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Beverages, Volume 10, Issue 2 (June 2024) – 16 articles

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9 pages, 536 KiB  
Article
A Holistic View of the Fate of Berry-Derived Adjuncts throughout Fermentation
by Mary T. Serviss, Nicholas A. Wendrick, Andrew J. MacIntosh and Katherine A. Thompson-Witrick
Beverages 2024, 10(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages10020038 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 170
Abstract
Berries and their products can enhance the antioxidant profile, color, and sensory characteristics of beverages, resulting in competitive, value-added products. However, a complete overview of how fermentation affects these compounds is lacking. The American black elderberry, Sambucus canadensis, is an excellent candidate [...] Read more.
Berries and their products can enhance the antioxidant profile, color, and sensory characteristics of beverages, resulting in competitive, value-added products. However, a complete overview of how fermentation affects these compounds is lacking. The American black elderberry, Sambucus canadensis, is an excellent candidate for studying how berry juices are affected during fermentation due to high concentrations of color compounds, anthocyanins, and volatile compounds. Gravity, pH, titratable acidity, total anthocyanins, color, and GC-MS analyses were performed on two varieties of elderberries to examine the physical and chemical qualities of elderberry juice before and after wine fermentation. A commercial product with elderberry adjuncts added post fermentation was also analyzed. The concentration of anthocyanins degraded by ~40% as the color of the elderberry wine shifted from blue to red after fermentation. Products that added elderberries post fermentation did not see the same degradation, however, also did not incorporate the same changes to volatile compounds as observed in the fermented wine. The fermentation industry can use this study’s findings to decide how best to use fruits to improve commercial products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Beverage Technology Fermentation and Microbiology)
16 pages, 235 KiB  
Article
Cash Rules Everything around Me: Investigating Craft Beer Drinkers Purchase Decisions during Inflationary Period
by Scott Taylor, Jr. and D. Christopher Taylor
Beverages 2024, 10(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages10020037 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 284
Abstract
Since March 2020, there have been multiple outside influences negatively impacting the U.S. craft beer industry from COVID-19 to inflation all leading up to increased prices for consumers. However, to date, research has not investigated consumer sentiment toward increased prices and their willingness [...] Read more.
Since March 2020, there have been multiple outside influences negatively impacting the U.S. craft beer industry from COVID-19 to inflation all leading up to increased prices for consumers. However, to date, research has not investigated consumer sentiment toward increased prices and their willingness to continue paying increased prices for beer from various outlets. The current study provides an initial assessment of craft beer consumers’ purchase behaviors for on(own)- and off-premise consumption given the impacts of COVID-19 and the recent economic situation. Past research has indicated that increased prices tend to lead to decreased purchases of beer (and alcohol in general). Results of the current online survey of craft beer drinkers mostly align with past findings, as nearly half of the 350 participants in this study indicated that they had decreased their consumption of craft beer away from home. Relatedly, respondents indicated a relatively low willingness to pay price increases for craft beer consumed on-premise (own-premise) or off-premise. Full article
15 pages, 2014 KiB  
Article
Strawberry Post-Harvest Anthocyanin Development to Improve the Colour Stability of Strawberry Nectars
by Helen Murray, Fabio Stipkovits, Jasmin Wühl, Heidrun Halbwirth and Manfred Gössinger
Beverages 2024, 10(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages10020036 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 268
Abstract
Strawberry nectars have increased colour stability when produced from overripe, darker, and redder strawberries, with a high anthocyanin concentration. The post-harvest storage of strawberries has been shown to develop these properties. Nectars are frequently produced from strawberries rejected for fresh sale due to [...] Read more.
Strawberry nectars have increased colour stability when produced from overripe, darker, and redder strawberries, with a high anthocyanin concentration. The post-harvest storage of strawberries has been shown to develop these properties. Nectars are frequently produced from strawberries rejected for fresh sale due to poor colour, which are insufficiently ripe to produce colour-stable nectars. This study investigated post-harvest anthocyanin development in strawberries to improve the colour and colour stability of nectars, which is the first time these developments were studied for beverage production. Strawberries at five ripeness stages were stored at 20 °C for 1 and 2 days prior to nectar production. The anthocyanin content of nectars was determined by a pH-differential method, and the colour stability was tracked for 12 weeks using a consumer Acceptance Factor, derived from CIELAB colour components. The anthocyanin content and colour stability were highly correlated, and both were dependent on ripening, with larger increases observed in under-ripe strawberries, and small to no improvement in overripe samples. Stored partially coloured strawberries produced nectars with equivalent colour stability to non-stored strawberries of normal ripeness. This allowed strawberries that were previously unsuitable for both fresh sale and nectar production to be used as a feedstock for nectar production, reducing food waste. Full article
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22 pages, 2314 KiB  
Article
Impact of Storage Temperature on Green Tea Quality: Insights from Sensory Analysis and Chemical Composition
by Xi Zhao, Penghui Yu, Ni Zhong, Hao Huang and Hongfa Zheng
Beverages 2024, 10(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages10020035 - 11 May 2024
Viewed by 475
Abstract
This study investigated the impact of storage temperatures (−20 °C, room temperature, and 40 °C) on the sensory evaluation, metabolites, and volatile compounds of green tea stored for 12 months. The sensory evaluation revealed that tea samples stored at −20 °C retained their [...] Read more.
This study investigated the impact of storage temperatures (−20 °C, room temperature, and 40 °C) on the sensory evaluation, metabolites, and volatile compounds of green tea stored for 12 months. The sensory evaluation revealed that tea samples stored at −20 °C retained their emerald green colour, tender aroma, and refreshing taste. Green tea biochemical constituents, including water extracts and total free amino acids, were measured by Chinese National Standard Methods (GB/T 8305-2013 and GB/T 8314-2013). Tea polyphenols and flavonoids were determined using spectrophotometric methods, while phytochemicals were detected using validated HPLC, and volatile compounds were detected using validated gas chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. The analysis showed that tea polyphenols were highest at −20 °C, and flavonoids were significantly reduced at higher temperatures. A similar trend was observed for amino acids, soluble sugar content, and water extracts. Tea catechins, including (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and (-)-gallocatechin gallate (GCG), were highest at −20 °C, showing their susceptibility to temperature. A volatile compound analysis revealed distinct profiles with variations in the abundance of compounds, such as di-methyl sulfide, phenyl ethyl alcohol, indole, and benzaldehyde. This study identifies temperature-sensitive compounds, providing insights into the mechanisms underlying tea quality deterioration during storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Tea, Coffee, Water, and Other Non-Alcoholic Beverages)
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31 pages, 3425 KiB  
Article
Production and Optimisation of Fermented Pumpkin-Based Mature Coconut Water Kefir Beverage Using Response Surface Methodology
by Wee Yin Koh, Xiao Xian Lim, Ban Hock Khor, Babak Rasti, Thuan Chew Tan, Rovina Kobun and Utra Uthumporn
Beverages 2024, 10(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages10020034 - 7 May 2024
Viewed by 472
Abstract
Fermentation of pumpkin puree and mature coconut water using water kefir grains is a potential method for producing a novel functional non-dairy-based probiotic drink. In the present study, response surface methodology based on Box–Behnken design (RSM-BBD) was used to optimise fermentation temperature and [...] Read more.
Fermentation of pumpkin puree and mature coconut water using water kefir grains is a potential method for producing a novel functional non-dairy-based probiotic drink. In the present study, response surface methodology based on Box–Behnken design (RSM-BBD) was used to optimise fermentation temperature and substrates’ concentrations. The optimised fermentation temperature, pumpkin puree, and brown sugar concentrations of pumpkin-based mature coconut water kefir beverage (PWKC) were 27 °C, 20%, and 10% w/v, respectively. The optimised PWKC (PWKCopt) obtained an overall acceptability (OA) score of 4.03, with a desirable Lactobacillus count (6.41 Log CFU/mL), 0.68% v/v lactic acid content, 31% of water kefir grains’ biomass growth rate, and fermentation time (to reach pH 4.5) of 4.5 h. The optimized beverage, PWKCopt, contained 3.26% proteins, 2.75% dietary fibre, 2186.33 mg/L of potassium, 180.67 mg/L phosphorus, and 137.33 mg/L calcium and had a total phenolic content of 89.93 mg GAE/100 mL, flavonoid content of 49.94 mg QE/100 mL, and carotenoid content of 33.24 mg/100 mL, with antioxidant activity (FRAP: 169.17 mM Fe(II)/100 mL, IC50 value of DPPH free radicals scavenging activity: 27.17 mg/mL). Water kefir microorganisms in PWKCopt remained stable for at least 56 days at 4 °C. Therefore, PWKCopt might potentially serve as a value-added product, offering a basis for sustainable development within both the coconut and pumpkin industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Analysis of Food and Beverages)
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20 pages, 1467 KiB  
Review
Common Beverage Consumption and Benign Gynecological Conditions
by Rachel Michel, Dana Hazimeh, Eslam E. Saad, Sydney L. Olson, Kelsey Musselman, Eman Elgindy and Mostafa A. Borahay
Beverages 2024, 10(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages10020033 - 1 May 2024
Viewed by 746
Abstract
The purpose of this article is to review the effects of four commonly consumed beverage types—sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), caffeinated beverages, green tea, and alcohol—on five common benign gynecological conditions: uterine fibroids, endometriosis, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), anovulatory infertility, and primary dysmenorrhea (PD). Here [...] Read more.
The purpose of this article is to review the effects of four commonly consumed beverage types—sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), caffeinated beverages, green tea, and alcohol—on five common benign gynecological conditions: uterine fibroids, endometriosis, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), anovulatory infertility, and primary dysmenorrhea (PD). Here we outline a plethora of research, highlighting studies that demonstrate possible associations between beverage intake and increased risk of certain gynecological conditions—such as SSBs and dysmenorrhea—as well as studies that demonstrate a possible protective effect of beverage against risk of gynecological condition—such as green tea and uterine fibroids. This review aims to help inform the diet choices of those with the aforementioned conditions and give those with uteruses autonomy over their lifestyle decisions. Full article
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12 pages, 1350 KiB  
Article
Total Dealcoholisation of Wines by Very Low Temperature Vacuum Distillation Technology Called GoLo
by José Manuel Veiga-del-Baño, Juan José Cuenca-Martínez, José Oliva, Miguel Ángel Cámara and Pedro Andreo-Martínez
Beverages 2024, 10(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages10020032 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 517
Abstract
The use of wine dealcoholisation has multiplied in recent years as a result of various factors, including the increase in alcohol content due to global warming and changes in consumer drinking habits. There are several post-fermentation dealcoholisation methods in the literature which allow [...] Read more.
The use of wine dealcoholisation has multiplied in recent years as a result of various factors, including the increase in alcohol content due to global warming and changes in consumer drinking habits. There are several post-fermentation dealcoholisation methods in the literature which allow for the partial or total elimination of the alcohol content of wine. However, there are no studies on the patented very low temperature vacuum wine distillation technology called GoLo. Therefore, for the first time, this paper evaluates the quality of dealcoholised white, rose and red wines using GoLo technology. For this purpose, alcohol content, pH, total SO2, free SO2, total acidity and volatile acidity were measured. There were no significant differences in the variations in pH, total acidity and volatile acidity after the dealcoholisation process using GoLo technology and dealcoholised wines showed a reduction of 22.1% in total SO2 and a complete absence of ethanol and free SO2. A model for predicting the total SO2 content of dealcoholised wines and a model for predicting the amount of sulphites to be added after dealcoholisation were found after the statistical treatment of the data. GoLo dealcoholisation delivers 100% removal of alcohol and free SO2 in less time, with less loss and energy than other dealcoholisation technologies. The verification and extension of these results will be the focus of future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Beverage Technology Fermentation and Microbiology)
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18 pages, 1083 KiB  
Article
Fortification of White Wines with Antioxidants and Se: Impacts on Browning Development and Phenolic Content
by Melina Maria Chatzistavridi, Stefania Christofi and Stamatina Kallithraka
Beverages 2024, 10(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages10020031 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 832
Abstract
The present study explores the efficiency of selenomethionine (Semeth), an organic form of Se, as an antioxidant compared with commonly used antioxidants (ascorbic acid, glutathione, and potassium metabisulfite) in preventing oxidative browning in Greek white wines (Malagouzia and Retsina). The experimental procedure involved [...] Read more.
The present study explores the efficiency of selenomethionine (Semeth), an organic form of Se, as an antioxidant compared with commonly used antioxidants (ascorbic acid, glutathione, and potassium metabisulfite) in preventing oxidative browning in Greek white wines (Malagouzia and Retsina). The experimental procedure involved an accelerated browning test conducted over 12 days at 55 °C, measurement of antioxidant activity values (using the Folin—Ciocalteau and the free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods), determination of free sulfhydryl groups using the Ellman’s method, and High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic analysis of selected phenolic compounds. Semeth consistently exhibited a preserving effect on total and free SO2 content and antioxidant activity values of Malagouzia wines. Semeth also showed a protecting effect on free sulfhydryl groups (-SH), even higher than that of SO2 suggesting that its role in maintaining wine color involves more mechanisms than just the prevention of SO2 reduction. Moreover, Semeth demonstrated promising effects in preserving individual phenolic content, in particular (+)-catechin and fertaric acid, compared to the other antioxidant additions. Both browning rate constants and percentage color change values of Retsina where higher than the corresponding values of Malagouzia wines indicating greater susceptibility to browning. Browning development was dependent on the particular antioxidant added, with ascorbic acid being the least effective. The results of this study suggest that Semeth could be an important candidate for enhancing the oxidative stability of white wines, offering at the same time valuable information for optimizing antioxidant strategies in winemaking practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine and Spirits)
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11 pages, 1015 KiB  
Article
The Ability of Lacticaseibacillus paracasei MSMC 36-9 Strain with Probiotic Potential to Ferment Coconut Milk and Produce a Yogurt-Type Beverage
by Porntipha Vitheejongjaroen, Pooyanee Phettakhu, Wannicha Arsayot, Malai Taweechotipatr and Ulisa Pachekrepapol
Beverages 2024, 10(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages10020030 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 839
Abstract
The efficacy of the Lacticaseibacillus paracasei MSMC 36-9 strain with probiotic potential to ferment coconut milk and produce coconut milk yogurt-type beverages was examined. Tapioca starch was used as a stabilizer at concentrations of 0, 1.0, and 2.0% (w/w). [...] Read more.
The efficacy of the Lacticaseibacillus paracasei MSMC 36-9 strain with probiotic potential to ferment coconut milk and produce coconut milk yogurt-type beverages was examined. Tapioca starch was used as a stabilizer at concentrations of 0, 1.0, and 2.0% (w/w). The samples were stored at 4 °C for 21 days and analyzed for viability and resistance to in vitro gastrointestinal conditions of L. paracasei MSMC 36-9, pH changes, radical scavenging activity using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, and apparent viscosity. The viability of the strain with probiotic potential in the samples remained stable during storage and ranged between 12 and 13 log CFU/g by the end of the storage period. The strain L. paracasei MSMC 36-9 from all samples survived under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. The pH levels of all samples decreased during storage due to post-acidification. The radical scavenging activity of the products fermented with L. paracasei MSMC 36-9 was higher than that of the sample fermented with the commercial yogurt starter culture. The addition of tapioca starch to fermented coconut milk increased the viscosity of the samples. The results suggested that L. paracasei MSMC 36-9 can be used as a starter culture in the production of coconut milk yogurt-type beverages with antioxidant potential. Full article
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16 pages, 611 KiB  
Article
Development of a New Kombucha from Grape Pomace: The Impact of Fermentation Conditions on Composition and Biological Activities
by Nathalie Barakat, Jalloul Bouajila, Sandra Beaufort, Ziad Rizk, Patricia Taillandier and Youssef El Rayess
Beverages 2024, 10(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages10020029 - 17 Apr 2024
Viewed by 2186
Abstract
Winemaking is one of the oldest biotechnology techniques in the world. The wine industry generates 20 million tons of by-products, such as wastewater, stalk, lees, pomace, and stems, each year. The objective of this research project is to valorize wine industry by-products by [...] Read more.
Winemaking is one of the oldest biotechnology techniques in the world. The wine industry generates 20 million tons of by-products, such as wastewater, stalk, lees, pomace, and stems, each year. The objective of this research project is to valorize wine industry by-products by producing a functional beverage via the fermentation of grape pomace with the kombucha consortium. In this study, grape pomace kombucha was produced under different conditions, and the concentration of the added sucrose in addition to the fermentation duration and temperature were varied. Overall, fermentation was characterized by the consumption of sugars and the production of organic acids and ethanol. An improvement in the concentrations of the total polyphenols and anthocyanins was observed in the developed product (i.e., up to 100%). Moreover, an enhancement of the antioxidant potential by 100%, as well as increases of 50 to 75% in the anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activities, was noted. Full article
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11 pages, 1227 KiB  
Article
Acetic Fermentation of Cagaita Pulp: Technological and Chemical Characteristics
by Jeisa Farias De Sousa Santana, Guilherme Freitas de Lima Hercos, Josemar Gonçalves de Oliveira Filho, Daiane Costa dos Santos, Marilene Silva Oliveira, Bheatriz Silva Morais de Freitas, Fabiano Guimarães Silva and Mariana Buranelo Egea
Beverages 2024, 10(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages10020028 - 12 Apr 2024
Viewed by 710
Abstract
The Brazilian Cerrado region has a rich plant diversity, with fruits that have peculiar and unique sensory characteristics. For these reasons, using these fruits for biotechnological production is a promising alternative, mainly to protect this biome from deforestation and degradation. The production of [...] Read more.
The Brazilian Cerrado region has a rich plant diversity, with fruits that have peculiar and unique sensory characteristics. For these reasons, using these fruits for biotechnological production is a promising alternative, mainly to protect this biome from deforestation and degradation. The production of fermented acetic acid is an option to add value to native fruits and offer the market beverages with better nutritional quality and bioactive compounds. This work aimed to characterize fruits and to develop cagaita (Eugenia dysenterica DC.) acetic fermented beverage. The fruits were subjected to physical-chemical analyses in the first part. Subsequently, different treatments for fermentation were tested using two types of enzymes (amylase and pectinase), two subspecies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (UFLA CA11 and thermoresistant LNF Angel), and the chaptalization of the must with sucrose (16 °Brix). Alcoholic fermentation was carried out in an incubator with temperature control at 34 ± 1 °C. The pH, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, alcohol content, and density of the fermented products were monitored daily. The chaptalized must with amylase addition and thermoresistant yeast had the best performance during alcoholic fermentation, demonstrating that thermoresistant yeast is an economically advantageous and efficient alternative for the cagaita juice fermentation process. Subsequently, acetic fermentation was carried out using the slow method. Heat-resistant yeast without added enzymes was used to produce cagaita acetic fermented beverages within the parameters of the Brazilian legislation. Furthermore, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in the final product were observed. The work demonstrated the possibility of using cagaita fruits in biotechnological processes to produce new food products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Beverage Technology Fermentation and Microbiology)
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16 pages, 481 KiB  
Article
Leave the Milk for the Calf and Spread the Word: Exploring Factors Determining US Consumers’ Willingness to Try Plant-Based Milk Alternatives and Their Word-of-Mouth Sharing about Plant-Based Milk Alternatives
by Meike Rombach, Lei Cong and David L. Dean
Beverages 2024, 10(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages10020027 - 9 Apr 2024
Viewed by 933
Abstract
Plant-based milk alternatives are important beverages in US consumer markets. Sustainability, consumer awareness, lifestyle changes, and other value-based reasons are why these beverages are increasing in popularity. The present study is focused on plant-based milk alternatives. It builds on an online consumer survey [...] Read more.
Plant-based milk alternatives are important beverages in US consumer markets. Sustainability, consumer awareness, lifestyle changes, and other value-based reasons are why these beverages are increasing in popularity. The present study is focused on plant-based milk alternatives. It builds on an online consumer survey that explores the factors explaining US consumers’ willingness to try plant-based milk alternatives and their word-of-mouth sharing about these beverages. Animal welfare concerns, environmental concerns, health consciousness, and dairy preferences are the factors under investigation. Results show that animal welfare, dairy preference, environmental concerns, and plant-based milk enthusiasm are significant predictors for willingness to try plant-based milk alternatives. Dairy preferences, environmental concerns, and plant-based milk enthusiasm predict the word-of-mouth factors. Overall, plant-based milk enthusiasm is the strongest driver for both consumer behaviours. Best practice recommendations address marketers in the US food and beverage industry and provide suggestions on how to target different consumer groups based on nutritional preferences and needs and on value-based product characteristics. Full article
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16 pages, 2759 KiB  
Article
Exploring Metschnikowia pulcherrima as a Co-Fermenter with Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Influence on Wine Aroma during Fermentation and Ageing
by Lesly L. Torres-Díaz, Rebeca Murillo-Peña, Miquel Iribarren, Itziar Sáenz de Urturi, Sandra Marín-San Román, Miriam González-Lázaro, Eva P. Pérez-Álvarez and Teresa Garde-Cerdán
Beverages 2024, 10(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages10020026 - 9 Apr 2024
Viewed by 734
Abstract
Non-Saccharomyces yeasts, particularly Metschnikowia pulcherrima, are considered alternatives to SO2 in winemaking, combating specific microorganisms. The sensory profile of the wine is contingent upon the type of yeast, the fermentation conditions, and the concentration and mode of application with Saccharomyces [...] Read more.
Non-Saccharomyces yeasts, particularly Metschnikowia pulcherrima, are considered alternatives to SO2 in winemaking, combating specific microorganisms. The sensory profile of the wine is contingent upon the type of yeast, the fermentation conditions, and the concentration and mode of application with Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (whether pure or used in mixed/sequential co-fermentation). This study assessed the aroma in red wines produced with S. cerevisiae (Sc) and M. pulcherrima (Mp, non-Sc), incorporating variations in the method of addition and the inclusion or exclusion of SO2. The enological parameters of the wines were slightly affected. Volatile compounds were analysed in the wines through gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) at three moments: at the end of malolactic fermentation (MLF) and after 6 and 9 months of bottle ageing. Sequential fermentation of Sc and Mp reduced the concentration of most identified alcohols and acids, which is favourable, as these compounds can yield undesirable aromas at high concentrations. Regardless of the yeast mixture and Mp dose, a majority of the acetate esters and ethyl esters were quantified at concentrations above their perception thresholds, thus enhancing the sensory quality of the wines. Sensory analysis of wines showed generally positive evaluations. Using non-Saccharomyces as an alternative to SO2 improves the aromatic profile of wines. Full article
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16 pages, 7501 KiB  
Article
Packaging Material Use Efficiency of Commercial PET and Glass Bottles for Mineral Water
by Anna Gress, Kajetan Müller and Sven Sängerlaub
Beverages 2024, 10(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages10020025 - 5 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1416
Abstract
The influence of the bottle material (glass, PET), the reusability (reusable and disposable bottles), and the carbonization (still, medium, classic mineral water) on the filling ratio, packaging material use efficiency, cost, and shelf life were evaluated. Two hundred different bottles were purchased and [...] Read more.
The influence of the bottle material (glass, PET), the reusability (reusable and disposable bottles), and the carbonization (still, medium, classic mineral water) on the filling ratio, packaging material use efficiency, cost, and shelf life were evaluated. Two hundred different bottles were purchased and characterized regarding their filling volume, the weight of the bottle, the weight of the closure, the weight of the label, and the maximum full-rim volume of the bottle. The packaging material use efficiency was calculated. The shelf life was evaluated by calculating the water vapor and carbon dioxide transmission rates. The ratio of filling volume to the packaging weight of disposable PET bottles was, on average, two times higher compared to returnable PET bottles and 20 times higher compared to glass bottles. Shelf life was, on average, higher than factor two for glass bottles compared to PET bottles. On average, but not in all cases, mineral water packaged in disposable PET bottles was cheaper compared to reusable PET and glass bottles. This paper provides a benchmark for the packaging community, especially when data for life cycle assessment are required, and the different advantages and disadvantages of different bottle materials for mineral water are shown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Tea, Coffee, Water, and Other Non-Alcoholic Beverages)
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28 pages, 12839 KiB  
Article
Aromatic Characterization of Graševina Wines from Slavonia and Podunavlje Sub-Regions
by Mitja Martelanc, Guillaume Antalick, Tatjana Radovanović Vukajlović, Branka Mozetič Vodopivec, Melita Sternad Lemut, Ahmad Hosseini, Valentina Obradović, Josip Mesić and Lorena Butinar
Beverages 2024, 10(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages10020024 - 31 Mar 2024
Viewed by 829
Abstract
This study investigated the chemical aromatic profiles of 60 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including 21 terpenes, 6 norisoprenoids, 6 volatile phenols, 4 C-6 alcohols, and 23 esters, in Graševina wines originating from Slavonia and Podunavlje sub-regions (Croatia). Headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography coupled [...] Read more.
This study investigated the chemical aromatic profiles of 60 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including 21 terpenes, 6 norisoprenoids, 6 volatile phenols, 4 C-6 alcohols, and 23 esters, in Graševina wines originating from Slavonia and Podunavlje sub-regions (Croatia). Headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detection (HS-SPME-GCMS) was used to assess 60 VOCs, and a novel HS-SPME-GCMS method for the determination of terpenes and norisoprenoids was developed and validated. Statistical analysis found no significant differences between VOCs present in Graševina wines and others wines (Chardonnay and Pinot gris); nonetheless, comparison of VOC fingerprints between different wines from the same producer showed that four terpenes (α-terpinene, γ-terpinene, 1,4-cineol, and 4-terpineol) were present in higher amounts in Graševina wines when compared to other wines. By exclusively examining VOCs within Graševina wines through the utilization of a heatmap and hierarchical clustering, a distinct visualization of samples and VOCs emerged, highlighting the vintage effect. Simultaneously, a partial least squares discriminant analysis model was developed with a confidence interval of 95%, demonstrating a noticeable distinction between samples originating from the western and eastern regions. Furthermore, by employing the heatmap using only VOCs from the terpene and norisoprenoidic groups, a clear separation of samples into two groups was observed based on geographical origin; namely, higher concentrations of norisoprenoids and terpenes were observed in the Slavonia sub-region. These results suggest that terpenes and norisoprenoids to a lower extent may be valuable aromatic markers for the regional typicality of Graševina wines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wine, Spirits and Oenological Products)
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14 pages, 1854 KiB  
Article
Brewing Mainly from Stale Bread: A Pale Ale Case Study
by Pedro Coelho, Catarina Prista and Isabel Sousa
Beverages 2024, 10(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages10020023 - 29 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1446
Abstract
Contemporary environmental concerns have led to the prioritization of sustainable production and material circularity, no matter what the industrial field of activity. Bread waste is a major element of overall food waste since, worldwide, bread remains a widespread staple food. A considerable proportion [...] Read more.
Contemporary environmental concerns have led to the prioritization of sustainable production and material circularity, no matter what the industrial field of activity. Bread waste is a major element of overall food waste since, worldwide, bread remains a widespread staple food. A considerable proportion of bread consumption is of fresh, baked bread, consumed daily, generating substantial amounts of stale bread. Therefore, efforts to reintroduce this waste into the food value chain can make a significant contribution to reaching zero food waste, which is a major target in European countries. Possible ways to produce new raw materials through starch enzymatic hydrolysis include brewing, which is an activity in which incorporating stale bread is of great interest. Mashing parameters in brewing processing are the main focus of this study, primarily the time and temperature required to acquire optimal enzymatic activity for starch-efficient hydrolysis. Extending the mashing time to 290 min, within a temperature range of 45–75 °C, allowed us to replace 50% of the required malt with stale bread, thus obtaining a successful pale ale beer. The incorporation of stale bread in a 50:50 ratio did not affect the overall character of the beer, although the alcohol levels stood around 2% below a standard beer’s average level. Depending on the brewer’s final goal, this lighter kind of beer may be well-aligned with new consumer trends supporting more sustainable and lower-alcohol beverages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Malting, Brewing and Beer)
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