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Encyclopedia, Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2022) – 35 articles

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15 pages, 1209 KiB  
Entry
Characteristics, Impacts and Trends of Urban Transportation
by Yuan Gao and Jiaxing Zhu
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(2), 1168-1182; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2020078 - 15 Jun 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 7621
Definition
Economic growth, urban development and the prosperity of the automobile industry have driven a huge shift in global urban transportation from walking to public transportation and then to automobiles. Private mobility has become an important part of residents’ daily trips. Cities, especially automobile-dependent [...] Read more.
Economic growth, urban development and the prosperity of the automobile industry have driven a huge shift in global urban transportation from walking to public transportation and then to automobiles. Private mobility has become an important part of residents’ daily trips. Cities, especially automobile-dependent cities, face a variety of negative impacts such as increased commuting distances, higher congestion costs, traffic accidents, traffic pollution including climate change, etc. Therefore, how to balance the relationship between people’s growing demand for private motorization with the development of urbanization, modernization and motorization and the huge economic, social and environmental costs brought about by them, so as to realize the sustainable development of cities and transportation, is the main problem facing cities around the world. The entry focuses on trends in the sustainable development of urban transportation such as restrictions in private car ownership and use, electrification of urban transportation, intelligent transportation systems (including shared mobility, customized buses and Mobility as a Service/MaaS) and transit-oriented development (TOD). China, as the largest global automobile producer and consumer, represents and leads the growth and evolution of other emerging countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Engineering)
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14 pages, 290 KiB  
Entry
Sustainable Fashion—Rationale and Policies
by Meital Peleg Mizrachi and Alon Tal
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(2), 1154-1167; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2020077 - 13 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 10710
Definition
Sustainable fashion refers to efforts to minimize the fashion industry’s adverse environmental and social impacts. This entry describes the industry’s entire production chain: from polyester production, cotton growth and wasteful fashion consumption patterns to landfilling, where so many clothes end up. The entry [...] Read more.
Sustainable fashion refers to efforts to minimize the fashion industry’s adverse environmental and social impacts. This entry describes the industry’s entire production chain: from polyester production, cotton growth and wasteful fashion consumption patterns to landfilling, where so many clothes end up. The entry characterizes the drivers behind the industry’s poor record regarding sustainability and employee exploitation, as well as new policies around the world designed to improve the industry’s performance These include the Australian Modern Slavery law, the French law prohibiting the destruction of textile surpluses and the New York Fashion Sustainability and Social Accountability Act. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Sciences)
16 pages, 2251 KiB  
Review
Effect of Probiotics on Host-Microbial Crosstalk: A Review on Strategies to Combat Diversified Strain of Coronavirus
by Susrita Sahoo, Swati Mohapatra, Swayam prava Dalai, Namrata Misra and Mrutyunjay Suar
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(2), 1138-1153; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2020076 - 8 Jun 2022
Viewed by 2079
Abstract
The scare of the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), does not seem to fade away, while there is a constant emergence of novel deadly variants including Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta and Omicron. [...] Read more.
The scare of the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), does not seem to fade away, while there is a constant emergence of novel deadly variants including Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta and Omicron. Until now, it has claimed approximately 276,436,619 infections, and the number of deaths surpluses to 5,374,744 all over the world. While saving the life has been a priority during the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the post-infection healing and getting back to normalcy has been undermined. Improving general health conditions and immunity with nutritional adequacy is currently of precedence for the government as well as frontline health workers to prevent and assuage infections. Exploring the role of probiotics and prebiotics in managing the after-effects of a viral outbreak could be of great significance, considering the emergence of new variants every now and then. To enhance human immunity, the recent evidence on the connection between gut microbiota and the broad spectrum of the clinical COVID-19 disease is the reason to look at the benefits of probiotics in improving health conditions. This review aims to sketch out the prospective role of probiotics and prebiotics in improving the standard of health in common people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Hygiene)
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10 pages, 590 KiB  
Entry
The Applications of Microphysiological Systems in Biomedicine: Impact on Urologic and Orthopaedic Research
by Pedro Caetano-Pinto and Janosch Schoon
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(2), 1128-1137; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2020075 - 7 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1789
Definition
Microphysiological systems (MPSs) are in vitro models that can incorporate dynamic stimuli such as flow, pressure and contraction in cell culture, enabling the formation of cellular architectures and retrieving physiological function often absent in conventional 2D-cell culture. MPS applications saw a substantial growth [...] Read more.
Microphysiological systems (MPSs) are in vitro models that can incorporate dynamic stimuli such as flow, pressure and contraction in cell culture, enabling the formation of cellular architectures and retrieving physiological function often absent in conventional 2D-cell culture. MPS applications saw a substantial growth in recent years, drawing attention from industry as a strategy to optimize pre-clinical drug-development purposes, as well as from biomedical research, to fill a gap between in vivo and in vitro models. Several MPS platforms are now available and are employed in the development of bone and kidney complex systems for urologic and orthopaedic research. These advances have enabled, for example, the in vitro modelling of bone regeneration and renal drug secretion, and have dramatic potential to improve research into both orthopaedic and urology cancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicine & Pharmacology)
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9 pages, 231 KiB  
Entry
The Human Passion for Music
by Bjørn Grinde
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(2), 1119-1127; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2020074 - 7 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2198
Definition
Music is a universal feature of human societies, which suggests that an evolutionary perspective should help us understand our appreciation. The reward (pleasure) system of the brain offers a suitable framework. The question is why we evolved rewards for listening to and producing [...] Read more.
Music is a universal feature of human societies, which suggests that an evolutionary perspective should help us understand our appreciation. The reward (pleasure) system of the brain offers a suitable framework. The question is why we evolved rewards for listening to and producing sounds with particular qualities. The primary evolutionary advantage is probably related to the importance of language; features of sound, such as purity, harmony, complexity, and rhythmicity, are useful for facilitating oral communication. One would expect evolution to associate rewards with these qualities in order to stimulate the development of brain regions involved in interpreting and producing relevant sounds. There are additional adaptive aspects of music, such as relaxation, social coherence, and sexual selection. Music can be regarded as a superstimulus that accentuates and exploits rewards associated with hearing. As such, music is not necessarily adaptive in a biological sense, but serves the purpose of improving quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Arts & Humanities)
16 pages, 5714 KiB  
Review
A General Description of Karst Types
by Márton Veress
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(2), 1103-1118; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2020073 - 6 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2640
Abstract
This study includes a general description of the Earth’s karst types based on literary data and field observations. An improved classification of karst types distinguishes the main group, group, and subgroup; and, a division of karst types involves a main karst type, karst [...] Read more.
This study includes a general description of the Earth’s karst types based on literary data and field observations. An improved classification of karst types distinguishes the main group, group, and subgroup; and, a division of karst types involves a main karst type, karst type, subtype, variety, and non-individual karst type. The relation between karst type and karst area is described. The role of various characteristics of karsts in the development of primary, secondary, and tertiary karst types is analyzed. Their structure is studied, which includes a geomorphic agent, process, feature, feature assemblage, karst system and the characteristics of the bearing karst area. Dominant, tributary, and accessory features are distinguished. The conditions of the stability and the development of types are studied, transformation ways are classified, and the effect of climate on types is described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Earth Sciences)
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12 pages, 2090 KiB  
Entry
Homogenization Methods of Lattice Materials
by Jacobs Somnic and Bruce W. Jo
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(2), 1091-1102; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2020072 - 31 May 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3545
Definition
The existing methods for analyzing the behaviors of lattice materials require high computational power. The homogenization method is the alternative way to overcome this issue. Homogenization is an analysis to understand the behavior of an area of lattice material from a small portion [...] Read more.
The existing methods for analyzing the behaviors of lattice materials require high computational power. The homogenization method is the alternative way to overcome this issue. Homogenization is an analysis to understand the behavior of an area of lattice material from a small portion for rapid analysis and precise approximation. This paper provides a summary of some representative methodologies in homogenization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Material Sciences)
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9 pages, 268 KiB  
Entry
Foundations of Quantum Mechanics
by Salim Yasmineh
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(2), 1082-1090; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2020071 - 26 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2872
Definition
Quantum mechanics is a mathematical formalism that models the dynamics of physical objects. It deals with the elementary constituents of matter (atoms, subatomic and elementary particles) and of radiation. It is very accurate in predicting observable physical phenomena, but has many puzzling properties. [...] Read more.
Quantum mechanics is a mathematical formalism that models the dynamics of physical objects. It deals with the elementary constituents of matter (atoms, subatomic and elementary particles) and of radiation. It is very accurate in predicting observable physical phenomena, but has many puzzling properties. The foundations of quantum mechanics are a domain in which physics and philosophy concur in attempting to find a fundamental physical theory that explains the puzzling features of quantum mechanics, while remaining consistent with its mathematical formalism. Several theories have been proposed for different interpretations of quantum mechanics. However, there is no consensus regarding any of these theories. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Applications of Quantum Mechanics)
13 pages, 2941 KiB  
Entry
Geographic Information System and Atomized Transportation Modes
by Mohammad Anwar Alattar, Mark Beecroft and Caitlin Cottrill
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(2), 1069-1081; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2020070 - 25 May 2022
Viewed by 2106
Definition
Transportation is a spatial activity. The geographic Information System (GIS) is the process of capturing, managing, analyzing, and presenting spatial data. GIS techniques are essential to the study of various aspects of transportation. In this entry, the state of knowledge regarding atomized transportation [...] Read more.
Transportation is a spatial activity. The geographic Information System (GIS) is the process of capturing, managing, analyzing, and presenting spatial data. GIS techniques are essential to the study of various aspects of transportation. In this entry, the state of knowledge regarding atomized transportation modes is presented. Atomized transportation modes are defined as transportation modes which deal with low passenger numbers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Engineering)
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10 pages, 2696 KiB  
Entry
Louis XI of Valois (1461–1483)
by Julia Faiers
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(2), 1059-1068; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2020069 - 25 May 2022
Viewed by 3566
Definition
Louis XI (1461–1483) was the sixth king of the Valois branch of the Capetian dynasty in France; he ruled from 1463 until his death in 1483. Louis was the son of Charles VII (1403–1461) and Marie of Anjou (1404–1463). While Dauphin, he married [...] Read more.
Louis XI (1461–1483) was the sixth king of the Valois branch of the Capetian dynasty in France; he ruled from 1463 until his death in 1483. Louis was the son of Charles VII (1403–1461) and Marie of Anjou (1404–1463). While Dauphin, he married first Margaret of Scotland (1424–1445) and then Charlotte of Savoie (c.1441–1483), who bore him four surviving children: Anne de France, Jeanne de France, François de France, and the future Charles VIII. Louis’ key challenge as monarch was to pick up the pieces of a kingdom ravaged by the Hundred Years War between England and France (1337–1453). His legacy was to have repaired the kingdom’s depleted coffers through a combination of frugality and territorial expansion. His historiography paints him as a paranoid, manipulative, and obsessively pious ruler, a simplistic portrait that is undermined by a close examination of his artistic patronage. This entry will focus on the iconography he employed across a variety of media to promote the sacred legitimacy of his rule and to unify the peoples of France’s newly acquired territories. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Medieval Royal Iconography)
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23 pages, 2121 KiB  
Entry
Numerical Solution of Desiccation Cracks in Clayey Soils
by Hector U. Levatti
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(2), 1036-1058; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2020068 - 24 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1896
Definition
This entry presents the theoretical fundamentals, the mathematical formulation, and the numerical solution for the problem of desiccation cracks in clayey soils. The formulation uses two stress state variables (total stress and suction) and results in a non-symmetric and nonlinear system of transient [...] Read more.
This entry presents the theoretical fundamentals, the mathematical formulation, and the numerical solution for the problem of desiccation cracks in clayey soils. The formulation uses two stress state variables (total stress and suction) and results in a non-symmetric and nonlinear system of transient partial differential equations. A release node algorithm technique is proposed to simulate cracking, and the strategy to implement it in the hydromechanical framework is explained in detail. This general framework was validated with experimental results, and several numerical examples were published at international conferences and in journal papers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Engineering)
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17 pages, 1508 KiB  
Entry
Conductive Heat Transfer in Thermal Bridges
by Mathias Fuchs
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(2), 1019-1035; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2020067 - 24 May 2022
Viewed by 2248
Definition
A thermal bridge is a component of a building that is characterized by a higher thermal loss compared with its surroundings. Their accurate modeling is a key step in energy performance analysis due to the increased awareness of the importance of sustainable design. [...] Read more.
A thermal bridge is a component of a building that is characterized by a higher thermal loss compared with its surroundings. Their accurate modeling is a key step in energy performance analysis due to the increased awareness of the importance of sustainable design. Thermal modeling in architecture and engineering is often not carried out volumetrically, thereby sacrificing accuracy for complex geometries, whereas numerical textbooks often give the finite element method in much higher generality than required, or only treat the case of uniform materials. Despite thermal modeling traditionally belonging exclusively to the engineer’s toolbox, computational and parametric design can often benefit from understanding the key steps of finite element thermal modeling, in order to inform a real-time design feedback loop. In this entry, these gaps are filled and the reader is introduced to all relevant physical and computational notions and methods necessary to understand and compute the stationary energy dissipation and thermal conductance of thermal bridges composed of materials in complex geometries. The overview is a self-contained and coherent expository, and both physically and mathematically as correct as possible, but intuitive and accessible to all audiences. Details for a typical example of an insulated I-beam thermal bridge are provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of ZEMCH Research and Development)
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15 pages, 341 KiB  
Entry
Social Entrepreneurship Conceptual Approaches
by Alcides Almeida Monteiro, José Carlos Sánchez-García, Brizeida Raquel Hernández-Sánchez and Giuseppina Maria Cardella
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(2), 1004-1018; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2020066 - 24 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3802
Definition
Social entrepreneurship defines organizations or initiatives that, by producing and/or transacting goods or services, seek new solutions to persistent social problems, thus generating high social value. In other words, that deliberately subject their economic strategy to social priorities and place the social mission [...] Read more.
Social entrepreneurship defines organizations or initiatives that, by producing and/or transacting goods or services, seek new solutions to persistent social problems, thus generating high social value. In other words, that deliberately subject their economic strategy to social priorities and place the social mission at the center of their concerns. Such social priorities include poverty, unemployment, education, health, local development, or the environment. Outside this common base, the aggregation of other characteristics or delimitations has given rise to conceptual fuzziness, namely, as to the organizational forms to be adopted (restricted to non-profit organizations or open to for-profit businesses with clear social purposes) and the weight of the social dimension in SE. Another manifestation of conceptual malleability emerges from the coexistence of different schools of thought. On the opposite side, one notes the narrowing of the concept, which mainly derives from a Westernized vision and still pays little attention to the contributions from developing countries. In addition to analyzing these topics, the current entry points out some recommendations regarding the deepening of scientific research in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Sciences)
14 pages, 4775 KiB  
Entry
The Potential for Cellulose Deconstruction in Fungal Genomes
by Renaud Berlemont
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(2), 990-1003; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2020065 - 20 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2084
Definition
Fungal cellulolytic enzymes are carbohydrate active enzymes (CAzymes) essential for the deconstruction of the plant cell wall. Cellulolytic activity is described in some glycoside hydrolases (GH-cellulases) and in auxiliary activities (AA-cellulases) families. Across environments, these enzymes are mostly produced by some fungi and [...] Read more.
Fungal cellulolytic enzymes are carbohydrate active enzymes (CAzymes) essential for the deconstruction of the plant cell wall. Cellulolytic activity is described in some glycoside hydrolases (GH-cellulases) and in auxiliary activities (AA-cellulases) families. Across environments, these enzymes are mostly produced by some fungi and some bacteria. Cellulolytic fungi secrete these enzymes to deconstruct polysaccharides into simple and easy to metabolize oligo- and mono-saccharides. The fungal ability to degrade cellulose result from their repertoire of CAZymes-encoding genes targeting many substrates (e.g., xylan, arabinose). Over the past decade, the increased number of sequenced fungal genomes allowed the sequence-based identification of many new CAZyme-encoding genes. Together, the predicted cellulolytic enzymes constitute the fungal potential for cellulose deconstruction. As not all fungi have the same genetic makeup, identifying the potential for cellulose deconstruction across different lineages can help identify the various fungal strategies to access and degrade cellulose (conserved vs. variable genomic features) and highlight the evolution of cellulase-encoding genes. Here, the potential for cellulose deconstruction identified across publicly accessible, and published, fungal genomes is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Fungi)
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16 pages, 1536 KiB  
Entry
Oxidation of Antipsychotics
by Natalia A. Shnayder, Aiperi K. Abdyrakhmanova and Regina F. Nasyrova
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(2), 974-989; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2020064 - 19 May 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3126
Definition
Antipsychotics (APs) are psychotropic drugs that generally have a psycholeptic effect, capable of reducing psychotic symptoms and psychomotor agitation. This class of drugs is widely used in psychiatric practice, especially for the treatment of psychosis in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Most APs [...] Read more.
Antipsychotics (APs) are psychotropic drugs that generally have a psycholeptic effect, capable of reducing psychotic symptoms and psychomotor agitation. This class of drugs is widely used in psychiatric practice, especially for the treatment of psychosis in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Most APs pass through a biotransformation process, or metabolism, after they enter the body before being eliminated. There are three phases of AP metabolism. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenase (mixed-function oxidase) plays a central role in most AP biotransformation. CYP’s functional activity depends on gene–drug and drug–drug interaction and influences on the occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). So, it is extremely important for a practicing psychiatrist to know the oxidation pathway of APs, since most of them are metabolized in the liver. This is important both to prevent ADRs and to avoid unwanted drug–drug interactions, which will undoubtedly increase the effectiveness and safety of AP therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicine & Pharmacology)
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22 pages, 910 KiB  
Entry
Solid Lipid Nanoparticles
by Thi-Thao-Linh Nguyen and Van-An Duong
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(2), 952-973; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2020063 - 18 May 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 7736
Definition
Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are produced from physiologically biocompatible lipids. They have been proven to improve solubility, cellular uptake, and stability, reduce enzyme degradation, and prolong the circulation time of various drugs. SLNs have been applied in the oral, parenteral, transdermal, intranasal, ocular, [...] Read more.
Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are produced from physiologically biocompatible lipids. They have been proven to improve solubility, cellular uptake, and stability, reduce enzyme degradation, and prolong the circulation time of various drugs. SLNs have been applied in the oral, parenteral, transdermal, intranasal, ocular, and pulmonary drug delivery of different drugs, with enhanced safety, bioavailability, and overall therapeutic effects. In this entry, the authors summarize the primary features of SLNs, methods to prepare SLNs, and recent applications of SLNs in drug delivery. Owing to their advantages, SLNs are potential drug delivery systems to improve the management of various diseases and will, soon, be available for clinical use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicine & Pharmacology)
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15 pages, 7025 KiB  
Entry
Khosrow II (590–628 CE)
by Mahdi Motamedmanesh and Samira Royan
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(2), 937-951; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2020062 - 10 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 7338
Definition
Khosrow II (r. 590–628 CE) was the last great Sasanian king who took the throne with the help of the Romans and broke with dynastic religious preferences as he became married to a Christian empress. It was under his rule that the Sasanian [...] Read more.
Khosrow II (r. 590–628 CE) was the last great Sasanian king who took the throne with the help of the Romans and broke with dynastic religious preferences as he became married to a Christian empress. It was under his rule that the Sasanian Empire reached its greatest expansion. From the standpoint of iconographic studies, Khosrow II is among the most influential Persian kings. Although he was literally occupied by rebels and wars within the borders of the Sasanian territories and beyond, Khosrow managed to create a powerful image of himself that emphasized the legitimacy of his monarchy. Indeed, Khosrow Parviz (the Victorious) drew upon royal iconography as a propaganda tool on a wide range of materials such as rock and stucco reliefs, coins, seals, and metal plates. His image (created both visually and verbally) not only revived the traditional iconography of the Persian kings but also evolved it in a way that transcended his time and was passed on to the early Islamic Caliphates after him. Khosrow II imitated and manipulated the traditional royal iconography of his predecessors in order to display his legitimacy, piety, and valor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Medieval Royal Iconography)
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9 pages, 310 KiB  
Entry
CRISPR/Cas9 in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
by María Hernández-Sánchez
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(2), 928-936; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2020061 - 7 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2320
Definition
Genome-editing systems such as Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 technology have uncovered new opportunities to model diseases such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia. CRISPR/Cas9 is an important means of advancing functional studies of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) through the incorporation, elimination and [...] Read more.
Genome-editing systems such as Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 technology have uncovered new opportunities to model diseases such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia. CRISPR/Cas9 is an important means of advancing functional studies of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) through the incorporation, elimination and modification of somatic mutations in CLL models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicine & Pharmacology)
16 pages, 342 KiB  
Review
Anxiety, Depression, and Other Emotional Disorders during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Narrative Review of the Risk Factors and Risk Groups
by Polina Kassaeva, Elena Belova, Ekaterina Shashina, Denis Shcherbakov, Valentina Makarova, Boris Ershov, Vitaly Sukhov, Nadezhda Zabroda, Natarajan Sriraam, Oleg Mitrokhin and Yury Zhernov
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(2), 912-927; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2020060 - 28 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4458
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected many aspects of our lives, including mental health. Identifying risk factors and risk groups associated with anxiety, depression, and other emotional disorders for reasons related to the COVID-19 pandemic is highly relevant. This narrative review aims to summarize [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected many aspects of our lives, including mental health. Identifying risk factors and risk groups associated with anxiety, depression, and other emotional disorders for reasons related to the COVID-19 pandemic is highly relevant. This narrative review aims to summarize the evidence to date on risk factors for emotional disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic in order to identify the risk groups of people in need of early psychiatric and psychological assistance, point out the controversial data on the influence of risk factors on emotional disorders in COVID-19, and finally offer recommendations for alleviating symptoms of anxiety, depression, and other emotional disorders in such people. According to the current literature, being under the age of 40, being female, having contact with a COVID-infected person, and watching the news about COVID-19 for more than 3 h a day all increase the likelihood of anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbances. Healthcare workers, particularly nurses, working in the COVID-19 hot zone suffer more from sleep disorders, anxiety, and depression. It is also noted that people with a previous psychiatric history, in addition to increased risks of anxiety and depression, have an increased risk of relapse during the COVID-19 pandemic. The same is true for people who have had episodes of substance abuse in the past. Aside from socioeconomic factors, the mental wellbeing of those who have had COVID-19 is also impacted by biological factors (using anti-COVID-19 drugs, COVID-19-associated immunothrombosis and venous thromboembolism, interferon-gamma-related cytokine storm, etc.), resulting in a wide range of acute and long-term cognitive disorders. During the restricted resource time, the aforementioned risk groups should be prioritized for prevention, early identification, and proper treatment of potential emotional disorders. The risk factors that were found in this narrative review, as well as how they interact and change over time, will help understand why some studies of at-risk groups do not agree with each other, justify new preventive measures, and strengthen existing programs to keep people’s mental health in check during this pandemic and other emergencies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Hygiene)
19 pages, 1514 KiB  
Entry
Dual-Modular Stems for Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty
by Jan Zajc and Samo Karel Fokter
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(2), 893-911; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2020059 - 27 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3498
Definition
In primary total hip arthroplasty (THA), dual-modular stems were introduced to better restore hip stability, femoral offset, and leg length. This entry highlights the gathered knowledge about dual-modular stems and related complications in combinations with titanium (Ti) and cobalt-chrome (CoCr) exchangeable necks. The [...] Read more.
In primary total hip arthroplasty (THA), dual-modular stems were introduced to better restore hip stability, femoral offset, and leg length. This entry highlights the gathered knowledge about dual-modular stems and related complications in combinations with titanium (Ti) and cobalt-chrome (CoCr) exchangeable necks. The reasons for a modular neck failure are multifactorial. Some of the dual-modular stems are still on the market despite the fact th these designs have neither been proven for durability nor have shown any clinical benefits for the patients as compared to monolithic stems. Apart from very limited indications, orthopaedic surgeons should not use dual-modular stem designs for primary THA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicine & Pharmacology)
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11 pages, 942 KiB  
Entry
Bagnoli Urban Regeneration through Phytoremediation
by Clelia Cirillo, Barbara Bertoli, Giovanna Acampora and Loredana Marcolongo
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(2), 882-892; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2020058 - 24 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2346
Definition
The Bagnolidistrict in Naples has needed urban redevelopmentfor many years. The area is not only affected by pollution caused by many industries but also by environmental pollutants, according togeognostic surveys that have found numerous contaminantsin the subsoil and water.Currently, the combination of an [...] Read more.
The Bagnolidistrict in Naples has needed urban redevelopmentfor many years. The area is not only affected by pollution caused by many industries but also by environmental pollutants, according togeognostic surveys that have found numerous contaminantsin the subsoil and water.Currently, the combination of an urban rehabilitation processwith the phytodepuration technique may represent a successful idea for obtaining bothurban regenerationand environmental remediation. Phytoremediation, a biologically based technology, has attracted the attention of both thepublic and scientists as a low-cost alternative for soil requalification. The use of plants as well as the microorganisms present in their root systems plays an important role in the ecological engineering field in controlling and reducing pollutants present in theair, water and soil.The result is efficient, sustainable and cost-effective environmental recovery compared to conventional chemical–physical techniques. In this way, not only the environmental recovery of SIN Bagnoli-Corogliocan be obtained, but also the regeneration of its landscape. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of ZEMCH Research and Development)
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9 pages, 1025 KiB  
Entry
Extracellular Vesicles and Immunomodulation in Mosquitoes and Ticks
by Brenda Leal-Galvan, Charluz Arocho Rosario and Adela Oliva Chávez
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(2), 873-881; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2020057 - 24 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2395
Definition
Extracellular vesicles are small blebs that are secreted by cells, which are lipid-rich and contain proteomic and genomic material (including small RNAs, mRNA, and plasmid DNA). These materials are delivered into recipient cells leading to a phenotypic change. Recent studies have demonstrated the [...] Read more.
Extracellular vesicles are small blebs that are secreted by cells, which are lipid-rich and contain proteomic and genomic material (including small RNAs, mRNA, and plasmid DNA). These materials are delivered into recipient cells leading to a phenotypic change. Recent studies have demonstrated the secretion of extracellular vesicles by mosquito and tick cells, as well as tick salivary glands. Further, these studies suggest vesicles play a role in the transmission of vector-borne pathogens, including viruses and bacteria, and are involved in the manipulation of wound healing and immune responses. Both of these processes are key in the host response to hematophagous arthropods’ feeding. The role of mosquito and tick EVs in the modulation of immune responses and pathogen transmission is discussed in this entry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biology & Life Sciences)
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9 pages, 253 KiB  
Entry
COVID-19: Gender and Outcomes
by Alfonso Ilardi
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(2), 864-872; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2020056 - 22 Apr 2022
Viewed by 1765
Definition
The existence of differences in susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection between males and females in both incidence and outcomes is well documented in the scientific literature. These differences, which are still underestimated, may have important implications in terms of prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of [...] Read more.
The existence of differences in susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection between males and females in both incidence and outcomes is well documented in the scientific literature. These differences, which are still underestimated, may have important implications in terms of prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of COVID-19, with significant prognostic consequences. The greater severity of the infection observed in males, even more so if they are elderly, would seem, according to current knowledge, to be due to multiple influences: immunological and endocrinological, but also genetic and behavioral. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of COVID-19)
24 pages, 3319 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in Research on Molecular Mechanisms of Fungal Signaling
by Stefan Jacob, Sri Bühring and Katharina Bersching
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(2), 840-863; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2020055 - 21 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3266
Abstract
Biochemical signaling is one of the key mechanisms to coordinate a living organism in all aspects of its life. It is still enigmatic how exactly cells and organisms deal with environmental signals and irritations precisely because of the limited number of signaling proteins [...] Read more.
Biochemical signaling is one of the key mechanisms to coordinate a living organism in all aspects of its life. It is still enigmatic how exactly cells and organisms deal with environmental signals and irritations precisely because of the limited number of signaling proteins and a multitude of transitions inside and outside the cell. Many components of signaling pathways are functionally pleiotropic, which means they have several functions. A single stimulus often results in multiple responses, a distinct response can be triggered by numerous stimuli and signals initiated by different stimuli are often transduced via commonly used network components. This review sheds light on the most important molecular mechanisms of cellular signaling in fungi and consequently provides a comprehensive overview about the current state of research on the road to understand the impact of signal transduction in eukaryotic microorganisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Fungi)
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62 pages, 9138 KiB  
Review
Formulation in Surfactant Systems: From-Winsor-to-HLDN
by Jean-Louis Salager, Ronald Marquez, Johnny Bullon and Ana Forgiarini
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(2), 778-839; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2020054 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 6652
Abstract
Formulation is an ancient concept, although the word has been used only recently. The first formulations made our civilization advance by inventing bronze, steel, and gunpowder; then, it was used in medieval alchemy. When chemistry became a science and with the golden age [...] Read more.
Formulation is an ancient concept, although the word has been used only recently. The first formulations made our civilization advance by inventing bronze, steel, and gunpowder; then, it was used in medieval alchemy. When chemistry became a science and with the golden age of organic synthesis, the second formulation period began. This made it possible to create new chemical species and new combinations “à la carte.” However, the research and developments were still carried out by trial and error. Finally, the third period of formulation history began after World War II, when the properties of a system were associated with its ingredients and the way they were assembled or combined. Therefore, the formulation and the systems’ phenomenology were related to the generation of some synergy to obtain a commercial product. Winsor’s formulation studies in the 1950s were enlightening for academy and industries that were studying empirically surfactant-oil-water (SOW) systems. One of its key characteristics was how the interfacial interaction of the adsorbed surfactant with oil and water phases could be equal by varying the physicochemical formulation of the system. Then, Hansen’s solubility parameter in the 1960s helped to reach a further understanding of the affinity of some substances to make them suitable to oil and water phases. In the 1970s, researchers such as Shinoda and Kunieda, and different groups working in Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR), among them Schechter and Wade’s group at the University of Texas, made formulation become a science by using semiempirical correlations to attain specific characteristics in a system (e.g., low oil-water interfacial tension, formulation of a stable O/W or W/O emulsion, or high-performance solubilization in a bicontinuous microemulsion system at the so-called optimum formulation). Nowadays, over 40 years of studies with the hydrophilic-lipophilic deviation equation (HLD) have made it feasible for formulators to improve products in many different applications using surfactants to attain a target system using HLD in its original or its normalized form, i.e., HLDN. Thus, it can be said that there is still current progress being made towards an interdisciplinary applied science with numerical guidelines. In the present work, the state-of-the-art of formulation in multiphase systems containing two immiscible phases like oil and water, and therefore systems with heterogeneous or micro-heterogeneous interfaces, is discussed. Surfactants, from simple to complex or polymeric, are generally present in such systems to solve a wide variety of problems in many areas. Some significant cases are presented here as examples dealing with petroleum, foods, pharmaceutics, cosmetics, detergency, and other products occurring as dispersions, emulsions, or foams that we find in our everyday lives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemistry)
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17 pages, 986 KiB  
Entry
Mediterranean Diet, a Sustainable Cultural Asset
by Vitor C. Barros and Amélia M. Delgado
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(2), 761-777; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2020053 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3661
Definition
The Mediterranean diet is a dietary pattern and associated lifestyle that adopts mainly plant foods. The Mediterranean diet (MD) has been acknowledged by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as an intangible cultural heritage of humanity since 2013, a candidacy [...] Read more.
The Mediterranean diet is a dietary pattern and associated lifestyle that adopts mainly plant foods. The Mediterranean diet (MD) has been acknowledged by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as an intangible cultural heritage of humanity since 2013, a candidacy involving seven countries in the area, including Portugal, aiming to safeguard the MD in its multiple dimensions. The corresponding food system is recognized as healthy and sustainable by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and by the World Health Organization (WHO), inspiring dietary guidelines around the world. The current entry examines the sustainability and resilience of the Mediterranean dietary food pattern, using the Portuguese as a case study to examine the feasibility of prospective composite indicators in assessing the sustainability of diets and food systems. Information extracted from reports and official statistics was used to assess a set of proposed metrics. Although information to fulfil most metrics was found, some data gaps were identified, highlighting the need to improve existing metrics. The current work highlights the role of science and policy in transforming four key areas of human–nature interaction: use of natural resources, food systems, production and consumption, and cities’ sustainability. Since sustainable production and consumption (SGD 12) is key to the UN’s 2030 agenda, it is important to analyze to what extent the dissemination of the Mediterranean diet among the population can be a way to achieve this goal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biology & Life Sciences)
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9 pages, 1398 KiB  
Entry
Cyclodextrin-Based Nanosponges and Proteins
by Silvia Lucia Appleton, Yousef Khazaei Monfared, Francisco José Vidal-Sánchez, Fabrizio Caldera, Roberta Cavalli, Francesco Trotta and Adrián Matencio
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(2), 752-760; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2020052 - 13 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2406
Definition
Cyclodextrin-based nanosponges (CD-NSs) have gained importance in drug delivery in the last years due to their easy synthesis and versatility. However, their use as carriers for the delivery of macromolecules such as proteins is less known and sometimes difficult to consider. In this [...] Read more.
Cyclodextrin-based nanosponges (CD-NSs) have gained importance in drug delivery in the last years due to their easy synthesis and versatility. However, their use as carriers for the delivery of macromolecules such as proteins is less known and sometimes difficult to consider. In this entry, the authors summarize and highlight the multiple possibilities of CD-NSs to deliver active proteins, improving their activity or stability. Starting with a brief description of CD-NSs and their characteristics, the entry will be focused on several proteins, such as (1) Lipase, (2) Insulin and (3) Nisin, for chemical or pharmaceutical applications. The revised results demonstrated that CD-NSs can generate different and interesting applications with proteins. These results could be added to their uses with small drugs, being an interesting alternative for protein delivery and applicability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicine & Pharmacology)
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23 pages, 690 KiB  
Entry
Unveiling Neuromarketing and Its Research Methodology
by Marcelo Royo-Vela and Ákos Varga
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(2), 729-751; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2020051 - 13 Apr 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 6049
Definition
Neuromarketing is the union of cognitive psychology, which studies mental processes, neurology and neurophysiology, which study the functioning and responses of the brain and body physiology to external stimuli, and marketing, which studies valuable exchanges, to explain marketing effects on customers’ and consumers’ [...] Read more.
Neuromarketing is the union of cognitive psychology, which studies mental processes, neurology and neurophysiology, which study the functioning and responses of the brain and body physiology to external stimuli, and marketing, which studies valuable exchanges, to explain marketing effects on customers’ and consumers’ behaviours and on buying and decision processes. It includes a set of research techniques that, by observing and evaluating how the brain and other body parts respond, avoids possible biases and provides truthful and objective information on consumer subconscious. The term “consumer neuroscience” covers academic approaches using techniques such as fMRI, Eye Tracking, or EED. The objectives of this entry are to show what neuromarketing is and what added value it brings to the study of consumer behaviour and purchase decision processes. The conclusions show a favourable future and positive attitudes towards neuromarketing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of Social Sciences)
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12 pages, 15935 KiB  
Entry
COVID-19 in the Construction Sector
by Ruben Rodríguez Elizalde
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(2), 717-728; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2020050 - 13 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3226
Definition
This section analyzes the influence of COVID-19 in the construction sector. Construction workers’ high vulnerability to the spread of the virus motivated this entry. The construction sector’s peculiarities and some work procedure characteristics in this sector make telecommuting impossible in most activities. In [...] Read more.
This section analyzes the influence of COVID-19 in the construction sector. Construction workers’ high vulnerability to the spread of the virus motivated this entry. The construction sector’s peculiarities and some work procedure characteristics in this sector make telecommuting impossible in most activities. In addition, most of the states and national governments declared the construction sector essential activity due to its high economic impact. The working conditions in this sector are very special: constant trips to work in groups, work group execution with little interpersonal distance, group travel, stays and accommodations away from home, meals in restaurants or work canteens, lunch in restaurants or work canteens, etc. Due to all of this, the contagion rate was very high during the pandemic months. Even today, it is still considered one of the most dangerous sectors for these purposes. With all this in mind, here we discuss why it is difficult to minimize the spread of the virus for construction workers, summarize how to assess exposure risk grades for construction job tasks, and provide possible protection requirements for the different exposure risk grades. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of COVID-19)
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12 pages, 13361 KiB  
Entry
Cottage Culture in Finland: Development and Perspectives
by Lotta Häkkänen, Hüseyin Emre Ilgın and Markku Karjalainen
Encyclopedia 2022, 2(2), 705-716; https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2020049 - 13 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2807
Definition
This entry provides an understanding of the past, present, and future of the Finnish cottage culture to create an overall picture of its development trajectory and its terminology, e.g., villa, in this context denoting a second home. Convenient, ready-made solutions, easy maintenance, a [...] Read more.
This entry provides an understanding of the past, present, and future of the Finnish cottage culture to create an overall picture of its development trajectory and its terminology, e.g., villa, in this context denoting a second home. Convenient, ready-made solutions, easy maintenance, a high level of equipment, year-round use, location, and modern and simple architectural styles are important selection criteria for (summer) cottages that belonged only to the wealthy bourgeois class in the 19th century and have taken their present form with a major transformation in Finland since then. Additionally, municipal regulations and increased attention to ecological concerns are other important issues regarding the cottage today. Cottage inheritance has changed over the generations, and the tightening of building regulations and increased environmental awareness are key drivers of the future transformation of cottage culture. Moreover, the increasing demand for single-family and outdoor spaces created by social changes such as remote working, which has become widespread with the COVID-19 pandemic, will make the summer cottage lifestyle even more popular in Finland. It is thought that this entry will contribute to the continuance of the Finnish cottage culture, which is essential for the vitality of countryside municipalities, local development, national culture, and the well-being of Finnish people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Encyclopedia of ZEMCH Research and Development)
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