, as this demonstrates the importance of their contribution to the global research culture. In the UK, doctorates, usually a PhD but also professional doctorates, are typically three to four years in length full-time or six years part-time and are undertaken as an individual study. Research degrees are therefore unlike undergraduate and master’s programmes as they are not taught in a classroom with other students. PGRs can therefore suffer from an isolating student experience. Student monitoring refers to systems which track PGR engagement, progress and attendance. They can therefore be used to ensure that the PGR is present on the programme and submitting work, often in accordance with pre-set deadlines. Although doctorates internationally do have many similarities, there are also significant differences. This entry manuscript will be focused on UK doctoral study, although references will be made to the international stage as appropriate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Doctoral Supervision)
8 pages, 202 KiB  
Entry
Residential Segregation
by Matthias Bernt and Anne Volkmann
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(4), 1401-1408; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3040100 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1244
Definition
Residential segregation refers to the disproportionate distribution of population groups across a geographical area. Groups can be segregated on the basis of any characteristic (such as occupation, income, religion, age or ethnicity) and at any geographical scale. In most cases, segregation is, however, [...] Read more.
Residential segregation refers to the disproportionate distribution of population groups across a geographical area. Groups can be segregated on the basis of any characteristic (such as occupation, income, religion, age or ethnicity) and at any geographical scale. In most cases, segregation is, however, measured with regard to residential areas of a city. The extent of the unequal distribution of selected characteristics can be expressed by different statistical measures. Sociologists, economists and demographers have long studied how social groups tend to be differentiated in residential space and developed a broad range of explanations. As a consequence, segregation has been explained by a variety of theories, which are discussed in this paper. The topics examined by empirical research include temporal dynamics, geographical patterns, societal causes and effects on life chances. This entry focuses on major conceptual facts regarding residential segregation and only marginally discusses the methodological issues connected with its measurement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Social Sciences)
14 pages, 701 KiB  
Review
Disinformation Perception by Digital and Social Audiences: Threat Awareness, Decision-Making and Trust in Media Organizations
by Samia Benaissa Pedriza
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(4), 1387-1400; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3040099 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 2056
Abstract
The effects of disinformation in the media and social networks have been extensively studied from the perspective of reception studies. However, the perception of this media phenomenon expressed by different types of audiences in distant geographic locations and with different media cultures has [...] Read more.
The effects of disinformation in the media and social networks have been extensively studied from the perspective of reception studies. However, the perception of this media phenomenon expressed by different types of audiences in distant geographic locations and with different media cultures has hardly been addressed by experts. This theoretical review study aims to analyze the relationship between the actual level of disinformation and the perception expressed by the audiences themselves. The results of the study reveal, firstly, that users of social networks and digital media do not perceive being surrounded by an excessively worrying volume of disinformation, a fact that contrasts with the data recorded, which are visibly higher. This situation reveals that the audience tends to normalize disinformation, which is intensively consumed on a daily basis and does not seem to worry the public in general terms, although some differences can be detected depending on variables such as gender, age or education. On the other hand, paradoxically, audiences visibly express rejection attitudes towards the channels that disseminate false information, with media outlets being the least trusted, despite recognizing that social networks are the place where more disinformation is generated and circulated at the same time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Social Sciences)
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14 pages, 632 KiB  
Entry
Physical Properties of Helium and Application in Respiratory Care
by Eric Chappel
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(4), 1373-1386; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3040098 - 30 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1666
Definition
Helium is a low-density, inert, monoatomic gas that is widely used in medical applications. In respiratory care, Helium is mainly used as an adjunct therapy for patients with severe upper airway obstruction and asthma. To better understand the action mechanism of helium, the [...] Read more.
Helium is a low-density, inert, monoatomic gas that is widely used in medical applications. In respiratory care, Helium is mainly used as an adjunct therapy for patients with severe upper airway obstruction and asthma. To better understand the action mechanism of helium, the physical properties of several therapeutic gas mixtures with helium are calculated using kinetic theory. Flow in a simplified lung airways model is also shown to support the discussion of helium’s respiratory benefits, including reduced work of breathing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicine & Pharmacology)
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15 pages, 323 KiB  
Entry
How Supervisors Can Support Doctoral Students to Publish and Not Perish in Academia
by James Marson and Katy Ferris
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(4), 1358-1372; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3040097 - 30 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1315
Definition
“Publish or perish” is a term used for the culture adopted in universities, whereby academic members of staff, typically although not exclusively on research and teaching contracts, are required to publish research. Minimum levels of quantity and quality may apply and these may [...] Read more.
“Publish or perish” is a term used for the culture adopted in universities, whereby academic members of staff, typically although not exclusively on research and teaching contracts, are required to publish research. Minimum levels of quantity and quality may apply and these may be included in key performance indicators and annual staff reviews to ensure compliance. Whilst this culture has been reported in universities for nearly a century, most recently it has cascaded down to doctoral students who are increasingly expected to publish and otherwise disseminate research during their studies (i.e., research outside of that which is to be submitted in their thesis). This entry relates primarily to doctoral students in a UK setting and studying a monograph route (rather than a published papers submission) in the humanities. It further explores the role played by supervisors to help doctoral students to publish, and in turn the help and guidance supervisors need to offer as support. Many of the findings explored in this entry apply equally beyond the parameters noted above, and, as demonstrated in the literature, international students and institutions are facing similar issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Doctoral Supervision)
13 pages, 262 KiB  
Entry
Gene Editing: The Regulatory Perspective
by Sarfaraz K. Niazi
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(4), 1345-1357; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3040096 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1450
Definition
Gene or genome editing, often known as GE, is a technique utilized to modify, eliminate, or substitute a mutated gene at the DNA level. It serves as a valuable tool in the field of genetic manipulation. Gene therapy (GT) is a therapeutic approach [...] Read more.
Gene or genome editing, often known as GE, is a technique utilized to modify, eliminate, or substitute a mutated gene at the DNA level. It serves as a valuable tool in the field of genetic manipulation. Gene therapy (GT) is a therapeutic approach that aims to correct mutations by delivering a functional gene copy into the body. In contrast, the mutated gene remains in the genome. It is considered a form of medical intervention. No approval has been granted for any product manufactured by GE, in contrast to the approval of 22 medications produced by GT. These GT products are priced at millions of US dollars each dose. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recently implemented a guideline about gene editing, which aims to facilitate the expedited creation of genetically engineered (GE) goods. However, the FDA must provide further elucidation and necessary revisions to enhance the rationality of this guideline. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicine & Pharmacology)
13 pages, 292 KiB  
Entry
Operational Stress Injury
by Abraham Rudnick, Andrea Shaheen, Sarah Lefurgey and Dougal Nolan
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(4), 1332-1344; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3040095 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1471
Definition
An operational stress injury (OSI) is a term used most often to describe mental disorders which result from, or are exacerbated by, military or police service. In the Canadian context, this most often refers to active or former members of the Canadian Armed [...] Read more.
An operational stress injury (OSI) is a term used most often to describe mental disorders which result from, or are exacerbated by, military or police service. In the Canadian context, this most often refers to active or former members of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) or the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP). The most common diagnoses within this term include post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety disorders, depression, and substance use disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Sciences)
12 pages, 1346 KiB  
Entry
Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy for Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage
by Matthias Steimecke
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(4), 1320-1331; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3040094 - 20 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1194
Definition
Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) is a type of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) where an electrochemical reaction at a microelectrode is used to generate information about an electrochemically (in)active surface in its immediate vicinity. Careful preparation and knowledge of the microelectrode response as well [...] Read more.
Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) is a type of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) where an electrochemical reaction at a microelectrode is used to generate information about an electrochemically (in)active surface in its immediate vicinity. Careful preparation and knowledge of the microelectrode response as well as the application of a suitable method enable the study of spatially resolved electrochemical kinetics or the electrocatalytic activity of any structure or material. In addition to a wide range of other applications, the method has become particularly well established in the research field of electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Electrochemical Energy Storage and Conversion)
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14 pages, 467 KiB  
Review
Early Childhood Care in Spain before the Lockdown
by Esther Álvarez-Vega and Mario Grande-de-Prado
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(4), 1306-1319; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3040093 - 18 Oct 2023
Viewed by 893
Abstract
It is widely assumed that every action in Early Childhood Care (ECC) must be conducted taking into consideration the well-being of the family and relying on their active involvement. It becomes essential to implement an intervention strategy that encompasses not only the children [...] Read more.
It is widely assumed that every action in Early Childhood Care (ECC) must be conducted taking into consideration the well-being of the family and relying on their active involvement. It becomes essential to implement an intervention strategy that encompasses not only the children but also their immediate environment and the entire family unit. In this context, the Family-Centred Approach (FCA) has emerged as a prominent methodology. This approach can be defined as a collaborative connection between professionals and families, characterised by mutual respect and acknowledgment of their values and choices. Moreover, it entails extending assistance when required, all aimed at fostering optimal functioning of the familial core. This article aims to understand perceptions of families and professionals concerning Early Intervention in Spain before the lockdown. For this, a scoping review was conducted by mapping articles related to Spain in Scopus or Dialnet (CIRC A+, A, B, or C) before the COVID-19 lockdown. After reviewing thirty-five chosen articles, the identified topics were categorised into emotions, diagnoses, and requirements. Many of the publications fulfilled the CIRC B criterion, with a minority of articles meeting this criterion in the latter portion of the present decade. This subject matter warrants further research. There is a need for effective Early Childhood Care (ECC), characterised by early detection and diagnosis, involving well-trained professionals, and which recognises the importance of families in interventions and children development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Sciences)
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36 pages, 7735 KiB  
Review
Techno-Economic Analysis of State-of-the-Art Carbon Capture Technologies and Their Applications: Scient Metric Review
by Raghad Adam and Bertug Ozarisoy
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(4), 1270-1305; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3040092 - 12 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3312
Abstract
Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are a serious hazard to human life and the ecosystem. This is the reason that many measures have been put in place by the International Energy Agency (IEA) to reduce the anthropogenic-derived CO2 concentration in the [...] Read more.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are a serious hazard to human life and the ecosystem. This is the reason that many measures have been put in place by the International Energy Agency (IEA) to reduce the anthropogenic-derived CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Today, the potential of renewable energy sources has led to an increased interest in investment in carbon capture and storage technologies worldwide. The aim of this paper is to investigate state-of-the-art carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies and their derivations for the identification of effective methods during the implementation of evidence-based energy policies. To this extent, this study reviews the current methods in three concepts: post-combustion; pre-combustion; and oxy-fuel combustion processes. The objective of this study is to explore the knowledge gap in recent carbon capture methods and provide a comparison between the most influential methods with high potential to aid in carbon capture. The study presents the importance of using all available technologies during the post-combustion process. To accomplish this, an ontological approach was adopted to analyze the feasibility of the CCS technologies available on the market. The study findings demonstrate that priority should be given to the applicability of certain methods for both industrial and domestic applications. On the contrary, the study also suggests that using the post-combustion method has the greatest potential, whereas other studies recommend the efficiency of the oxy-fuel process. Furthermore, the study findings also highlight the importance of using life cycle assessment (LCA) methods for the implementation of carbon capture technologies in buildings. This study contributes to the energy policy design related to carbon capture technologies in buildings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of ZEMCH Research and Development)
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8 pages, 234 KiB  
Entry
Recruiting Doctoral Students: Getting It Right for All Involved
by Jane Andrews
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(4), 1262-1269; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3040091 - 07 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1011
Definition
This entry explores the different ways in which students are accepted onto doctoral degrees such as PhDs and professional doctorates. The processes involved are referred to in this entry, and in much of the policy-related and research-informed literature, as “recruitment and selection”. These [...] Read more.
This entry explores the different ways in which students are accepted onto doctoral degrees such as PhDs and professional doctorates. The processes involved are referred to in this entry, and in much of the policy-related and research-informed literature, as “recruitment and selection”. These processes are worthy of attention given that they are high stakes for students themselves, those who guide and advise them, known as academic “supervisors”, and for academic communities more broadly. The entry acknowledges that recruitment and selection processes differ between institutions and across geographical contexts. The entry draws upon research studies and policy documents which relate to recruitment and selection practices from local, national and international contexts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Doctoral Supervision)
18 pages, 324 KiB  
Entry
Safeguarding Traditional Crafts in Europe
by Nikolaos Partarakis and Xenophon Zabulis
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(4), 1244-1261; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3040090 - 05 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2111
Definition
This entry discusses the challenge of safeguarding crafts in Europe. Safeguarding is defined herein as the systematic process of understanding, representing, preserving, and valorizing crafts following the recommendations of UNESCO and the UN-World Tourism Organization. The abovementioned challenges are discussed through a multidisciplinary [...] Read more.
This entry discusses the challenge of safeguarding crafts in Europe. Safeguarding is defined herein as the systematic process of understanding, representing, preserving, and valorizing crafts following the recommendations of UNESCO and the UN-World Tourism Organization. The abovementioned challenges are discussed through a multidisciplinary prism starting from the scientific challenges in the information and communication technologies sector and expanding the discussion to ethical, legal, and policy-making measures and recommendations to safeguard crafts as a form of tangible and intangible cultural heritage but also as a source of growth and impact for the communities that practice them. To this end, the role of education and training for craft preservation is discussed, considering that the declining number of practitioners and apprentices is considered today the main threat to their preservation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Arts & Humanities)
21 pages, 2543 KiB  
Entry
Gamification in Education
by Athanasios Christopoulos and Stylianos Mystakidis
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(4), 1223-1243; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3040089 - 02 Oct 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 8626
Definition
Gamification, or gameful design, refers to the strategic application of game design principles, mechanics, and elements into non-game environments. It is often facilitated using digital platforms, aiming to solve problems, increase engagement, and motivate individuals towards their goals. The technique fosters a gameful [...] Read more.
Gamification, or gameful design, refers to the strategic application of game design principles, mechanics, and elements into non-game environments. It is often facilitated using digital platforms, aiming to solve problems, increase engagement, and motivate individuals towards their goals. The technique fosters a gameful and interactive experience, enhancing perceived autonomy, competence, and relatedness among users. With roots in fields like education, business, marketing, and services, gamification is a versatile tool that serves to enrich user experience and create value in a multitude of settings. The widespread impact of gamification across various sectors has transformed traditional methods of engagement, notably in education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Arts & Humanities)
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15 pages, 316 KiB  
Entry
Research Trends in Resilience and Vulnerability Studies
by Christopher L. Atkinson
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(4), 1208-1222; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3040088 - 30 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1539
Definition
While the definition of resilience is disputed or even fuzzy, due in no small part to the diversity of its applications, the concept generally involves the ability to withstand and bounce back from shocks; vulnerability as a related concept involves the tendency to [...] Read more.
While the definition of resilience is disputed or even fuzzy, due in no small part to the diversity of its applications, the concept generally involves the ability to withstand and bounce back from shocks; vulnerability as a related concept involves the tendency to suffer from shocks, given existing characteristics that may prevent resilient responses. Vulnerabilities put individuals, groups, and societies at greater risk and disadvantage, suggesting a need not only for disaster response and recovery, but mitigation and preparedness. Resilience and vulnerability research has recently focused on the role of government, the COVID-19 pandemic, and flood hazards; topics of interest have also included resilience of rural and urban areas, development and sustainability, and displacement and migration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Climate Change and Global Economy)
11 pages, 305 KiB  
Entry
Supporting Doctoral Students in Crisis
by Jennie Golding
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(4), 1197-1207; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3040087 - 28 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1552
Definition
A doctoral student is one undertaking the highest level of university study, leading to a doctoral qualification (of which the traditional and most common form is the PhD), that typically requires they demonstrate a significant contribution to knowledge and their own preparedness to [...] Read more.
A doctoral student is one undertaking the highest level of university study, leading to a doctoral qualification (of which the traditional and most common form is the PhD), that typically requires they demonstrate a significant contribution to knowledge and their own preparedness to undertake independent research. Crisis in this entry is taken to be a time of great difficulty or a time when a difficult or important decision must be made. In the context of doctoral students, a crisis often brings a threat to the completion of the doctorate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Doctoral Supervision)
10 pages, 260 KiB  
Entry
Intraocular Pressure during Spaceflight and Risk of Glaucomatous Damage in Prolonged Microgravity
by Mouayad Masalkhi, Joshua Ong, Ethan Waisberg, John Berdahl and Andrew G. Lee
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(4), 1187-1196; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3040086 - 28 Sep 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1771
Definition
Microgravity introduces diverse pathological and various physiological changes to the human body, including intraocular pressure. Astronauts may develop a constellation of symptoms and signs including optic disc edema, choroidal folds, and a hyperopic shift from the flattening of the globe. These ocular findings [...] Read more.
Microgravity introduces diverse pathological and various physiological changes to the human body, including intraocular pressure. Astronauts may develop a constellation of symptoms and signs including optic disc edema, choroidal folds, and a hyperopic shift from the flattening of the globe. These ocular findings have been collectively termed spaceflight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS). SANS is a condition that is unique to long-duration spaceflight. The precise pathogenesis of SANS remains ill-defined, but several hypotheses have been proposed that may be influenced by intraocular pressure. Countermeasures for SANS research also include techniques that impact intraocular pressure. In this article, we discuss intraocular pressure during spaceflight, the translaminar pressure gradient, SANS and potential SANS countermeasures, and the potential for glaucomatous damage during spaceflight. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Glaucoma)
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9 pages, 241 KiB  
Entry
Developing the Socio-Emotional Intelligence of Doctoral Students
by Camila Devis-Rozental
Encyclopedia 2023, 3(4), 1178-1186; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia3040085 - 26 Sep 2023
Viewed by 2412
Definition
Socio-emotional intelligence is the capacity to consider emotions, intuition, and cognition to identify, manage and express emotions and to respond to social situations with authenticity, openness and fairness. By doing so, individuals will achieve a sense of wellbeing and build meaningful relations whilst [...] Read more.
Socio-emotional intelligence is the capacity to consider emotions, intuition, and cognition to identify, manage and express emotions and to respond to social situations with authenticity, openness and fairness. By doing so, individuals will achieve a sense of wellbeing and build meaningful relations whilst having a positive impact on the environment, others and themselves. The term doctoral student refers to a postgraduate researcher completing a doctoral degree. Supervisor is the term used in academia for an academic guiding and supporting the doctoral student. Doctoral supervisions usually include at least two academics as supervisors. A doctoral degree in the UK normally focuses on the in-depth study of a topic; these can be chosen by the doctoral student or sometimes be content-specific if a scholarship is attached. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Doctoral Supervision)
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