Editor’s Choice Articles

Editor’s Choice articles are based on recommendations by the scientific editors of MDPI journals from around the world. Editors select a small number of articles recently published in the journal that they believe will be particularly interesting to readers, or important in the respective research area. The aim is to provide a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the various research areas of the journal.

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14 pages, 2213 KiB  
Article
Simultaneous Determination of Amino Acids and Biogenic Amines by Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Mass Spectrometry for Assessing Wine Quality
by Ainhoa Navarro-Abril, Javier Saurina and Sònia Sentellas
Beverages 2022, 8(4), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8040069 - 03 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2470
Abstract
Biogenic amines (BAs) and free amino acids (AAs) are low-molecular nitrogenous compounds occurring in a wide range of foodstuffs, found in increased amount in different fermented foods, seafood, and wines. This study deals with the development of an analytical method based on liquid [...] Read more.
Biogenic amines (BAs) and free amino acids (AAs) are low-molecular nitrogenous compounds occurring in a wide range of foodstuffs, found in increased amount in different fermented foods, seafood, and wines. This study deals with the development of an analytical method based on liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry with precolumn derivatization with dansyl chloride for the determination of BAs and AAs in musts, wines, and sparkling wines. The resulting compositional profiles have been exploited as potential descriptors of quality and other oenological issues using chemometric methods including principal component analysis (PCA) and partial analysis of least squares-discriminants (PLS-DA). Proline is the most abundant compound, and other remarkable species are lysine, ethanolamine, tyramine, histamine, and putrescine. Fermented samples (wines and sparkling wines) are much richer in both BAs and free AAs than the initial musts. Significant differences have also been noticed in the quality, as the best products display, in general, lower levels. The dissimilarities in the content of the analytes between the two grape varieties studied (pinot noir and xarel·lo) and those dealing with quality aspects have made it possible to establish a tree to classify the samples based on these two features with excellent classification rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wine, Spirits and Oenological Products)
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16 pages, 3934 KiB  
Article
Impact of Two Commercial S. cerevisiae Strains on the Aroma Profiles of Different Regional Musts
by Francesca Patrignani, Gabriella Siesto, Davide Gottardi, Ileana Vigentini, Annita Toffanin, Vasileios Englezos, Giuseppe Blaiotta, Francesco Grieco, Rosalba Lanciotti, Barbara Speranza, Antonio Bevilacqua and Patrizia Romano
Beverages 2022, 8(4), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8040059 - 26 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2147
Abstract
The present research is aimed at investigating the potential of two commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (EC1118 and AWRI796) to generate wine-specific volatile molecule fingerprinting in relation to the initial must applied. To eliminate the effects of all the process variables and obtain more [...] Read more.
The present research is aimed at investigating the potential of two commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (EC1118 and AWRI796) to generate wine-specific volatile molecule fingerprinting in relation to the initial must applied. To eliminate the effects of all the process variables and obtain more reliable results, comparative fermentations on interlaboratory scale of five different regional red grape musts were carried out by five different research units (RUs). For this purpose, the two S. cerevisiae strains were inoculated separately at the same level and under the same operating conditions. The wines were analyzed by means of SPME-GC/MS. Quali-quantitative multivariate approaches (two-way joining, MANOVA and PCA) were used to explain the contribution of strain, must, and their interaction to the final wine volatile fingerprinting. Our results showed that the five wines analyzed for volatile compounds, although characterized by a specific aromatic profile, were mainly affected by the grape used, in interaction with the inoculated Saccharomyces strain. In particular, the AWRI796 strain generally exerted a greater influence on the aromatic component resulting in a higher level of alcohols and esters. This study highlighted that the variable strain could have a different weight, with some musts experiencing a different trend depending on the strain (i.e., Negroamaro or Magliocco musts). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Microorganisms in Wine Production: From Vine to Wine)
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17 pages, 3135 KiB  
Article
DLLμE/GC-MS as a Powerful Analytical Approach to Establish the Volatilomic Composition of Different Whiskeys
by Rosa Perestrelo, Michael Caldeira, Freddy Rodrigues, Jorge A. M. Pereira and José S. Câmara
Beverages 2022, 8(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8030053 - 01 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2609
Abstract
The volatilomic fingerprint of nine different whiskeys was established using a rapid and sensitive analytical approach based on dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLμE) followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry detection (GC-MS) and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The influence of the extractor [...] Read more.
The volatilomic fingerprint of nine different whiskeys was established using a rapid and sensitive analytical approach based on dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLμE) followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry detection (GC-MS) and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The influence of the extractor solvent on the extraction efficiency of volatile compounds (VOCs) was evaluated by DLLμE/GC-MS. The highest amounts of VOCs were obtained using 5 mL of sample, dichloromethane as the extractor solvent, and acetone as the disperser solvent. The proposed method showed no matrix effect, good linearity (R2 ≥ 0.993) in the assessed concentration range, recovery (ranging from 70 to 99%, precision (RSD ≤ 15%) and sensitivity (low limits of detection and quantification). A total of 37 VOCs belonging to different biosynthetic pathways including alcohols, esters, acids, carbonyl compounds, furanic compounds and volatile phenols were identified and quantified using DLLμE/GC-MS and DLLμE/GC-FID, respectively. Alcohols (3-methylbutan-1-ol, propan-1-ol), esters (ethyl decanoate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl hexanoate), and acids (decanoic acid, octanoic acid, hexanoic acid) were the most abundant chemical families. The multivariate statistical analysis allowed for the discrimination of whiskeys based on their volatilomic fingerprint, namely octanoic acid, 2-furfural, ethyl octanoate, ethyl hexanoate, acetic acid, ethyl dodecanoate, butan-1-ol, and ethyl decanoate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wine, Spirits and Oenological Products)
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13 pages, 3894 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Spontaneous Fermentation and Non-Saccharomyces Sequential Fermentation in Verdicchio Wine at Winery Scale
by Laura Canonico, Alice Agarbati, Francesca Comitini and Maurizio Ciani
Beverages 2022, 8(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8030049 - 19 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2541
Abstract
The use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in sequential fermentation is a suitable biotechnological process to provide specific oenological characteristics and to increase the complexity of wines. In this work, selected strains of Lachancea thermotolerans and Starmerella bombicola were used in sequential fermentations with [...] Read more.
The use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in sequential fermentation is a suitable biotechnological process to provide specific oenological characteristics and to increase the complexity of wines. In this work, selected strains of Lachancea thermotolerans and Starmerella bombicola were used in sequential fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and compared with spontaneous and pure S. cerevisiae fermentation trials in Verdicchio grape juice. Torulaspora delbrueckii together with the other two non-Saccharomyces strains (L. thermotolerans, S. bombicola) in multi-sequential fermentations was also evaluated. Wines, obtained under winery vinification conditions, were evaluated for their analytical and sensorial profile. The results indicated that each fermentation gave peculiar analytical and aromatic features of the final wine. L. thermotolerans trials are characterized by an increase of total acidity, higher alcohols and monoterpenes as well as citric and herbal notes. S. bombicola trials showed a general significantly high concentration of phenylethyl acetate and hexyl acetate and a softness sensation while multi-sequential fermentations showed a balanced profile. Spontaneous fermentation was characterized by the production of acetate esters (ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate), citrus and herbal notes, and tannicity. The overall results indicate that multi-starter fermentations could be a promising tool tailored to the desired features of different Verdicchio wine styles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Microorganisms in Wine Production: From Vine to Wine)
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19 pages, 675 KiB  
Review
The Effects of Consuming Amino Acids L-Arginine, L-Citrulline (and Their Combination) as a Beverage or Powder, on Athletic and Physical Performance: A Systematic Review
by Siphamandla Nyawose, Rowena Naidoo, Nenad Naumovski and Andrew J. McKune
Beverages 2022, 8(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8030048 - 17 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 31215
Abstract
Consumption of amino acids L-arginine (L-Arg) and L-citrulline (L-Cit) are purported to increase nitric oxide (NO) production and improve physical performance. Clinical trials have shown relatively more favorable outcomes than not after supplementing with L-Cit and combined L-Arg and L-Cit. However, in most [...] Read more.
Consumption of amino acids L-arginine (L-Arg) and L-citrulline (L-Cit) are purported to increase nitric oxide (NO) production and improve physical performance. Clinical trials have shown relatively more favorable outcomes than not after supplementing with L-Cit and combined L-Arg and L-Cit. However, in most studies, other active ingredients such as malate were included in the supplement. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of consuming standalone L-Arg, L-Cit, and their combination (in the form of powder or beverage) on blood NO level and physical performance markers. A systematic review was undertaken following PRISMA 2020 guidelines (PROSPERO: CRD42021287530). Four electronic databases (PubMed, Ebscohost, Science Direct, and Google scholar) were used. An acute dose of 0.075 g/kg of L-Arg or 6 g L-Arg had no significant increase in NO biomarkers and physical performance markers (p > 0.05). Consumption of 2.4 to 6 g/day of L-Cit over 7 to 16 days significantly increased NO level and physical performance markers (p < 0.05). Combined L-Arg and L-Cit supplementation significantly increased circulating NO, improved performance, and reduced feelings of exertion (p < 0.05). Standalone L-Cit and combined L-Arg with L-Cit consumed over several days effectively increases circulating NO and improves physical performance and feelings of exertion in recreationally active and well-trained athletes. Full article
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17 pages, 656 KiB  
Review
Chemical Composition of Kombucha
by Peyton Bishop, Eric R. Pitts, Drew Budner and Katherine A. Thompson-Witrick
Beverages 2022, 8(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8030045 - 05 Aug 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 12514
Abstract
Kombucha is a fermented sweetened tea with a mixed fermenting culture of yeast and acetic acid bacteria. While the history of kombucha is not completely clear, it is now available around the world and has shown an increase in availability and demand in [...] Read more.
Kombucha is a fermented sweetened tea with a mixed fermenting culture of yeast and acetic acid bacteria. While the history of kombucha is not completely clear, it is now available around the world and has shown an increase in availability and demand in the United States market. The proponents of kombucha consumption tout the varied health benefits it can provide. The final kombucha flavor and composition is a function of both the initial tea used and the fermentation process. While the ascribed benefits are varied and numerous, the number of direct studies has been limited. This review focuses on the current state of understanding of the chemical composition and the potential health effects both positive and negative reported in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights on Traditional Fermented Beverages)
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12 pages, 1682 KiB  
Article
The Influence of the Bottle’s Price and Label Reported Information on the Perception of the Minerality Attribute in White Wines
by Elvira Zaldívar Santamaría, David Molina Dagá and Antonio Tomás Palacios García
Beverages 2022, 8(3), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8030042 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2098
Abstract
The use of the descriptor “minerality” in a wine has increased in the last few years. This term is frequently used to describe wines closely associated with their terroir. This concept represents the complete natural environment in which a particular wine is produced, [...] Read more.
The use of the descriptor “minerality” in a wine has increased in the last few years. This term is frequently used to describe wines closely associated with their terroir. This concept represents the complete natural environment in which a particular wine is produced, including factors such as the soil, topography and climate. In addition, the term “minerality” is frequently used to increase the price of the bottle. However, little is known regarding how this complex concept is perceived by consumers and whether they use this extrinsic information related to the term “minerality” in the purchasing process. The aim of this study is to understand how the term “minerality” could influence consumers when they purchase wine when this descriptor is included as an extrinsic characteristic on the label and in the price of the bottle. For this purpose, the so-called CATA (check-all-that-apply) methodology was used with a panel of 25 judges in order to define the attributes that a “mineral” wine should contain in order to be chosen and if the information displayed on the label and the price could influence consumers in that process. This technique is a dynamic sensory evaluation in which participants select the terms they consider apply at each moment from a list of attributes and deselect them when they no longer apply. The judges blindly tasted two different white wines in eight different glasses displayed with different label information related or not with terms associated with the minerality concept. In a second round, judges tried six glasses presented with the only information of the bottle’s price. In both tasting sessions, the used list of descriptors contained 44 terms, 16 of which were related to the attribute of minerality, 13 were considered antonyms of such a descriptor and 15 referred to extrinsic aspects. The results showed that consumers were not directly influenced by the label reported information or the bottle´s price when they described a wine as mineral. Finally, the statistical evaluation conducted by the CATA analysis divided the list of 44 used terms by their range of importance when a wine is described as mineral. The terms were divided into those that help to classify a wine as mineral and those that are antagonistic to this concept. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Statistics for Beverages)
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14 pages, 1067 KiB  
Review
Metabolomics of Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts in Fermented Beverages
by Daniel J. Ellis, Edward D. Kerr, Gerhard Schenk and Benjamin L. Schulz
Beverages 2022, 8(3), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8030041 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4643
Abstract
Fermented beverages have been consumed for millennia and today support a global industry producing diverse products. Saccharomyces yeasts currently dominate the fermented beverage industry, but consumer demands for alternative products with a variety of sensory profiles and actual or perceived health benefits are [...] Read more.
Fermented beverages have been consumed for millennia and today support a global industry producing diverse products. Saccharomyces yeasts currently dominate the fermented beverage industry, but consumer demands for alternative products with a variety of sensory profiles and actual or perceived health benefits are driving the diversification and use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts. The diversity of flavours, aromas, and other sensory characteristics that can be obtained by using non-Saccharomyces yeasts in fermentation is, in large part, due to the diverse secondary metabolites they produce compared to conventional Saccharomyces yeast. Here, we review the use of metabolomic analyses of non-Saccharomyces yeasts to explore their impact on the sensory characteristics of fermented beverages. We highlight several key species currently used in the industry, including Brettanomyces, Torulaspora, Lachancea, and Saccharomycodes, and emphasize the future potential for the use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in the production of diverse fermented beverages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Wine and Beverage: Fermentation and Conservation Technologies)
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18 pages, 664 KiB  
Article
The Anti-Inflammatory and Antithrombotic Properties of Bioactives from Orange, Sanguine and Clementine Juices and from Their Remaining By-Products
by Alexandros Tsoupras
Beverages 2022, 8(3), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8030039 - 29 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3184
Abstract
The anti-oxidant properties of vitamin C and of phenolic compounds of citrus fruits are well established. However, the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic potential of both vitamin C and of the more amphiphilic and lipophilic components of citrus fruits needs further attention. [...] Read more.
The anti-oxidant properties of vitamin C and of phenolic compounds of citrus fruits are well established. However, the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic potential of both vitamin C and of the more amphiphilic and lipophilic components of citrus fruits needs further attention. In this study, the anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic properties of vitamin C and of freshly squeezed juices and their lipid bioactives from the Navalina and Sanguine orange varieties and the Clementine variety of mandarins, as well as from their remaining by-products, were evaluated against the inflammatory and thrombotic pathways of the platelet-activating factor (PAF) and thrombin in platelets, as well as against PAF-biosynthesis in leukocytes. The non-oxidized juices of these citrus fruits and a vitamin C supplement showed stronger anti-PAF and antithrombin effects than their oxidized versions through their general anti-oxidant effect in platelets. The total lipids (TLs) and the HPLC-derived fractions of phenolic compounds and of polar lipid bioactives from both juices and their peels’ by-products showed a more specific stronger inhibitory effect against the inflammatory and thrombotic pathways of PAF and thrombin in platelets, while these bioactives strongly inhibited also the specific enzyme activities of the main biosynthetic enzymes of PAF in leukocytes. The stronger bioactivity of the dietary bioactives found in the juices of these citrus fruits against specific biochemical pathways of inflammation and thrombosis seems to act with synergy with the anti-oxidant potential of their vitamin C content, which further supports the notion that these juices are functional foods with anti-inflammatory protective health benefits. In addition, the presence of these dietary bioactive phenolic compounds and polar lipid bioactives in the remaining peels’ wastes further enhance the valorization of such food industry by-products as potential sources of anti-inflammatory bioactives to be used as ingredients for novel functional products. Full article
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22 pages, 5368 KiB  
Review
Chemical and Sensory Characteristics of Fruit Juice and Fruit Fermented Beverages and Their Consumer Acceptance
by Teresa Pinto, Alice Vilela and Fernanda Cosme
Beverages 2022, 8(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8020033 - 27 May 2022
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 12358
Abstract
Recent social, economic, and technological evolutions have impacted consumption habits. The new consumer is more rational, more connected and demanding with products, more concerned with the management of the family budget, with the health, origin, and sustainability of food. The food industry over [...] Read more.
Recent social, economic, and technological evolutions have impacted consumption habits. The new consumer is more rational, more connected and demanding with products, more concerned with the management of the family budget, with the health, origin, and sustainability of food. The food industry over the last few years has shown remarkable technological and scientific evolution, with an impact on the development and innovation of new products using non-thermal processing. Non-thermal processing technologies involve methods by which fruit juices receive microbiological inactivation and enzymatic denaturation with or without the direct application of low heat, thereby lessening the adverse effects on the nutritional, bioactive, and flavor compounds of the treated fruit juices, extending their shelf-life. The recognition of the nutritional and protective values of fruit juices and fermented fruit beverages is evident and is attributed to the presence of different bioactive compounds, protecting against chronic and metabolic diseases. Fermentation maintains the fruit's safety, nutrition, and shelf life and the development of new products. This review aims to summarize the chemical and sensory characteristics of fruit juices and fermented fruit drinks, the fermentation process, its benefits, and its effects. Full article
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8 pages, 1877 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Different Bentonites and Their Properties as a Protein-Fining Agent in Wine
by Stephan Sommer, Stella J. Sommer and Monica Gutierrez
Beverages 2022, 8(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8020031 - 19 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3059
Abstract
Bentonite is a natural clay that is used in different industries as a desiccant, ion-exchange material, or additive to remove impurities. For example, marketed as healing clay and as protein-fining agent in wine, bentonite is expected to adsorb specific compounds while having no [...] Read more.
Bentonite is a natural clay that is used in different industries as a desiccant, ion-exchange material, or additive to remove impurities. For example, marketed as healing clay and as protein-fining agent in wine, bentonite is expected to adsorb specific compounds while having no negative effects on the quality of the product in which it is used. In this study, 34 commercially available bentonites for different applications were selected and analyzed for their elemental composition, extraction of heavy metals, swelling behavior, and protein removal rate under conditions relevant to wine. The results indicate that bentonites can have a very variable composition that does not correlate with the intended use. The extraction of heavy metals is not directly related to the raw material and depends on swelling behavior and surface area of the clay. Interestingly, there is a similar degree of variability in swelling behavior among wine bentonites as there is for healing clays. This correlates with the protein removal rate but also with the extraction of iron, a transition metal that is known for its catalytic activity for oxidation reactions. Even though the protein removal rate is much higher than for other clays, bentonites that are marketed for wine show an extraction behavior that can have a negative effect on the final product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wine, Spirits and Oenological Products)
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20 pages, 1745 KiB  
Article
Effect of Nitrogen Fertilization on Savvatiano (Vitis vinifera L.) Grape and Wine Composition
by Dimitrios Evangelos Miliordos, Alexandros Kanapitsas, Despina Lola, Elli Goulioti, Nikolaos Kontoudakis, Georgios Leventis, Myrto Tsiknia and Yorgos Kotseridis
Beverages 2022, 8(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8020029 - 10 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3284
Abstract
Nitrogen nutrition is one of the most effective cultural practices in vineyards. The vine nitrogen status influences the berries’ quality characteristics and the produced wines. The current study investigated the effect of traditional nitrogen fertilization in the form of ammonium sulfate compared to [...] Read more.
Nitrogen nutrition is one of the most effective cultural practices in vineyards. The vine nitrogen status influences the berries’ quality characteristics and the produced wines. The current study investigated the effect of traditional nitrogen fertilization in the form of ammonium sulfate compared to nitrogen fertilization coupled with the nitrification inhibitor 3,4-Dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) on the agronomic characteristics of grapes and the produced wines of the white variety Savvatiano from a productive vineyard in the Attiki region. Must and wine quality was evaluated by a chemical analysis and sensorial evaluation by trained panelists. The different forms of nitrogen fertilizers did not significantly affect the aroma and sensory profile in contrast to unfertilized grapevines. In addition, the applied fertilization increased some important aroma compounds in the wine, compared to no fertilization. The significance of this work is to add information about the effect of nitrogen fertilization on the wine volatile composition of the Greek white grapevine Savvatiano. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Compounds in Wine)
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12 pages, 1086 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Retronasal Flavor Alterations in Smoke-Affected Wines and the Efficacy of Various Inter-Stimulus Rinse Protocols in Clearing Smoke-Related Attributes
by Jenna A. Fryer and Elizabeth Tomasino
Beverages 2022, 8(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8020023 - 10 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2930
Abstract
Wildfires produce smoke, which can then encounter wine grapes, causing the fruit to absorb smoke-related volatile organic compounds. These compounds impact the sensorial profiles of the resulting wines, introducing an uncharacteristic smokey flavor and ashy finish. Since these off-flavor attributes are observed to [...] Read more.
Wildfires produce smoke, which can then encounter wine grapes, causing the fruit to absorb smoke-related volatile organic compounds. These compounds impact the sensorial profiles of the resulting wines, introducing an uncharacteristic smokey flavor and ashy finish. Since these off-flavor attributes are observed to have longer-lasting perception, a proper inter-stimulus protocol is necessary to ensure an accurate sensory analysis. Previous work has indicated that a 1 g/L pectin rinse with 120 s of separation is effective for clearing the smoke flavor to mitigate potential carryover effects. The purpose of this work was to determine if there was a more efficient rinsing protocol to lessen the time taken between samples. By using wines with various levels of smoke exposure (high, moderate, and none), the efficacy of four different rinse systems were evaluated with a fixed-time-point evaluation system. These results indicate that a 4 g/L glucose solution is more efficient than pectin, requiring only 90 s of separation to clear smoke flavor perception. Additionally, this work identified appropriate references for the retronasal attributes associated with smoke taint in wine. These results can be used to guide a sensory analysis of wildfire-affected wines to ensure effective and accurate results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensory Analysis of Beverages)
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11 pages, 821 KiB  
Article
Optimizing the Quality and Commercial Value of Gyokuro-Styled Green Tea Grown in Australia
by James Krahe and Michelle A. Krahe
Beverages 2022, 8(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8020022 - 06 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3282
Abstract
Gyokuro is a style of Japanese green tea produced by employing agricultural shading in the weeks before harvest. This method results in a tea product with different organoleptic and chemical properties than common Japanese green tea. In an effort to yield the highest [...] Read more.
Gyokuro is a style of Japanese green tea produced by employing agricultural shading in the weeks before harvest. This method results in a tea product with different organoleptic and chemical properties than common Japanese green tea. In an effort to yield the highest quality and commercially valuable green tea product, the present study explores the influence of shading treatments and the duration of shading on the natural biochemistry of the green tea plant. This study applied shading treatments at light intensity conditions of 40%, 16%, 10% and 1% of available ambient light and the application of a red-colored shade cloth of 60% opacity. The Quality Index Tool was used to measure the quality and commercial value of the green tea, using individual target constituents (theanine, caffeine and the catechins) quantified from HPLC analysis. This study shows that very high levels of total visible spectrum light shading (~99%) is required to achieve improvements in quality and commercial value. Specifically, this improvement is a direct result of changes in the mood- modifying bioactive metabolites theanine and caffeine. This study concludes that in green tea growing regions with more hours of sunlight per year, such as on the Central Coast of Australia, more intense shading will achieve products with improved quality and commercial value, which has more potential to be marketed as a functional ingredient. Full article
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11 pages, 1162 KiB  
Review
Galacto-Oligosaccharide (GOS) Synthesis during Enzymatic Lactose-Free Milk Production: State of the Art and Emerging Opportunities
by Katia Liburdi and Marco Esti
Beverages 2022, 8(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8020021 - 02 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 5353
Abstract
Much attention has recently been paid to β-Galactosidases (β-D-galactoside galactohidrolase; EC 3.2.1.23), commonly known as lactases, due to the lactose intolerance of the human population and the importance of dairy products in the human diet. This enzyme, produced by microorganisms, [...] Read more.
Much attention has recently been paid to β-Galactosidases (β-D-galactoside galactohidrolase; EC 3.2.1.23), commonly known as lactases, due to the lactose intolerance of the human population and the importance of dairy products in the human diet. This enzyme, produced by microorganisms, is being used in the dairy industry for hydrolyzing the lactose found in milk to produce lactose-free milk (LFM). Conventionally, β-galactosidases catalyze the hydrolysis of lactose to produce glucose and galactose in LFM; however, they can also catalyze transgalactosylation reactions that produce a wide range of galactooligosaccharides (GOS), which are functional prebiotic molecules that confer health benefits to human health. In this field, different works aims to identify novel microbial sources of β-galactosidase for removing lactose from milk with the relative GOS production. Lactase extracted from thermophilic microorganisms seems to be more suitable for the transgalactosylation process at relatively high temperatures, as it inhibits microbial contamination. Different immobilization methods, such as adsorption, covalent attachment, chemical aggregation, entrapment and micro-encapsulation, have been used to synthesize lactose-derived oligosaccharides with immobilized β-galactosidases. In this mini-review, particular emphasis has been given to the immobilization techniques and bioreactor configurations developed for GOS synthesis in milk, in order to provide a more detailed overview of the biocatalytic production of milk oligosaccharides at industrial level. Full article
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19 pages, 2005 KiB  
Article
Reproducibility of Fruit Spirit Distillation Processes
by Daniel Heller and Daniel Einfalt
Beverages 2022, 8(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8020020 - 24 Mar 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4477
Abstract
Fruit spirit distillations processes are based on physical principles of heat and mass transfer. These principles are decisive for the separation of desired and undesired aroma compounds, which affect the quality of the distilled product. It is mandatory to control heat and mass [...] Read more.
Fruit spirit distillations processes are based on physical principles of heat and mass transfer. These principles are decisive for the separation of desired and undesired aroma compounds, which affect the quality of the distilled product. It is mandatory to control heat and mass transfer parameters to be able to perform fruit spirit distillation processes in a reproducible manner and to achieve equal products with similar volatile compound compositions repeatedly. Up to now, only limited information is available on the magnitude of reproducibility errors since fruit spirit distillation columns are typically not equipped with a suitable control or monitoring technique. We upgraded a batch distillation column with digitized instrumentation and a control technique to be able to control crucial parameters such as thermal energy inputs and reflux rates. This study aimed to identify whether control over two distillation parameters has the potential to enable us to perform distillation processes repeatedly. This study analyzed the magnitude of reproducibility errors for (i) six monitored distillation process parameters and (ii) 13 quantified volatile compounds in the product between duplicated distillation runs performed with equal setups. A total of eight different distillations were performed in duplicate (n = 16), while the six distillation parameters were monitored and logged every ten seconds. The produced distillates were equally subsampled into 20 fractions and each fraction analyzed for 13 volatile compound concentrations. Based on a dataset of 28,600 monitored duplicate distillation process data points, this study showed that process parameters can indeed be replicated with a median relative standard deviation (RSD) of <0.1% to 7% when two crucial process parameters are controlled. The comparison of 1540 volatile compound concentrations in the product fractions showed a reproducibility error with an average median RSD of 9 ± 8%. This illustrated that by gaining control over thermal energy input and reflux rates, the reproducibility of fruit spirit distillation processes and their associated products can largely be met. It is advisable to equip distillation columns with a suitable control technique to be able to reproduce the performance of fruit spirit distillations. Full article
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11 pages, 1202 KiB  
Article
Impact of Pulsed Electric Field Pre-Treatment on the Isoflavone Profile of Soymilk
by Mariana Morales-de la Peña, Jorge Welti-Chanes and Olga Martín-Belloso
Beverages 2022, 8(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8020019 - 22 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3016
Abstract
In this study, pulsed electric fields (PEFs) were evaluated as extraction-aiding technology during soymilk manufacturing to improve its isoflavone profile. Low-intensity PEFs were applied at different processing conditions in two stages of the soymilk extraction process, hydrated soybeans (HSB) and soybean slurry (SBS), [...] Read more.
In this study, pulsed electric fields (PEFs) were evaluated as extraction-aiding technology during soymilk manufacturing to improve its isoflavone profile. Low-intensity PEFs were applied at different processing conditions in two stages of the soymilk extraction process, hydrated soybeans (HSB) and soybean slurry (SBS), with the soymilk extracted from the conventional process as control (CSM). Overall, resultant soymilk samples from PEF-HSB and PEF-SBS presented lower concentrations of glucosides isoflavones and greater aglycone content than those in CSM. In contrast to genistin (Gin) and daidzin (Din), which decreased around 18.5–52.6% and 10.9–54.6%, respectively, an increase in genistein (Ge, 12.3–64.4%) and daidzein (Da, 9–55.8%) was observed. The total isoflavone content (TIC) of most soymilk samples prepared from PEF-HSB was lower than that of the CSM. Conversely, when PEF-SBS was used, the TIC of resultant soymilk was not significantly affected or slightly decreased. However, PEF treated HSB at 10 kVcm−1/100 pulses and SBS at 6 kVcm−1/10 pulses led to a significant augment in TIC, of up to 109 ± 2.39 and 110 ± 1.26 μg/g, respectively, in the extracted soymilk samples. These results indicated that low-intensity PEF is a potential technology that could be implemented during soymilk manufacturing processing to modify the isoflavone profile and content of soymilk, mainly increasing its aglycone concentration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies)
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12 pages, 2487 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Green and Black Tea Infusion Parameters on Total Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Activity by ABTS and DPPH Assays
by Giuliana Vinci, Fabrizio D’Ascenzo, Lucia Maddaloni, Sabrina Antonia Prencipe and Margherita Tiradritti
Beverages 2022, 8(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8020018 - 22 Mar 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 6962
Abstract
Tea contains about 230 chemical bioactive compounds, of which polyphenols represent the most considerable fraction (30% of total dry weight). These compounds have relevant nutritional and pharmacological effects on human health, exerting antioxidant activities against oxidative stress-induced damage. The industrial processes applied in [...] Read more.
Tea contains about 230 chemical bioactive compounds, of which polyphenols represent the most considerable fraction (30% of total dry weight). These compounds have relevant nutritional and pharmacological effects on human health, exerting antioxidant activities against oxidative stress-induced damage. The industrial processes applied in tea production can lead to qualitative and quantitative changes in the phenolic content and composition and in antioxidant properties, thus influencing their potential biological activities. Meanwhile, the procedure for tea preparation may influence the quantity of the extracted phenolic compounds. In this study, the effects of different infusion parameters, such as the water type used for infusion (tap water, distilled water, and natural mineral water), time (3, 5, and 10 min), temperature (T = 80 °C and 100 °C), and pH (ranged between 3 and 9) were considered. The optimal infusion variables resulting from the study were obtained by extracting phenolic compounds at T = 100 °C for 10 min, both for green (916.12–1169.81 mg GAE/g) and black (932.03–1126.62 mg GAE/g) bagged tea samples, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Quality, Nutrition, and Chemistry of Beverages)
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12 pages, 1198 KiB  
Review
Nutraceutical and Functional Properties of Camelids’ Milk
by Silvia Vincenzetti, Natalina Cammertoni, Roberta Rapaccetti, Giuseppe Santini, Yulia Klimanova, Jing-Jing Zhang and Paolo Polidori
Beverages 2022, 8(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8010012 - 17 Feb 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4952
Abstract
In most areas of the world, camelids are considered exotic animals, living only in zoological gardens. Additionally, considering the original lands where they were previously bred with specific economic and social aims, today it is possible to detect a reduction in their total [...] Read more.
In most areas of the world, camelids are considered exotic animals, living only in zoological gardens. Additionally, considering the original lands where they were previously bred with specific economic and social aims, today it is possible to detect a reduction in their total numbers. Typically bred as working animals for goods transportation in desert regions, and as a source of meat and milk, in recent years, camels have been dismissed due to the construction of new roads for motor vehicles, the migration of nomadic populations from deserts to urban zones, and the choice of some autochthonous bovine breeds as sources of meat and milk. The decline in camelids heads seems irreversible. Camels should be considered a valid source of food in marginal areas; the peculiar quality parameters of their milk, showing the proper characteristics for the use of this milk in human nutrition, can justify the choice for breeding them, rather than considering camels only as objects of amusement. Full article
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19 pages, 2899 KiB  
Article
Strontium Isotope Systematics of Tenerife Wines (Canary Islands): Tracing Provenance in Ocean Island Terroir
by Beverley C. Coldwell, Nemesio M. Pérez, Maria Cordero Vaca, Matthew J. Pankhurst, Pedro A. Hernández, Gladys V. Melián Rodriguez, Eleazar Padrón, María Asensio-Ramos, Sara Ribeiro and José Francisco Santos
Beverages 2022, 8(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8010009 - 01 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3646
Abstract
The production of fraudulent goods remains widespread and economically damaging. The high value of the wine industry makes it particularly vulnerable, and a number of geochemical methods have been developed to ensure traceability and identification of origin. Here, strontium (Sr) isotope data on [...] Read more.
The production of fraudulent goods remains widespread and economically damaging. The high value of the wine industry makes it particularly vulnerable, and a number of geochemical methods have been developed to ensure traceability and identification of origin. Here, strontium (Sr) isotope data on wines from five defined regions in Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) show that the young volcanic geology imparts a clearly identifiable low 87Sr/86Sr signature (<0.7072). These values discriminate Tenerife wines from mainland Spanish and continental European produce, as these are much more radiogenic in general. However, unlike continental wine regions, wines from Tenerife show small but ubiquitous enrichments in 87Sr/86Sr above what is expected in the soils. Bentonite addition has not affected the 87Sr/86Sr signatures, with white wines at lower Sr concentrations than red wines in all regions. A number of natural contributions to the terroir are evaluated in relation to Tenerife’s unique combination of geology and geography. Atmospheric precipitation (rainfall) is likely a dominant influence on Sr isotope systematics in northern Denominación de Origen regions, and evaporation may play a role in buffering signatures in southern regions. Other natural additions of 87Sr are not precluded at a local scale, given the large range in climatic conditions of island terroir and known input of mineral dust from Africa. Despite natural explanations affecting the overall small shift observed, there are clear outliers with considerably higher 87Sr/86Sr and Sr concentration. This confirms the utility of Sr isotope systematics for oceanic-island viticulture and demonstrates the use of young volcanic soils for tracing natural inputs that may be masked in other regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wine, Spirits and Oenological Products)
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12 pages, 1370 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Musts, Wines, and Sparkling Wines Based on Their Elemental Composition Determined by ICP-OES and ICP-MS
by Biel Granell, Anaïs Izquierdo-Llopart, Àngels Sahuquillo, José F. López-Sánchez and Javier Saurina
Beverages 2022, 8(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8010003 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3629
Abstract
Samples from the different processing stages in the elaboration of sparkling wine (cava)—including must, base wine, and sparkling wine—of Pinot Noir and Xarel·lo grape varieties from different vineyard qualities (A, B, C, D) have been analyzed by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) techniques to [...] Read more.
Samples from the different processing stages in the elaboration of sparkling wine (cava)—including must, base wine, and sparkling wine—of Pinot Noir and Xarel·lo grape varieties from different vineyard qualities (A, B, C, D) have been analyzed by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) techniques to determine their elemental composition. The resulting data has been used to characterize these products according to oenological features and product qualities. For this purpose, box plot diagrams, bar charts, and principal components analysis (PCA) have been used. The study of the behavior of each given species has pointed out the relevance of some elements as markers or descriptors of winemaking processes. Among others, Cu and K are abundant in musts and their concentrations progressively decrease through the cava production process. S levels suddenly increase at the base wine step (and further decay) due to the addition of sulfites as preserving agents. Finally, concentrations of Na, Ca, Fe, and Mg increase from the first fermentation due to the addition of clarifying agents such as bentonite. PCA has been applied to try to extract solid and global conclusions on trends and chemical markers within the groups of samples more easily and efficiently than more conventional approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wine, Spirits and Oenological Products)
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20 pages, 830 KiB  
Article
Effect of Production Technique on Pilsner-Style Non-Alcoholic Beer (NAB) Chemistry and Flavor
by Nils Rettberg, Scott Lafontaine, Christian Schubert, Johanna Dennenlöhr, Laura Knoke, Patrícia Diniz Fischer, Johannes Fuchs and Sarah Thörner
Beverages 2022, 8(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages8010004 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5414
Abstract
The sensory, volatile, and physiochemical profiles of nineteen commercial non-alcoholic pilsner-style beers produced by different production techniques were analyzed and compared with a dry-hopped non-alcoholic IPA. NABs made only with either physical dealcoholization or restricted fermentations differed significantly in chemistry and flavor. Generally, [...] Read more.
The sensory, volatile, and physiochemical profiles of nineteen commercial non-alcoholic pilsner-style beers produced by different production techniques were analyzed and compared with a dry-hopped non-alcoholic IPA. NABs made only with either physical dealcoholization or restricted fermentations differed significantly in chemistry and flavor. Generally, NABs produced by restricted fermentations were the most worty, thick, and sweet, whereas NABs that were physically dealcoholized had the lowest taste/aroma intensities and were the sourest, most thin, and least sweet. Interestingly, the method of dealcoholization had a minor impact on the flavor profile. The use of maltose intolerant yeast as well as the implementation of combined treatments, such as blending dealcoholized beer with beer containing alcohol, were the techniques found to produce NABs with more harmonious and multifaceted chemical and flavor profiles. NABs with increased hop aroma volatiles were the most harmonious, particularly highlighted by the NA IPA reference. Even though dry-hopped character might be atypical for pilsner-style beer, dry-hopping appears as a simple application to produce NABs with more harmonious flavor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers in Non-Alcoholic Beverages Section)
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21 pages, 905 KiB  
Review
Beer and Allergens
by Frank Vriesekoop
Beverages 2021, 7(4), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7040079 - 13 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 9113
Abstract
Food allergies are an important global health concern, with many countries following the World Health Organisation’s guidelines with regards to due labelling of foods and, as such, providing forewarning about the presence of potential allergens to potential consumers. While for some produce, the [...] Read more.
Food allergies are an important global health concern, with many countries following the World Health Organisation’s guidelines with regards to due labelling of foods and, as such, providing forewarning about the presence of potential allergens to potential consumers. While for some produce, the link to specific allergens might be very clear to most consumers, this is not the case for all produce. People with specific food-related allergies usually know what to look out for, but occasionally, unexpected allergens are present in trusted produce. Beer is known to most to contain barley, which will contain gluten-like proteins that can cause allergic reactions in some people. Similarly, beer might contain sulphites and other potential allergens traditionally associated with beers. This review aims to examine a wide range of allergens that have entered the beer production process in recent years. As a result, examples of beers that contain one or more of the 14 EU-UK listed allergens are described, different allergen regulations in different countries are emphasised and their impact explained, and a number of case studies involving allergic reactions following exposure to and the ingestion of beer are highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Malting, Brewing and Beer)
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12 pages, 2399 KiB  
Article
A Fast, Straightforward and Inexpensive Method for the Authentication of Baijiu Spirit Samples by Fluorescence Spectroscopy
by Rachel L. Burns, Raegan Alexander, Liliya Snaychuk, John C. Edwards, Neil Fitzgerald, Pei Gao, Donghui Quan, Chris Douvris, Trey Vaughan and Derek D. Bussan
Beverages 2021, 7(3), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7030065 - 14 Sep 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4276
Abstract
The Chinese spirit baijiu is currently the world’s bestselling spirit, with more than ten billion liters sold in 2018. This is a figure that puts its sales higher than whiskey, vodka, gin, and tequila combined. The multitude of baijiu varieties available in the [...] Read more.
The Chinese spirit baijiu is currently the world’s bestselling spirit, with more than ten billion liters sold in 2018. This is a figure that puts its sales higher than whiskey, vodka, gin, and tequila combined. The multitude of baijiu varieties available in the market differ in several ways ranging from aging to the traditional artisanship involved in producing the final spirit to several other features, including the rarity of the bottle. A result of these differences is a wide distribution of prices for the various baijiu products. Consequently, a single bottle of baijiu can cost anywhere from a few dollars, up to thousands of US dollars. The price differences among the various baijiu spirits necessitate the existence of reliable scientific methods that can efficiently differentiate and authenticate the qualities of baijiu spirits. In addition, the existence of such methods facilitates the prevention of counterfeit sales of the final product. Considering this, we introduce an analytical chemistry method that distinguishes amongst different baijiu spirits based on fluorescence spectroscopy. Its attributes include the low cost and convenience that allows analysis either before or while the spirit is in the market. Our work herein focuses on the analysis of thirty different varieties of baijiu spirits from six different distilleries from East Asia and North America by fluorescence emission spectroscopy, which is associated to the price of the product. For the analysis, we employed a HORIBA FLUOROLOG 3 (HORIBA—Jobin Yvon) spectrometer. Major advantages of this method include the low cost, as no consumables except a quartz reusable cuvette are required, the minimal waste, and finally the quick processing of data. Full article
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17 pages, 4419 KiB  
Article
Integrated Green Process for the Extraction of Red Grape Pomace Antioxidant Polyphenols Using Ultrasound-Assisted Pretreatment and β-Cyclodextrin
by Aggeliki Alibante, Achillia Lakka, Eleni Bozinou, Arhontoula Chatzilazarou, Stavros Lalas and Dimitris P. Makris
Beverages 2021, 7(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7030059 - 19 Aug 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4119
Abstract
Winemaking is a process that generates a large volume of solid waste biomass, which is currently under extensive investigation as a bioresource of precious polyphenolic compounds. These substances are retrieved from vinification side streams principally by deploying solid–liquid extraction methods. In this frame, [...] Read more.
Winemaking is a process that generates a large volume of solid waste biomass, which is currently under extensive investigation as a bioresource of precious polyphenolic compounds. These substances are retrieved from vinification side streams principally by deploying solid–liquid extraction methods. In this frame, the present investigation had as objective the development of an alternative, green extraction process for polyphenols, through integration of ultrasonication as a pretreatment stage, and subsequent extraction with aqueous β-cyclodextrin. Polyphenol recovery from red grape pomace (RGP) was shown to be significantly enhanced by ultrasonication pretreatment, and the use of β-cyclodextrin effectively boosted the aqueous extraction. Under optimized conditions, established by response surface methodology, the maximum yield in total polyphenols was 57.47 mg GAE g−1 dm, at 80 °C, requiring a barrier of 10.95 kJ mol−1. The extract produced was significantly enriched in catechin and quercetin, compared to the aqueous extract, exhibiting also increased antiradical activity. These findings highlighted the value of the process developed for targeted recovery of certain polyphenols and the preparation of task-specific extracts. Full article
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16 pages, 1963 KiB  
Review
Characterization of Dadih: Traditional Fermented Buffalo Milk of Minangkabau
by Marcellus Arnold, Yolanda Victoria Rajagukguk and Anna Gramza-Michałowska
Beverages 2021, 7(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7030060 - 19 Aug 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 7462
Abstract
Dadih or dadiah is traditional fermented buffalo milk of Minangkabau, which occurs spontaneously. Dadih is commonly served as ampiang dadih, or other dishes. The microbiota found in dadih are dominated by lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts are also found. The lactic acid [...] Read more.
Dadih or dadiah is traditional fermented buffalo milk of Minangkabau, which occurs spontaneously. Dadih is commonly served as ampiang dadih, or other dishes. The microbiota found in dadih are dominated by lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts are also found. The lactic acid bacteria provide functional value, such as antimicrobial, hypocholesterolemic, antimutagenic, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory properties, as well as being the source of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as an anti-stress agent and folate. Nevertheless, many challenges were observed in dadih production, including the limitation of buffalo milk production due to decreasing populations of buffalo in the last two decades, unstandardized dadih production due to the spontaneous fermentation in natural bamboo tubes, and safety problems as no heat treatment is applied in the production of dadih. These problems impede the development of dadih production, thus is it important to improve buffalo cultivation through artificial insemination programs, using different types of milk and pasteurization processes in dadih production, and incubator development to accelerate the fermentation period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Reviews in Beverages - 2021)
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15 pages, 1056 KiB  
Review
Kefir as a Functional Beverage Gaining Momentum towards Its Health Promoting Attributes
by Vassilios Ganatsios, Poonam Nigam, Stavros Plessas and Antonia Terpou
Beverages 2021, 7(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7030048 - 06 Jul 2021
Cited by 45 | Viewed by 10260
Abstract
The consumption of fermented foods posing health-promoting attributes is a rising global trend. In this manner, fermented dairy products represent a significant subcategory of functional foods with established positive health benefits. Likewise, kefir—a fermented milk product manufactured from kefir grains—has been reported by [...] Read more.
The consumption of fermented foods posing health-promoting attributes is a rising global trend. In this manner, fermented dairy products represent a significant subcategory of functional foods with established positive health benefits. Likewise, kefir—a fermented milk product manufactured from kefir grains—has been reported by many studies to be a probiotic drink with great potential in health promotion. Existing research data link regular kefir consumption with a wide range of health-promoting attributes, and more recent findings support the link between kefir’s probiotic strains and its bio-functional metabolites in the enhancement of the immune system, providing significant antiviral effects. Although it has been consumed for thousands of years, kefir has recently gained popularity in relation to novel biotechnological applications, with different fermentation substrates being tested as non-dairy functional beverages. The present review focuses on the microbiological composition of kefir and highlights novel applications associated with its fermentation capacity. Future prospects relating to kefir’s capacity for disease prevention are also addressed and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Beverage Technology Fermentation and Microbiology)
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15 pages, 533 KiB  
Review
Systematic Review of Methods Used for Food Pairing with Coffee, Tea, Wine, and Beer
by Christina J. Birke Rune, Morten Münchow and Federico J. A. Perez-Cueto
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7020040 - 17 Jun 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 6018
Abstract
The current article is aimed at systematically reviewing the research methods used for food pairing with coffee, tea, wine, and beer. The primary aim of this review was to elucidate the state-of-the-art methods used for analysing food and beverage pairings with coffee, tea, [...] Read more.
The current article is aimed at systematically reviewing the research methods used for food pairing with coffee, tea, wine, and beer. The primary aim of this review was to elucidate the state-of-the-art methods used for analysing food and beverage pairings with coffee, tea, wine, and beer; secondarily, to identify the basis of the selection criteria; and lastly, the method used to evaluate those pairings. The search was performed in three databases: Web of Science, ScienceDirect, and Scopus. Criteria for inclusion were studies with an experimental design, a descriptive analysis (DA), and/or hedonic consumer analysis of beverage and food pairing. The outcome had to be measured on a hedonic Likert scale, a line scale, a just about right (JAR), or a modified JAR scale or other relevant scale measurement method for the given attribute. A total of 24 studies were included in this review—the majority aimed at finding good food and beverage pairings. Most pairings were based on suggestions from experts on popular/common, similar origin, or quality of beverages and foods. The outcomes were measured in several different scales, precluding a direct comparison. The 24 articles used in this review did not provide a so-called “golden standard” of the pairing method. Only three articles provided a more scientifically based approach to investigate why a food and beverage pairing is perceived as a good match, using aromatic similarity, the primary taste, and the sensation of koku as their experimental factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Sensory Analysis of Beverages Section)
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14 pages, 1083 KiB  
Review
Beer Polyphenols—Bitterness, Astringency, and Off-Flavors
by Kristina Habschied, Iztok Jože Košir, Vinko Krstanović, Goran Kumrić and Krešimir Mastanjević
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7020038 - 11 Jun 2021
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 10557
Abstract
The acceptance of beer among consumers is most influenced by the taste and aroma. Polyphenols are widely responsible for both. Whereas polyphenols do not always result in a positive flavor and taste, they can surely impart certain off-flavors, which will be mentioned in [...] Read more.
The acceptance of beer among consumers is most influenced by the taste and aroma. Polyphenols are widely responsible for both. Whereas polyphenols do not always result in a positive flavor and taste, they can surely impart certain off-flavors, which will be mentioned in this paper. However, the aftertaste is an important component of the beer-tasting experience and acceptance. The aftertaste, including astringency, may largely influence consumers’ consumption preference and behavior. Bitterness is one of the main, desirable characteristics of beer, but to an untrained consumer, it can often be mistaken with astringency. This review aims to describe the differences between these two properties. Both attributes derive from the same beer components, polyphenols from barley and hop, but there is a distinctive difference between them. To understand the complexity of bitterness and astringency, polyphenols behavior, characteristics, and stability during the brewing process are also described in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beer Quality and Flavour)
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21 pages, 2679 KiB  
Article
Self-Rated Aversion to Taste Qualities and the PROP Taster Phenotype Associate with Alcoholic Beverage Intake and Preference
by Gary J. Pickering and Margaret K. Thibodeau
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7020037 - 09 Jun 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4150
Abstract
Consumers often identify “taste” as an important factor when selecting alcoholic beverages. Although it is assumed that reduced alcohol consumption in PROP super-tasters is due to a greater dislike of the nominally aversive sensations that they experience more intensely (e.g., bitterness) when compared [...] Read more.
Consumers often identify “taste” as an important factor when selecting alcoholic beverages. Although it is assumed that reduced alcohol consumption in PROP super-tasters is due to a greater dislike of the nominally aversive sensations that they experience more intensely (e.g., bitterness) when compared to PROP non-tasters, this question has not been specifically asked to them. Therefore, we examined consumers’ self-reported aversion towards specific sensory attributes (bitter, hot/burn, dry, sour, sweet, carbonation) for four alcoholic beverage types (white wine, red wine, beer, spirits) using a convenience sample of U.S. wine consumers (n = 925). Participants rated 18 statements describing different combinations of sensory attributes and alcoholic beverages on a 5-point Likert scale (e.g., Beer tastes too bitter for me). Individuals who tended to agree more strongly with the statements (i.e., they were more averse; p(F) < 0.05) tended to (i) consume less of all beverage types, (ii) consume a higher proportion of white wine (p(r) < 0.05), and (iii) were more likely to be female or PROP super-tasters. The results suggest that self-reported aversion to specific sensory attributes is associated with not only lower overall intake of alcoholic beverages, but also a shift in the relative proportions of beverage type consumed; a key finding for studies investigating how taste perception impacts alcohol consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Sensory Analysis of Beverages Section)
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18 pages, 484 KiB  
Review
The Impact Packaging Type Has on the Flavor of Wine
by Katherine A. Thompson-Witrick, Eric R. Pitts, John L. Nemenyi and Drew Budner
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7020036 - 07 Jun 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 11688
Abstract
This is a literature review of the most commonly available wine packaging categories. This includes glass bottles, polyethylene terephthalate bottles (PET), bag-in-box (BIB), aluminum cans, and Tetra Pak. This review includes a description and history of each category. In addition, the market share [...] Read more.
This is a literature review of the most commonly available wine packaging categories. This includes glass bottles, polyethylene terephthalate bottles (PET), bag-in-box (BIB), aluminum cans, and Tetra Pak. This review includes a description and history of each category. In addition, the market share and environmental impacts of each category are discussed. Special attention is paid to the reported impact on packaged wine flavor and aroma for each packaging type. Finally, the potential impacts on consumer preference are discussed. While glass is still the dominant packaging material within the wine industry and by consumer demand, economic and environmental concerns are driving the industry and consumers to investigate and adopt alternative packaging materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers in Wine, Spirits and Oenological Products Section)
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30 pages, 706 KiB  
Review
Nutraceuticals as Potential Targets for the Development of a Functional Beverage for Improving Sleep Quality
by Amanda Bulman, Nathan M. D’Cunha, Wolfgang Marx, Andrew J. McKune, Rati Jani and Nenad Naumovski
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7020033 - 03 Jun 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 7995
Abstract
Functional beverages can be a valuable component of the human diet with the ability to not only provide essential hydration but to deliver important bioactive compounds that can contribute to chronic disease treatment and prevention. One area of the functional beverage market that [...] Read more.
Functional beverages can be a valuable component of the human diet with the ability to not only provide essential hydration but to deliver important bioactive compounds that can contribute to chronic disease treatment and prevention. One area of the functional beverage market that has seen an increase in demand in recent years are beverages that promote relaxation and sleep. Sleep is an essential biological process, with optimal sleep being defined as one of adequate duration, quality and timing. It is regulated by a number of neurotransmitters which are, in turn, regulated by dietary intake of essential bioactive compounds. This narrative review aimed to evaluate the latest evidence of the sleep promoting properties of a selection of bioactive compounds (such as L-theanine and L-tryptophan) for the development of a functional beverage to improve sleep quality; and the effectiveness of traditional sleep promoting beverages (such as milk and chamomile). Overall, the bioactive compounds identified in this review, play essential roles in the synthesis and regulation of important neurotransmitters involved in the sleep-wake cycle. There is also significant potential for their inclusion in a number of functional beverages as the main ingredient on their own or in combination. Future studies should consider dosage; interactions with the beverage matrix, medications and other nutraceuticals; bioavailability during storage and following ingestion; as well as the sensory profile of the developed beverages, among others, when determining their effectiveness in a functional beverage to improve sleep quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Reviews in Beverages - 2021)
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27 pages, 1283 KiB  
Review
An Overview on Sustainability in the Wine Production Chain
by Antonietta Baiano
Beverages 2021, 7(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7010015 - 17 Mar 2021
Cited by 48 | Viewed by 13217
Abstract
Despite the great relevance of sustainable development, the absence of a shared approach to sustainable vitiviniculture is evident. This review aimed to investigate sustainability along the entire wine chain, from primary production to the finished wine, with specific attention to three key dimensions [...] Read more.
Despite the great relevance of sustainable development, the absence of a shared approach to sustainable vitiviniculture is evident. This review aimed to investigate sustainability along the entire wine chain, from primary production to the finished wine, with specific attention to three key dimensions of sustainability (environmental, social, and economic) and relating measures. Therefore, it was decided to: investigate the ways in which sustainability is applied in the various stages of the production chain (wine growing, wineries, distribution chain, and waste management); analyse the regulations in force throughout the world and the main labelling systems; provide numerical information on sustainable grapes and wines; study the objective quality of sustainable wines and that perceived by consumers, considering that it affects their willingness to pay. The research highlighted that rules and regulations on organic production of grapes and wines are flanked by several certification schemes and labelling systems. Although sustainable wines represent a niche in the market, in recent years, there has been an increase in vineyards conducted with sustainable (mainly organic and biodynamic) methods, and a consequent increase in the production of sustainable wines both in traditional and emerging producing countries. Although (or perhaps precisely for this reason) no significant differences in quality are found among sustainable and conventional wines, consumers are willing to pay a premium for sustainably produced wines. This finding should encourage wineries to both put in place environmental activities and intensify their communication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Reviews in Beverages - 2021)
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8 pages, 827 KiB  
Communication
Brewery Packaging in a Post-COVID Economy within the United States
by Eric R. Pitts and Katherine Witrick
Beverages 2021, 7(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7010014 - 04 Mar 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 5883
Abstract
The 2020 pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, also referred to as the COVID-19 [named for the disease caused by the virus] pandemic, shook the world to its core. Not only were populations hurt by the virus physically, the pandemic had deep [...] Read more.
The 2020 pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, also referred to as the COVID-19 [named for the disease caused by the virus] pandemic, shook the world to its core. Not only were populations hurt by the virus physically, the pandemic had deep repercussions economically as well. One of the industries severely impacted by the implications of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic was the brewing industry, particularly that of the United States. The economic turmoil and uncertainty were felt by both macro and micro brewers alike. Draft beer sales virtually dried up overnight as state-imposed shutdowns closed bars, restaurants, and taprooms as a means to curb the spread of the virus. There were supply chain and logistical issues that arose during the pandemic due to not only closures within the brewing industry but supporting industries such as printers and shippers. In some cases, entire business models had to be turned completely on their head in an instant and business pivots had to be made. The year 2020 was wrought with challenges faced by the brewing industry. There was one saving grace however that kept many breweries afloat during the pandemic, and that was packaged beverage sales, especially those packages intended for off-site consumption. Set forth by trends of the pre-pandemic years aluminum cans and canning reigned supreme for the craft brewing market and allowed breweries to get product into the hands of consumers and ultimately allowed some breweries to stay open. Other options breweries had included the use of glass growlers or aluminum crowlers as a means to sell draft products to-go. The resourcefulness of many brewery owners was tested in 2020 and many rose to the challenge. This report aims to examine several of the challenges, pivots, and solutions packaging provided to the beer industry during the pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beer Quality and Flavour)
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23 pages, 8238 KiB  
Review
Healthy Drinks with Lovely Colors: Phenolic Compounds as Constituents of Functional Beverages
by Teresa Pinto and Alice Vilela
Beverages 2021, 7(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7010012 - 23 Feb 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 6976
Abstract
Consumers increasingly prefer and seek food and beverages, which, due to their natural characteristics, bring health benefits, both in the prevention of diseases and in their curative power. In this way, the production of nutraceutical foods and beverages gains more and more importance [...] Read more.
Consumers increasingly prefer and seek food and beverages, which, due to their natural characteristics, bring health benefits, both in the prevention of diseases and in their curative power. In this way, the production of nutraceutical foods and beverages gains more and more importance in the market. On the other hand, and because the eyes also eat, producing attractive foods due to their color, texture, appearance, and sensory characteristics is a permanent challenge in the food industry. Being able to gather healthy and attractive items in a single food is an even greater challenge. The long list of benefits associated with phenolic compounds, such as antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antiaging properties, among others, fully justifies their use in the enrichment of various food products. Thus, in this review, we propose to summarize the potential use of phenolic compounds used as ingredients of pleasant and functional beverages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Compounds and Functional Beverages)
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11 pages, 1075 KiB  
Article
Short Wave Ultraviolet Light (UV-C) Effectiveness in the Inactivation of Bacterial Spores Inoculated in Turbid Suspensions and in Cloudy Apple Juice
by Jezer N. Sauceda-Gálvez, María Martinez-Garcia, Ma Manuela Hernández-Herrero, Ramón Gervilla and Artur X. Roig-Sagués
Beverages 2021, 7(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7010011 - 16 Feb 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3451
Abstract
Liquid foods might present interferences in their optical properties that can reduce the effectiveness of short-wave ultraviolet radiation (UV-C) treatments used for sterilization purposes. The effect of turbidity as UV-C interference factor against the inactivation of bacterial spores was analysed by using phosphate-buffered [...] Read more.
Liquid foods might present interferences in their optical properties that can reduce the effectiveness of short-wave ultraviolet radiation (UV-C) treatments used for sterilization purposes. The effect of turbidity as UV-C interference factor against the inactivation of bacterial spores was analysed by using phosphate-buffered saline solutions (PBS) of different turbidity values (2000, 2500, and 3000 NTU) which were adjusted with the addition of apple fibre. These suspensions were inoculated with spores of Bacillus subtilis and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris. While higher UV-C doses increased the inactivation rates of spores, these were reduced when turbidity values increased; a dose of 28.7 J/mL allowed inactivation rates of B. subtilis spores of 3.96 Log in a 2000-NTU suspension compared with 2.81 Log achieved in the 3000-NTU one. Spores of B. subtilis were more UV-C-resistant than A. acidoterrestris. Cloudy apple juice inoculated with A. acidoterrestris spores was processed by UV-C at different doses in a single pass and with recirculation of the matrix through the reactor. Inactivation increased significantly with recirculation, surpassing 5 Log after 125 J/mL compared with 0.13 Log inactivation after a single-pass treatment at the same UV-C dose. UV-C treatments with recirculation affected the optical properties (absorption coefficient at 254 nm and turbidity) of juice and increased browning as UV-C doses became higher. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Juices: Technology, Chemistry, and Nutrition 2.0)
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13 pages, 1037 KiB  
Article
Aromatic and Sensory Characterization of Maturana Blanca Wines Made with Different Technologies
by Ana Naranjo, Leticia Martínez-Lapuente, Belén Ayestarán, Zenaida Guadalupe, Irene Pérez, Clara Canals and Elena Adell
Beverages 2021, 7(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7010010 - 02 Feb 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3411
Abstract
Vitis vinífera L. cv. Maturana Blanca is an autochthonous minor variety recently recovered in the Rioja Qualified Denomination of Origin (D.O.Ca Rioja, Spain) for the production of monovarietal white wines with singular and differentiated characteristics. In this paper, Maturana Blanca wines made with [...] Read more.
Vitis vinífera L. cv. Maturana Blanca is an autochthonous minor variety recently recovered in the Rioja Qualified Denomination of Origin (D.O.Ca Rioja, Spain) for the production of monovarietal white wines with singular and differentiated characteristics. In this paper, Maturana Blanca wines made with different technologies were analyzed by sensory analysis and aromatic profile by gas chromatography-mass detector. Maturana Blanca wines were characterized by low pH, high acidity, and yellowish tonalities. The compounds that most influenced the aroma of Maturana Blanca wines were those related to fruity (acetates and ethyl esters), floral aromas (2-phenylethanol), and spicy notes (γ-decalactone). These wines were mainly characterized by volatile compounds of fruity aromas of banana and apple. The use of pre-fermentative maceration increased the concentration of ethyl esters and acetates and produced wines with higher odor activity values, indicating a greater aromatic intensity. The aromatic profile of Maturana Blanca wines fermented in oak barrels showed a greater complexity as they were also characterized by the presence of important amounts of furfural, whiskey lactone, and eugenol. The sensory analysis confirmed the results obtained in the aromatic analysis, and described the wines as fresh and balanced in mouth, with notes of acidity and medium to high persistence. These results will contribute to a better knowledge of this white variety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcoholic Beverages and Wood)
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21 pages, 627 KiB  
Review
Review of the Effects of Grapevine Smoke Exposure and Technologies to Assess Smoke Contamination and Taint in Grapes and Wine
by Vasiliki Summerson, Claudia Gonzalez Viejo, Alexis Pang, Damir D. Torrico and Sigfredo Fuentes
Beverages 2021, 7(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7010007 - 25 Jan 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 7502
Abstract
Grapevine smoke exposure and the subsequent development of smoke taint in wine has resulted in significant financial losses for grape growers and winemakers throughout the world. Smoke taint is characterized by objectional smoky aromas such as “ashy”, “burning rubber”, and “smoked meats”, resulting [...] Read more.
Grapevine smoke exposure and the subsequent development of smoke taint in wine has resulted in significant financial losses for grape growers and winemakers throughout the world. Smoke taint is characterized by objectional smoky aromas such as “ashy”, “burning rubber”, and “smoked meats”, resulting in wine that is unpalatable and hence unprofitable. Unfortunately, current climate change models predict a broadening of the window in which bushfires may occur and a rise in bushfire occurrences and severity in major wine growing regions such as Australia, Mediterranean Europe, North and South America, and South Africa. As such, grapevine smoke exposure and smoke taint in wine are increasing problems for growers and winemakers worldwide. Current recommendations for growers concerned that their grapevines have been exposed to smoke are to conduct pre-harvest mini-ferments for sensory assessment and send samples to a commercial laboratory to quantify levels of smoke-derived volatiles in the wine. Significant novel research is being conducted using spectroscopic techniques coupled with machine learning modeling to assess grapevine smoke contamination and taint in grapes and wine, offering growers and winemakers additional tools to monitor grapevine smoke exposure and taint rapidly and non-destructively in grapes and wine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Reviews in Beverages - 2021)
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15 pages, 7393 KiB  
Article
Coffee Label Assessment Using Sensory and Biometric Analysis of Self-Isolating Panelists through Videoconference
by Claudia Gonzalez Viejo, Hanyan Zhang, Annabel Khamly, Yunjia Xing and Sigfredo Fuentes
Beverages 2021, 7(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7010005 - 21 Jan 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4198
Abstract
Label concepts, information, logos, figures, and colors of beverages are critical for consumer perception, preference, and purchase intention. This is especially relevant for new beverage products. During social isolation, many sensory laboratories were unable to provide services, making virtual sensory sessions relevant to [...] Read more.
Label concepts, information, logos, figures, and colors of beverages are critical for consumer perception, preference, and purchase intention. This is especially relevant for new beverage products. During social isolation, many sensory laboratories were unable to provide services, making virtual sensory sessions relevant to studying different label concepts and design preferences among consumers. This study proposed a novel virtual sensory system to analyze coffee labels using videoconference, self-reported, and biometric analysis software from video recordings to obtain sensory and emotional responses from 69 participants (power analysis: 1 − β > 0.99) using six different label concepts: (i) fun, (ii) bold, (iii) natural, (iv) everyday, (v) classic, and (vi) premium. The results show that the label concept rated as having the highest perceived quality was premium, presenting significant differences (p < 0.05) compared to all of the other concepts. The least perceived quality score was attributed to the bold concept due to the confronting aroma lexicon (cheese dip), which is supported by previous studies. Furthermore, even though graphics, colors, and the product name can be considered positive attributes, they do not determine perceived quality or purchase intention, which was found for the bold, everyday, and classic concepts. The findings from this study were as expected and are consistent with those from similar publications related to labels, which shows that the proposed virtual method for sensory sessions and biometrics is reliable. Further technology has been proposed to use this system with multiple participants, which could help beverage companies perform virtual sensory analysis of new products’ labels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and its Consumption: Benefits and Risks)
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20 pages, 633 KiB  
Article
Brewing with Unmalted Cereal Adjuncts: Sensory and Analytical Impacts on Beer Quality
by Joanna Yorke, David Cook and Rebecca Ford
Beverages 2021, 7(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7010004 - 15 Jan 2021
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 10372
Abstract
Brewing with unmalted cereal adjuncts can reduce the requirement for malting, thereby lowering costs and improving the overall sustainability of the brewing chain. However, substantial adjunct usage has technological challenges and the sensory characteristics of beers produced using high adjunct rates are still [...] Read more.
Brewing with unmalted cereal adjuncts can reduce the requirement for malting, thereby lowering costs and improving the overall sustainability of the brewing chain. However, substantial adjunct usage has technological challenges and the sensory characteristics of beers produced using high adjunct rates are still not fully understood. This study examined the impacts of brewing with unmalted barley, wheat, rice and maize at relatively high concentrations (0, 30% and 60% of grist) on the sensorial and analytical profiles of lager beer. Adjunct based beers and a 100% malt control were brewed at 25 L scale. A trained sensory panel (n = 8) developed a lexicon and determined the sensorial profile of beers. At 30% adjunct incorporation there was insignificant variation in the expected beer flavour profile. At 60% adjunct incorporation, there were some significant sensory differences between beers which were specific to particular adjunct materials. Furthermore, 60% adjunct inclusion (with correspondingly low wort FAN) impacted the fermentation volatile profile of the final beers which corresponded with findings observed in the sensory analysis. Developing an understanding of adjunct-induced flavour differences and determining strategies to minimise these differences will facilitate the implementation of cost-efficient and sustainable grist solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beer Quality and Flavour)
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18 pages, 605 KiB  
Perspective
Ready to Use Therapeutical Beverages: Focus on Functional Beverages Containing Probiotics, Prebiotics and Synbiotics
by Amirhossein Nazhand, Eliana B. Souto, Massimo Lucarini, Selma B. Souto, Alessandra Durazzo and Antonello Santini
Beverages 2020, 6(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6020026 - 20 Apr 2020
Cited by 51 | Viewed by 8731
Abstract
The growing global interest in functional foods containing nutrients capable of adding possible beneficial health effects is rapidly increasing both interest and consumer demand. In particular, functionalized beverages for their potential positive effect on health e.g., decreasing cholesterol level, lowering sugar, high fiber [...] Read more.
The growing global interest in functional foods containing nutrients capable of adding possible beneficial health effects is rapidly increasing both interest and consumer demand. In particular, functionalized beverages for their potential positive effect on health e.g., decreasing cholesterol level, lowering sugar, high fiber content, ability to enhance the immune system, and help digestion, have recently received special attention. Among the different beverages available on the market, probiotic dairy and non-dairy products have attracted much attention because of their affordable cost and their numerous therapeutic activities. Fermented milk and yogurt are currently worth €46 billion, with 77% of the market reported in Europe, North America, and Asia. Consumption of dairy beverages has some limitations due for example to lactose intolerance and allergy to milk proteins, thereby leading consumers to use non-dairy beverages such as fruit, grains, and vegetable juices to add probiotics to diet as well as driving the manufacturers to food matrices-based beverages containing probiotic cultures. The purpose of this review article is to evaluate the therapeutic performance and properties of dairy and non-dairy beverages in terms of probiotic, prebiotic, and synbiotic activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide World of Beverage Research: Reviews of Current Topics)
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