Next Issue
Volume 10, December
Previous Issue
Volume 10, October
 
 

Toxics, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2022) – 81 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The transfer of fecal microbiota from young zebrafish donors is found to significantly refresh the reproductive endocrine system and effectively ameliorate the toxicity of perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS) in aged zebrafish recipients. It is intriguing that the transplantation of young feces successfully establishes a youth-like transcriptomic phenotype in the elderly recipients, thus attenuating functional decline and maintaining a healthy aging state of the gonads. The transcriptomic disorders caused by PFBS are largely mitigated in the aged by transferring young feces. The present findings highlight the therapeutic value of young fecal transplantation for preventing the functional compromise of gonads resulting from aging and PFBS. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
15 pages, 2467 KiB  
Article
Cytotoxicity Mechanisms of Eight Major Herbicide Active Ingredients in Comparison to Their Commercial Formulations
Toxics 2022, 10(11), 711; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10110711 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2254
Abstract
Commercial pesticide formulations contain co-formulants, which are generally considered as having no toxic effects in mammals. This study aims to compare the toxicity of 8 major herbicide active ingredients–namely glyphosate, dicamba, 2,4-D, fluroxypyr, quizalofop-p-ethyl, pendimethalin, propyzamide and metazachlor–with a typical commercial formulation of [...] Read more.
Commercial pesticide formulations contain co-formulants, which are generally considered as having no toxic effects in mammals. This study aims to compare the toxicity of 8 major herbicide active ingredients–namely glyphosate, dicamba, 2,4-D, fluroxypyr, quizalofop-p-ethyl, pendimethalin, propyzamide and metazachlor–with a typical commercial formulation of each active ingredient. Cytotoxicity and oxidative stress capability was assessed in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Using an MTT assay, formulations of glyphosate (Roundup Probio), fluroxypyr (Hurler), quizalofop-p-ethyl (Targa Super) and dicamba (Hunter) were more toxic than the active ingredient alone. Metazachlor and its formulation Sultan had similar cytotoxicity profiles. Cytotoxicity profiles were comparable in immortalised human fibroblasts. Toxilight necrosis assays showed the formulation of metazachlor (Sultan50C) resulted in significant membrane disruption compared to the active ingredient. Generation of reactive oxygen species was detected for glyphosate, fluroxypyr, pendimethalin, quizalofop-p-ethyl, the formulation of 2,4-D (Anti-Liserons), and dicamba and its formulation Hunter. Further testing of quizalofop-p-ethyl and its formulation Targa Super in the ToxTracker assay system revealed that both products induced oxidative stress and an unfolded protein response. In conclusion, these results show that most herbicide formulations tested in this study are more toxic than their active ingredients in human tissue culture cell model systems. The results add to a growing body of evidence, which implies that commercial herbicide formulations and not just their active ingredients should be evaluated in regulatory risk assessment of pesticides. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 691 KiB  
Review
A Review of Methods Used to Detect Methamphetamine from Indoor Air and Textiles in Confined Spaces
Toxics 2022, 10(11), 710; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10110710 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 6000
Abstract
Methamphetamine manufacture, use, and the resulting contamination is a significant issue that affects public health, the environment, and the economy. Third-hand exposure to methamphetamine can result in adverse health risks for individuals and first responders. Such exposures can result from the inhalation of [...] Read more.
Methamphetamine manufacture, use, and the resulting contamination is a significant issue that affects public health, the environment, and the economy. Third-hand exposure to methamphetamine can result in adverse health risks for individuals and first responders. Such exposures can result from the inhalation of airborne residues or from contact with contaminated objects. This review was conducted to determine the current methods used for methamphetamine extraction from indoor air and porous fabric materials. Dynamic solid phase microextraction (SPME) and sorbent sampling tubes have been applied to extract airborne methamphetamine residues from contaminated properties. SPME and solvent extraction have been applied to sample clothing and textiles for methamphetamine detection. This review demonstrates that there is limited literature on the detection of methamphetamine from indoor air and clothing. Supplementary and consistent methods to detect methamphetamine from air and porous surfaces should be developed and published to allow better assessment of the environmental risk to public health caused by third-hand exposure to methamphetamine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Exposome Analysis and Risk Assessment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 705 KiB  
Article
Epidemiology of Chemical Poisoning among Adults in Qassim Region: An Eight-Year Study
Toxics 2022, 10(11), 709; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10110709 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1887
Abstract
Chemical poisoning is considered a common medico-social problem that, in addition to causing extensive morbidity and mortality, dominates the valuable health care service resources. Therefore, this study was conducted to explore the extent and frequency of chemical poisoning events among adults in Qassim [...] Read more.
Chemical poisoning is considered a common medico-social problem that, in addition to causing extensive morbidity and mortality, dominates the valuable health care service resources. Therefore, this study was conducted to explore the extent and frequency of chemical poisoning events among adults in Qassim region as well as the most common poisoning agents involved. A retrospective method of data collection was used employing medical record review for chemical poisoning cases that occurred in Qassim region during the 8-year period from January 2008 to December 2015. Data were collected using a standardized, validated data collection sheet. The study revealed that there is no steady trend (either decreasing or increasing) of the number of poisoning cases through time. There is a statistically significant association between the type of poisoning agent and gender (χ2 = 14.3104, p < 0.05). Moreover, there is a statistically significant association between the type of poisoning agent and period in years (χ2 = 19.7565, p < 0.05). It can be concluded that poisoning cases are distributed, to some extent, evenly between males and females, with no pattern through time. Educational programs are needed to raise public awareness about poisoning, especially among women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Human Toxicology and Epidemiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 873 KiB  
Article
Insight into the Burden of Malignant Respiratory Tumors and their Relationship with Smoking Rates and Lead Contamination in Mexico
Toxics 2022, 10(11), 708; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10110708 - 20 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1424
Abstract
We aimed to report the results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019 related to respiratory malignant tumors (tracheal, bronchial, and lung) in Mexico. We also evaluated the relationship between the burden of these neoplasms and the proportion of daily smokers and [...] Read more.
We aimed to report the results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019 related to respiratory malignant tumors (tracheal, bronchial, and lung) in Mexico. We also evaluated the relationship between the burden of these neoplasms and the proportion of daily smokers and total lead emissions in 2019. A cross-sectional analysis of ecological data was performed. The burden of these tumors was 152,189 disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and years of life lost (YLL) contributed to 99% of them. The highest DALYs rates (per 100,000) were observed in the states of Sinaloa, Chihuahua, Baja California Sur, Sonora, and Nayarit. We documented a linear relationship between the DALYs rates and the prevalence of daily smokers (β = 8.50, 95% CI 1.58–15.38) and the total lead emissions (tons/year: β = 4.04, 95% CI 0.07–8.01). If later replicated, our study would provide insight into the major relevance of regulating tobacco use and the activities associated with the production of lead dust and other hazardous contaminants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metal Contamination in Soil and Health Risks)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 1249 KiB  
Article
Diffusion of Carbon Monoxide and Hydrogen Cyanide to Muscles and Blood—An Experimental Study
Toxics 2022, 10(11), 707; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10110707 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1480
Abstract
Postmortem carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) diffusion under ambient conditions was assessed in a human cadaver model. The main objective of this study was to determine whether the postmortem diffusion of HCN and CO greatly affected the determination of HCN, carboxyhemoglobin [...] Read more.
Postmortem carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) diffusion under ambient conditions was assessed in a human cadaver model. The main objective of this study was to determine whether the postmortem diffusion of HCN and CO greatly affected the determination of HCN, carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), and carboxymyoglobin (COMb). Layered samples of blood, musculocutaneous, and muscular specimens were collected from the adult cadavers and placed in the tight chambers designed for the purpose of this experiment. The specimens were treated with CO and HCN for 24 h. COHb and COMb were determined using headspace gas chromatography (GC) with an O-FID detector while the HCN values were assessed using a GC headspace with an NPD detector. It was shown that the skin substantially limited the diffusion of CO which penetrated the superficial layers of the muscle very slightly, all the while not affecting the blood level of COHb in the 4.5 cm layer of the muscle located underneath. There were no differences regarding the CO diffusion between superficially charred and thermally coagulated compared to that observed in intact integuments. In addition, the cutaneous sample deprived of the adipose layer was not shown to be a barrier to the moderate diffusion of CO into the blood layer below. HCN was found to easily diffuse from the skin to the blood vessels (vein specimens), and partial charring and thermocoagulation of the superficial muscular layer favored the diffusion of cyanides into the tissues. Similarly to CO, HCN diffusion to the blood and muscles was greatly limited by the adipose layer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Forensic Toxicology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 1515 KiB  
Article
Predicting Dose-Range Chemical Toxicity using Novel Hybrid Deep Machine-Learning Method
Toxics 2022, 10(11), 706; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10110706 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1681
Abstract
Humans are exposed to thousands of chemicals, including environmental chemicals. Unfortunately, little is known about their potential toxicity, as determining the toxicity remains challenging due to the substantial resources required to assess a chemical in vivo. Here, we present a novel hybrid neural [...] Read more.
Humans are exposed to thousands of chemicals, including environmental chemicals. Unfortunately, little is known about their potential toxicity, as determining the toxicity remains challenging due to the substantial resources required to assess a chemical in vivo. Here, we present a novel hybrid neural network (HNN) deep learning method, called HNN-Tox, to predict chemical toxicity at different doses. To develop a hybrid HNN-Tox method, we combined two neural network frameworks, the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and the multilayer perceptron (MLP)-type feed-forward neural network (FFNN). Combining the CNN and FCNN in the field of environmental chemical toxicity prediction is a novel approach. We developed several binary and multiclass classification models to assess dose-range chemical toxicity that is trained based on thousands of chemicals with known toxicity. The performance of the HNN-Tox was compared with other machine-learning methods, including Random Forest (RF), Bootstrap Aggregation (Bagging), and Adaptive Boosting (AdaBoost). We also analyzed the model performance dependency on varying features, descriptors, dataset size, route of exposure, and toxic dose. The HNN-Tox model, trained on 59,373 chemicals annotated with known LD50 and routes of exposure, maintained its predictive ability with an accuracy of 84.9% and 84.1%, even after reducing the descriptor size from 318 to 51, and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.89 and 0.88, respectively. Further, we validated the HNN-Tox with several external toxic chemical datasets on a large scale. The HNN-Tox performed optimally or better than the other machine-learning methods for diverse chemicals. This study is the first to report a large-scale prediction of dose-range chemical toxicity with varying features. The HNN-Tox has broad applicability in predicting toxicity for diverse chemicals and could serve as an alternative methodology approach to animal-based toxicity assessment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Novel Methods in Toxicology Research)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1452 KiB  
Article
Prenatal Exposure to Ambient PM2.5 and Early Childhood Growth Impairment Risk in East Africa
Toxics 2022, 10(11), 705; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10110705 - 18 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1683
Abstract
Height for age is an important and widely used population-level indicator of children’s health. Morbidity trends show that stunting in young children is a significant public health concern. Recent studies point to environmental factors as an understudied area of child growth failure in [...] Read more.
Height for age is an important and widely used population-level indicator of children’s health. Morbidity trends show that stunting in young children is a significant public health concern. Recent studies point to environmental factors as an understudied area of child growth failure in Africa. Data on child measurements of height-for-age and confounders were obtained from fifteen waves of the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) for six countries in East Africa. Monthly ambient PM2.5 concentration data was retrieved from the Atmospheric Composition Analysis Group (ACAG) global surface PM2.5 estimates and spatially integrated with DHS data. Generalized additive models with linear and logistic regression were used to estimate the exposure-response relationship between prenatal PM2.5 and height-for-age and stunting among children under five in East Africa (EA). Fully adjusted models showed that for each 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 concentration there is a 0.069 (CI: 0.097, 0.041) standard deviation decrease in height-for-age and 9% higher odds of being stunted. Our study identified ambient PM2.5 as an environmental risk factor for lower height-for-age among young children in EA. This underscores the need to address emissions of harmful air pollutants in EA as adverse health effects are attributable to ambient PM2.5 air pollution. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 981 KiB  
Article
Environmental Hazards of Nanobiomaterials (Hydroxyapatite-Based NMs)—A Case Study with Folsomia candida—Effects from Long Term Exposure
Toxics 2022, 10(11), 704; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10110704 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1148
Abstract
Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a calcium phosphate used in many fields, including biomedical applications. In particular, ion-doped HA nanomaterials (nHA) are developed for their increased bioactivity, particularly in the fields of regenerative medicine and nanomedicine. In this study, we assessed the ecotoxicological impact of [...] Read more.
Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a calcium phosphate used in many fields, including biomedical applications. In particular, ion-doped HA nanomaterials (nHA) are developed for their increased bioactivity, particularly in the fields of regenerative medicine and nanomedicine. In this study, we assessed the ecotoxicological impact of five nHA materials: a synthesized calcium hydroxyapatite (CaP-HA), superparamagnetic iron-doped hydroxyapatite (Fe-HA), titanium-doped hydroxyapatite (Ti-HA), alginate/titanium-doped hydroxyapatite hybrid composite (Ti-HA-Alg), and a commercial HA. The soil ecotoxicology model species Folsomia candida (Collembola) was used, and besides the standard reproduction test (28 days), an extension to the standard for one more generation was performed (56 days). Assessed endpoints included the standard survival and reproduction, and additionally, growth. Exposure via the standard (28 days) did not cause toxicity, but reproduction increased in commercial HA (significantly at 320 mg HA/kg) whereas via the extension (56 days) it decreased in all tested concentrations. Juveniles’ size (56 days) was reduced in all tested nHA materials, except commercial HA. nHA materials seem to trigger a compromise between reproduction and growth. Long-term effects could not be predicted based on the standard shorter exposure; hence, the testing of at least two generations (56 days) is recommended to assess the toxicity of nanomaterials, particularly in F. candida. Further, we found that the inclusion of size as additional endpoint is highly relevant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of the (Eco)Toxicity of Nanomaterials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1542 KiB  
Article
Adsorption Characteristics of Dimethylated Arsenicals on Iron Oxide–Modified Rice Husk Biochar
Toxics 2022, 10(11), 703; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10110703 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1148
Abstract
In this study, the adsorption characteristics of dimethylated arsenicals to rice husk biochar (BC) and Fe/biochar composite (FeBC) were assessed through isothermal adsorption experiments and X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis. The maximal adsorption capacities (qm) of inorganic arsenate, calculated using the Langmuir [...] Read more.
In this study, the adsorption characteristics of dimethylated arsenicals to rice husk biochar (BC) and Fe/biochar composite (FeBC) were assessed through isothermal adsorption experiments and X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis. The maximal adsorption capacities (qm) of inorganic arsenate, calculated using the Langmuir isotherm equation, were 1.28 and 6.32 mg/g for BC and FeBC, respectively. Moreover, dimethylated arsenicals did not adsorb to BC at all, and in the case of FeBC, qm values of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)), dimethylmonothioarsinic acid (DMMTA(V)), and dimethyldithioarsinic acid (DMDTA(V)) were calculated to be 7.08, 0.43, and 0.28 mg/g, respectively. This was due to the formation of iron oxide (i.e., two-line ferrihydrite) on the surface of BC. Linear combination fitting using As K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra confirmed that all chemical forms of dimethylated arsenicals adsorbed on the two-line ferrihydrite were DMA(V). Thus, FeBC could retain highly mobile and toxic arsenicals such as DMMTA(V) and DMDTA(V)) in the environment, and transform them into DMA(V) with relatively low toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metal Contamination in Soil and Health Risks)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 2720 KiB  
Article
Surface Water Processes Influencing Alterations in Pharmaceutical Chemical Composition following Wastewater Discharge into a Freshwater Estuary
Toxics 2022, 10(11), 702; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10110702 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1222
Abstract
The tidal freshwater Potomac River (TFPR) in the metropolitan Washington, DC region receives wastewater discharge from eight major wastewater treatment plants with the potential to impact water quality. A total of 85 pharmaceutical chemicals and personal care products (PPCPs) were analyzed in surface [...] Read more.
The tidal freshwater Potomac River (TFPR) in the metropolitan Washington, DC region receives wastewater discharge from eight major wastewater treatment plants with the potential to impact water quality. A total of 85 pharmaceutical chemicals and personal care products (PPCPs) were analyzed in surface water and sediments using solid-phase extraction and QuEChERS, respectively, in conjunction with liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry-multiple reaction monitoring quantitation (LC-MS/MS-MRM). A total of 52 PPCPs were quantified in both surface water and sediment. The most frequently quantified PPCPs in water included caffeine, fexofenadine, nicotine, sulfamethoxazole, hydrochlorothiazide, MDA, desvenlafaxine, and metoprolol ranging from 10 to 360 ng/L, and in sediment included diphenhydramine, escitalopram, desvenlafaxine, fexofenadine, sertraline and triclocarban ranging from 20 to 120 ng/g (dry weight). Comparisons of PPCP constituents in WTP discharge and adjacent surface water showed altered compositions reflecting dispersal and transformation processes acted quickly following contact of effluent with surface water. Although the PPCPs were present at their greatest concentrations in surface water near the WTP discharge zones, PPCP concentrations rapidly attenuated yielding mainstem TFPR concentrations relatively consistent along the freshwater reach of the tidal range in the estuary. The PPCP concentrations in sediment maximized in the tributary shoals, but also decreased in the mainstem TFPR similarly to surface water. Compositional analysis showed sorption to geosolids was the most important factor in the loss of PPCPs following WTP discharge in the tributary embayments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Chemistry)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2532 KiB  
Article
Deltamethrin-Induced Respiratory and Behavioral Effects and Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOP) in Short-Term Exposed Mozambique Tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus
Toxics 2022, 10(11), 701; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10110701 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1588
Abstract
Disrupted behavior and respiratory distress effects of 96-h acute deltamethrin exposures in adult Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, were investigated using behavioral indices and opercular movement, respectively. Deltamethrin concentrations were found to be associated with toxicological (lethal and sublethal) responses. At 24, 48, [...] Read more.
Disrupted behavior and respiratory distress effects of 96-h acute deltamethrin exposures in adult Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, were investigated using behavioral indices and opercular movement, respectively. Deltamethrin concentrations were found to be associated with toxicological (lethal and sublethal) responses. At 24, 48, 72, and 96 h, the LC50 values and 95% confidence limits were 12.290 (11.174–14.411 µg/L), 12.671 (11.334–15.649 µg/L), 10.172 (9.310–11.193 µg/L), and 8.639 (7.860–9.417 µg/L), respectively. The GUTS-model analysis showed that GUTS-SD (stochastic death) with a narrow tolerance distribution in deltamethrin exposed O. mossambicus populations was more sensitive than the GUTS-IT (individual tolerance) model. Prior to death, exposed fish demonstrated concentration-dependent mortality and disturbed behavioral responses, including uncoordinated swim motions, increased mucus secretion, unbalanced and unpredictable swimming patterns, and inactivity. The altered behavioral patterns and increased opercular movement with increased deltamethrin levels and exposure time are strongly suggestive of neurotoxicity and respiratory distress, respectively. Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs), describing biological mechanisms and plausible pathways, highlighted oxidative stress and cholinergic effects as intermediate steps linked to respiratory distress and behavioral toxicity. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 2629 KiB  
Article
A Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Modeling Framework for Mixtures of Dioxin-like Compounds
Toxics 2022, 10(11), 700; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10110700 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1718
Abstract
Humans are exposed to persistent organic pollutants, such as dioxin-like compounds (DLCs), as mixtures. Understanding and predicting the toxicokinetics and thus internal burden of major constituents of a DLC mixture is important for assessing their contributions to health risks. PBPK models, including dioxin [...] Read more.
Humans are exposed to persistent organic pollutants, such as dioxin-like compounds (DLCs), as mixtures. Understanding and predicting the toxicokinetics and thus internal burden of major constituents of a DLC mixture is important for assessing their contributions to health risks. PBPK models, including dioxin models, traditionally focus on one or a small number of compounds; developing new or extending existing models for mixtures often requires tedious, error-prone coding work. This lack of efficiency to scale up for multi-compound exposures is a major technical barrier toward large-scale mixture PBPK simulations. Congeners in the DLC family, including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), share similar albeit quantitatively different toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic properties. Taking advantage of these similarities, here we reported the development of a human PBPK modeling framework for DLC mixtures that can flexibly accommodate an arbitrary number of congeners. Adapted from existing TCDD models, our mixture model contains the blood and three diffusion-limited compartments—liver, fat, and rest of the body. Depending on the number of congeners in a mixture, varying-length vectors of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are automatically generated to track the tissue concentrations of the congeners. Shared ODEs are used to account for common variables, including the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and CYP1A2, to which the congeners compete for binding. Binary and multi-congener mixture simulations showed that the AHR-mediated cross-induction of CYP1A2 accelerates the sequestration and metabolism of DLC congeners, resulting in consistently lower tissue burdens than in single exposure, except for the liver. Using dietary intake data to simulate lifetime exposures to DLC mixtures, the model demonstrated that the relative contributions of individual congeners to blood or tissue toxic equivalency (TEQ) values are markedly different than those to intake TEQ. In summary, we developed a mixture PBPK modeling framework for DLCs that may be utilized upon further improvement as a quantitative tool to estimate tissue dosimetry and health risks of DLC mixtures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Toxicology: Expanding Frontiers in Risk Assessment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 2073 KiB  
Article
Nanoplastic Exposure at Predicted Environmental Concentrations Induces Activation of Germline Ephrin Signal Associated with Toxicity Formation in the Caenorhabditis elegans Offspring
Toxics 2022, 10(11), 699; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10110699 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 1710
Abstract
In nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, exposure to polystyrene nanoparticles (PS-NPs) at predicted environmental concentrations can cause induction of transgenerational toxicity. However, the underlying mechanisms for toxicity formation of PS-NP in the offspring remain largely unknown. In this study, based on high-throughput sequencing, Ephrin [...] Read more.
In nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, exposure to polystyrene nanoparticles (PS-NPs) at predicted environmental concentrations can cause induction of transgenerational toxicity. However, the underlying mechanisms for toxicity formation of PS-NP in the offspring remain largely unknown. In this study, based on high-throughput sequencing, Ephrin ligand EFN-3 was identified as a target of KSR-1/2 (two kinase suppressors of Ras) in the germline during the control of transgenerational PS-NP toxicity. At parental generation (P0-G), exposure to 0.1–10 μg/L PS-NP caused the increase in expression of germline efn-3, and this increase in germline efn-3 expression could be further detected in the offspring, such as F1-G and F2-G. Germline RNAi of efn-3 caused a resistance to transgenerational PS-NP toxicity, suggesting that the activation of germline EFN-3 at P0-G mediated transgenerational PS-NP toxicity. In the offspring, Ephrin receptor VAB-1 was further activated by the increased EFN-3 caused by PS-NP exposure at P0-G, and RNAi of vab-1 also resulted in resistance to transgenerational PS-NP toxicity. VAB-1 acted in both the neurons and the germline to control toxicity of PS-NP in the offspring. In the neurons, VAB-1 regulated PS-NP toxicity by suppressing expressions of DBL-1, JNK-1, MPK-1, and GLB-10. In the germline, VAB-1 regulated PS-NP toxicity by increasing NDK-1 and LIN-23 expressions and decreasing EGL-1 expression. Therefore, germline Ephrin ligand EFN-3 and its receptor VAB-1 acted together to mediate the formation of transgenerational PS-NP toxicity. Our data highlight the important role of activation in germline Ephrin signals in mediating transgenerational toxicity of nanoplastics at predicted environmental concentrations in organisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotoxicology Research: Caenorhabditis elegans as a Model Organism)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 3040 KiB  
Article
Triflumizole Induces Developmental Toxicity, Liver Damage, Oxidative Stress, Heat Shock Response, Inflammation, and Lipid Synthesis in Zebrafish
Toxics 2022, 10(11), 698; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10110698 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1382
Abstract
Triflumizole (TFZ) toxicity must be investigated in the aquatic environment to understand the potential risks to aquatic species. Accordingly, the adverse effects of TFZ exposure in zebrafish were investigated. Results demonstrate that, after TFZ exposure, the lethal concentration 50 (LC50) in [...] Read more.
Triflumizole (TFZ) toxicity must be investigated in the aquatic environment to understand the potential risks to aquatic species. Accordingly, the adverse effects of TFZ exposure in zebrafish were investigated. Results demonstrate that, after TFZ exposure, the lethal concentration 50 (LC50) in 3 d post-fertilization (dpf) embryos and 6 dpf larvae were 4.872 and 2.580 mg/L, respectively. The development (including pericardium edema, yolk sac retention, and liver degeneration) was apparently affected in 3 dpf embryos. Furthermore, the alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in 6 dpf larvae were significantly increased. Additionally, the expression of heat shock response genes (including hsp70, grp78, hsp90, and grp94), inflammatory genes (including p65-nfκb, il-1β, and cox2a), and lipid synthetic genes (including srebp1, fas, acc, and ppar-γ) in 3 dpf embryos was significantly increased, which was also partially observed in the intestinal cell line form Pampus argenteus. Taken together, TFZ could affect the development of zebrafish, accompanied by disturbances of oxidative stress, heat shock response, inflammation, and lipid synthesis. Our findings provide an original insight into the potential risks of TFZ to the aquatic ecosystem. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 5990 KiB  
Article
Radiation Attenuation Assessment of Serpentinite Rocks from a Geological Perspective
Toxics 2022, 10(11), 697; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10110697 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1915
Abstract
Serpentinites are metamorphic rocks that are widely applied as aggregates in the production of radiation-shielding concrete. Different varieties of massive serpentinite mountains located in Egypt exist without real investment. Hence, this study aims to evaluate the radiation shielding efficacy of three varieties of [...] Read more.
Serpentinites are metamorphic rocks that are widely applied as aggregates in the production of radiation-shielding concrete. Different varieties of massive serpentinite mountains located in Egypt exist without real investment. Hence, this study aims to evaluate the radiation shielding efficacy of three varieties of serpentinite rocks from different geological perspectives: mineralogical, geochemical, and morphological characteristics. X-ray diffraction, transmitted-light microscopy, and thermal analysis were required to characterize their mineralogical composition, while X-ray fluorescence was necessary to investigate their geochemical features. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy was used to detect their morphological characteristics. On the other hand, the PuBe source and stilbene detector were employed for the experimental determination of fast neutrons and γ-ray attenuations, which were conducted at energy ranges of 0.8–11 and 0.4–8.3 MeV, respectively. Based on the mineralogical, geochemical, and morphological characteristics of these rocks, the radiation attenuation capacity of lizardite > antigorite > chrysotile. However, these serpentinites can be applied as a natural alternative to some radiation-shielding concrete in radiotherapy centers and other counterpart facilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiation Exposure and Health Effects)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 3995 KiB  
Article
Detection of Changes in Monoamine Neurotransmitters by the Neonicotinoid Pesticide Imidacloprid Using Mass Spectrometry
Toxics 2022, 10(11), 696; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10110696 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1783
Abstract
Monoamine neurotransmitters (MAs), including dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT), regulate brain functions such as behavior, memory, and learning. Neonicotinoids are pesticides that are being used more frequently. Neonicotinoid exposure has been observed to produce neurological symptoms, such as altered spontaneous movements and anxiety-like [...] Read more.
Monoamine neurotransmitters (MAs), including dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT), regulate brain functions such as behavior, memory, and learning. Neonicotinoids are pesticides that are being used more frequently. Neonicotinoid exposure has been observed to produce neurological symptoms, such as altered spontaneous movements and anxiety-like behaviors, which are suspected to be caused by altered MA levels. However, current neurotoxicity tests are not sufficiently sensitive enough to make these determinations. In this study, we performed some behavior tests, and derivatization reagents to improve the ionization efficiency, which was applied to liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to reveal the effect of neonicotinoid administration on MAs in the brain. We orally administered the neonicotinoid imidacloprid (0, 10, and 50 mg/kg body weight) to C57BL/6NCrSlc mice. In the behavior tests, a decrease in activity was observed. The LC-MS/MS quantification of MAs in various brain regions showed a decrease in some MA levels in the olfactory bulb and the striatum. These results showed, for the first time, that even a low dose of imidacloprid could alter MA levels in various parts of the brain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hazardous Effects of Pesticides on Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 3089 KiB  
Communication
Sensitivity of Hydra vulgaris to Nanosilver for Environmental Applications
Toxics 2022, 10(11), 695; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10110695 - 17 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1724
Abstract
Nanosilver applications, including sensing and water treatment, have significantly increased in recent years, although safety for humans and the environment is still under debate. Here, we tested the environmental safety of a novel formulation of silver nanoparticles functionalized with citrate and L-cysteine (AgNPcitLcys) [...] Read more.
Nanosilver applications, including sensing and water treatment, have significantly increased in recent years, although safety for humans and the environment is still under debate. Here, we tested the environmental safety of a novel formulation of silver nanoparticles functionalized with citrate and L-cysteine (AgNPcitLcys) on freshwater cnidarian Hydra vulgaris as an emerging ecotoxicological model for the safety of engineered nanomaterials. AgNPcitLcys behavior was characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), while Ag release was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). H. vulgaris (n = 12) subjects were evaluated for morphological aberration after 96 h of exposure and regeneration ability after 96 h and 7 days of exposure, after which the predatory ability was also assessed. The results show a low dissolution of AgNPcitLcys in Hydra medium (max 0.146% of nominal AgNPcitLcys concentration) and highlight a lack of ecotoxicological effects, both on morphology and regeneration, confirming the protective role of the double coating against AgNP biological effects. Predatory ability evaluation suggests a mild impairment of the entangling capacity or of the functionality of the tentacles, as the number of preys killed but not ingested was higher than the controls in all exposed animals. While their long-term sub-lethal effects still need to be further evaluated on H. vulgaris, AgNPcitLcys appears to be a promising tool for environmental applications, for instance, for water treatment and sensing. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2885 KiB  
Article
Hematotoxic Effect of Respiratory Exposure to PHMG-p and Its Integrated Genetic Analysis
Toxics 2022, 10(11), 694; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10110694 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1658
Abstract
Polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate (PHMG-p), the main ingredient of humidifier disinfectants, circulates systemically through the lungs; however, its toxicological assessment has been primarily limited to pulmonary disease. Herein, we investigated the possible abnormalities in hematopoietic function 20 weeks after intratracheal instillation of PHMG-p in [...] Read more.
Polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate (PHMG-p), the main ingredient of humidifier disinfectants, circulates systemically through the lungs; however, its toxicological assessment has been primarily limited to pulmonary disease. Herein, we investigated the possible abnormalities in hematopoietic function 20 weeks after intratracheal instillation of PHMG-p in a rat model. Notable abnormalities were found out in the peripheral blood cell count and bone marrow (BM) biopsy, while RNA sequencing of BM tissue revealed markedly altered gene expression. Furthermore, signaling involved in hematopoietic dysfunction was predicted by analyzing candidate genes through Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) program. Respiratory PHMG-p exposure significantly decreased monocyte and platelet (PLT) counts and total protein, while significantly increasing hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in peripheral blood. Histopathological analysis of the BM revealed a reduced number of megakaryocytes, with no significant differences in spleen and liver weight to body weight. Moreover, PHMG-p exposure significantly activated estrogen receptor signaling and RHOA signaling, and inhibited RHOGDI signaling. In IPA analysis, candidate genes were found to be strongly related to ‘hematological system development and function’ and ‘hematological disease.’ Accordingly, our results suggest that PHMG-p could affect hematopoiesis, which participates in monocyte differentiation and PLT production, and may induce hematologic diseases via the respiratory tract. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 661 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Toxic Heavy Metals in the Pellets of Owls: A Novel Approach for the Evaluation of Environmental Pollutants
Toxics 2022, 10(11), 693; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10110693 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1718
Abstract
Massive quantities of unadvisable synthetic pesticides are used in modern agricultural industries in order to increase productivity to convene food demands. Wild birds are an excellent bio-indicator of environmental contaminations as pesticides and heavy metals are intentionally highly hazardous pollutants. Considerably, raptorial birds [...] Read more.
Massive quantities of unadvisable synthetic pesticides are used in modern agricultural industries in order to increase productivity to convene food demands. Wild birds are an excellent bio-indicator of environmental contaminations as pesticides and heavy metals are intentionally highly hazardous pollutants. Considerably, raptorial birds (owls) attract consumers in the food chain and food web because they have wider forager and foraging grounds. In the current investigation, owl pellets were used as a viable tool and novel approach to detecting environmental contaminants. In total, 30 pellets comprising five species were collected from selected farmlands, and 11 metals (Cr, Mn, Co, Mo, Se, V, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Fe) were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Undeniably, the Brown Fish Owl showed more metal accumulation than the Barn Owl, Spotted Owl, Indian Eagle Owl, and Mottled Wood Owl. Among the species, the levels of metals such as Manganese (Mn), Molybdenum (Mo), Vanadium (V), Copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn) varied significantly (p < 0.05). Nonetheless, the research revealed that the agroecosystem was contaminated with heavy metals. The present outcome highlights that the management of the environment, especially the agroecosystem, must be examined with a careful assessment of contaminants, and it is a vital resource for human and other related wildlife faunal communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ecotoxicology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 850 KiB  
Article
Prenatal Metal Exposures and Associations with Kidney Injury Biomarkers in Children
Toxics 2022, 10(11), 692; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10110692 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1932
Abstract
Prenatal exposure to arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) may be nephrotoxic, yet limited studies have examined subclinical kidney injury biomarkers in children. We assessed whether metal exposure in the second trimester (2T), a crucial time of kidney development, is [...] Read more.
Prenatal exposure to arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) may be nephrotoxic, yet limited studies have examined subclinical kidney injury biomarkers in children. We assessed whether metal exposure in the second trimester (2T), a crucial time of kidney development, is associated with altered urine kidney injury and function biomarkers in preadolescent children. Analyses included 494 children participating in a birth cohort study in Mexico City. Concentrations of As, Cd, and Pb were measured from pregnant women in 2T blood and urine, and Hg in urine only. Kidney biomarkers were measured from children in urine at age 8–12 years. We assessed the associations between individual metals and (1) kidney biomarkers using linear regression and (2) a multi-protein kidney mixture using weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression. Associations of separate urine and blood metal mixtures with individual kidney biomarkers were assessed via WQS. Within the multi-protein mixture, the association with increased urinary As was predominated by urine alpha-1-microglobulin (A1M), interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP10), and fatty acid binding protein 1; the association with increased urinary Cd was predominated by A1M, clusterin, and albumin. The urine metal mixture was associated with increased albumin (0.23 ng/mL; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.10, 0.37), IP10 (0.15 ng/mL; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.28), and cystatin C (0.17 ng/mL; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.31); these associations were mainly driven by urinary As and Cd. We observed null associations between prenatal blood or urine metal mixtures and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Higher prenatal urinary metals, individually and as a mixture were associated with altered kidney injury biomarkers in children. Further research and longer participant follow-up are required to ascertain the risk of kidney disease later in life. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 3072 KiB  
Article
Biofortification Technology for the Remediation of Cadmium-Contaminated Farmland by the Hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under Crop Rotation and Relay Cropping Mode
Toxics 2022, 10(11), 691; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10110691 - 15 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1212
Abstract
Soil cadmium (Cd) extraction for hyperaccumulators is one of the most important technologies for the remediation of Cd-contaminated farmland soil. However, a phytoremediation model using a single hyperaccumulator cannot guarantee normal agricultural production in contaminated areas. To solve this problem, a combination of [...] Read more.
Soil cadmium (Cd) extraction for hyperaccumulators is one of the most important technologies for the remediation of Cd-contaminated farmland soil. However, a phytoremediation model using a single hyperaccumulator cannot guarantee normal agricultural production in contaminated areas. To solve this problem, a combination of efficient remediation and safe production has been developed. Based on two-period field experiments, this study explored the effect of biofortification on soil Cd remediation using the fruit tree Sedum alfredii Hance and oil sunflower crop rotation and relay cropping mode. BioA and BioB treatments could markedly improve the efficiency of Cd extraction and remediation, and the maximum increase in Cd accumulation was 243.29%. When BioB treatment was combined with papaya–S. alfredii and oil sunflower crop rotation and relay cropping mode, the highest soil Cd removal rate in the two periods was 40.84%, whereas the Cd concentration of papaya fruit was lower than safety production standards (0.05 mg/kg). These results demonstrate that biofortification measures can significantly improve the Cd extraction effect of S. alfredii crop rotation and relay cropping restoration modes, which has guiding significance for Cd pollution remediation and safe production in farmland. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety Utilization and Remediation of Heavy Metal Polluted Farmland)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 741 KiB  
Article
A Human Biomonitoring Study Assessing Glyphosate and Aminomethylphosphonic Acid (AMPA) Exposures among Farm and Non-Farm Families
Toxics 2022, 10(11), 690; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10110690 - 15 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2135
Abstract
Glyphosate-based pesticides are the highest-volume used herbicides worldwide. International concerns regarding the potential human adverse effects of glyphosate exposures have heightened since IARC classified glyphosate as probably carcinogenic to humans. Human biomonitoring (HBM) studies have identified ubiquitous exposure to glyphosate and its main [...] Read more.
Glyphosate-based pesticides are the highest-volume used herbicides worldwide. International concerns regarding the potential human adverse effects of glyphosate exposures have heightened since IARC classified glyphosate as probably carcinogenic to humans. Human biomonitoring (HBM) studies have identified ubiquitous exposure to glyphosate and its main breakdown product, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), from environmental exposures. The IMAGE research project aimed to investigate farm and non-farm families’ exposure to glyphosate while aligning with the Human Biomonitoring for Europe (HBM4EU) initiative. The study recruited non-farm and farm families (who use glyphosate on their farms). Each family member provided a urine sample that was analysed using gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, with a limit of quantification of 0.05 µg/L for glyphosate and AMPA. In addition to general information on background exposures in farm and non-farm families, we investigated relationships in exposure between families and family members. We recruited 68 families, including 54 non-farm and 14 farm families (180 vs. 45 individuals). Some pesticide users (n = 14, all male farmers) had slightly elevated AMPA levels compared to other adult participants but, overall, we observed no significant differences between farm and non-farm families. The main metabolite, AMPA, was quantifiable in twice as many samples as glyphosate (61% vs. 32%), with a maximum concentration of 7.24 µg/L vs. 3.21 µg/L. Compared to previous studies, exposure levels were relatively low and far below current health-based guidance values (3% or less for glyphosate and AMPA). Study results suggest potential exposures from residential co-exposures or living with a pesticide user. This is the first study internationally to investigate glyphosate and AMPA across family members (farm and non-farm). We found comparably low glyphosate and AMPA exposures among these families. These results enhance our understanding of glyphosate exposures for different demographic groups and contribute to the scientific knowledge on exposures required for regulatory risk assessments and the re-evaluation of glyphosate in 2022 by the European Commission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Agrochemicals and Food Toxicology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 2217 KiB  
Article
Zinc Biofortification through Basal Zinc Supply Reduces Grain Cadmium in Mung Beans: Metal Partitioning and Health Risks Assessment
Toxics 2022, 10(11), 689; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10110689 - 14 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1315
Abstract
Grain zinc (Zn) biofortification with less cadmium (Cd) accumulation is of paramount importance from human health and environmental point of view. A pot experiment was carried out to determine the influence of Zn and Cd on their accumulations in Mung bean tissues ( [...] Read more.
Grain zinc (Zn) biofortification with less cadmium (Cd) accumulation is of paramount importance from human health and environmental point of view. A pot experiment was carried out to determine the influence of Zn and Cd on their accumulations in Mung bean tissues (Vigna radiata) in two contrast soil types (Dermosol and Tenosol). The soil types with added Zn and Cd exerted a significant effect on translocation and accumulation of metals in different tissues. The accumulation of Zn and Cd was higher for Tenosol than that for Dermosol. At control, the concentration of Cd followed a pattern, e.g., root > stem > petiole > pod > leaflet > grain for both soils. A basal Zn supply (5 mg kg−1) increased the grain Zn concentration to a significant amount (up to 67%). It also reduced Cd accumulation in tissues, including grains (up to 34%). No non-carcinogenic effect was observed for either the children or the adults as the EDI and PTDI values were below the safety limit; however, the ILCR values exceeded the safety limit, indicating the possibility of some carcinogenic effects. Added Zn helped to reduce the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risks on humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental and Health Effects of Heavy Metal)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 2707 KiB  
Article
Evaluating Different Extraction Approaches for GC-MS Based Metabolomics Analysis of the Giant Pandas’ Fur
Toxics 2022, 10(11), 688; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10110688 - 14 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1342
Abstract
Giant pandas in zoo captivity are situated in residential areas, where environmental pollutants and anthropogenic factors have an impact on their health. Hair metabolomics has been applied in numerous environmental toxicological studies. Therefore, the panda fur metabolome could be a reliable approach to [...] Read more.
Giant pandas in zoo captivity are situated in residential areas, where environmental pollutants and anthropogenic factors have an impact on their health. Hair metabolomics has been applied in numerous environmental toxicological studies. Therefore, the panda fur metabolome could be a reliable approach to reflect endogenous and exogenous metabolic changes related to environmental exposure. However, there is no established extraction protocol to study the fur metabolome of pandas. The aim of this research was to optimize the extraction of panda fur metabolome for high-throughput metabolomics analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fur samples were collected from five pandas. Eight different extraction methods were investigated and evaluated for their reproducibility, metabolite coverage, and extraction efficiency, particularly in relation to the biochemical compound classes such as amino acids, tricarboxylic acid cycle derivatives, fatty acids, and secondary metabolites. Our results demonstrated that HCl + ACN were the superior extraction solvents for amino acid and secondary metabolite extraction, and NaOH + MeOH was ideal for fatty acid extraction. Interestingly, the metabolomic analysis of panda fur was capable of discriminating the longitudinal metabolite profile between black and white furs. These extraction protocols can be used in future study protocols for the analysis of the fur metabolome in pandas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Novel Methods in Toxicology Research)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2479 KiB  
Article
Determination of 19 Steroid Hormones in Human Serum and Urine Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Toxics 2022, 10(11), 687; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10110687 - 12 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2608
Abstract
This paper describes a methodology for simultaneous determination of 19 steroid hormones, viz. estrone, estradiol, estriol, testosterone, 5α-dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione, androstenediol, dehydroepiandrosterone, progesterone, pregnenolone, 17α-OH-progesterone, 17α-OH-pregnenolone, cortisone, cortisol, 11-deoxycortisol, 11-deoxycorticosterone, 11-dehydrocorticosterone, aldosterone, and corticosterone, in 500-µL of urine or serum/plasma. The method was [...] Read more.
This paper describes a methodology for simultaneous determination of 19 steroid hormones, viz. estrone, estradiol, estriol, testosterone, 5α-dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione, androstenediol, dehydroepiandrosterone, progesterone, pregnenolone, 17α-OH-progesterone, 17α-OH-pregnenolone, cortisone, cortisol, 11-deoxycortisol, 11-deoxycorticosterone, 11-dehydrocorticosterone, aldosterone, and corticosterone, in 500-µL of urine or serum/plasma. The method was optimized using isotopically labeled internal standards and liquid-liquid extraction followed by detection using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Dansylation of estrogens significantly improved their sensitivities (~11- to 23-fold) and chromatographic separation. The respective limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of all analytes were 0.04–0.28 and 0.14–0.92 ng/mL in human urine, and 0.11–0.35 and 0.38–1.18 ng/mL in human serum/plasma. Recoveries of all analytes (except for progesterone) fortified at 10, 20, and 200 ng/mL in urine and serum were 80–120%, with standard deviations ranging from 0 to 17.3%. Repeated analysis of similarly fortified urine and serum samples yielded intra-day and inter-day variations of 0–21.7% and 0.16–11.5%, respectively. All analytes except cortisone exhibited weak matrix effects in urine and serum (−13.9–18.2%). The method was further validated through the analysis of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) plasma Standard Reference Material (SRM1950) with certified concentrations for cortisol, progesterone, and testosterone (coefficient of variation: 3–11%). The developed method was applied in the analysis of urine samples from 20 volunteers, which revealed the occurrence of 16 analytes with detection frequencies (DFs) > 80%. Furthermore, 15 analytes were found in plasma SRM1950, indicating the feasibility of our method in the analysis of steroid hormones in urine and serum/plasma. This method will facilitate analysis of steroid hormones in population-based biomonitoring studies. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 5485 KiB  
Article
Improvement of an In-Duct Two-Stage Electrostatic Precipitator via Diffusion Charging
Toxics 2022, 10(11), 686; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10110686 - 12 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1526
Abstract
An in-duct two-stage electrostatic precipitator (ESP) improved by ion diffusion effect was studied. We increased the collection efficiency of a two-stage electrostatic precipitator without additional energy input by adjusting the space arrangement of the charger and the collector, which increased the particle diffusion [...] Read more.
An in-duct two-stage electrostatic precipitator (ESP) improved by ion diffusion effect was studied. We increased the collection efficiency of a two-stage electrostatic precipitator without additional energy input by adjusting the space arrangement of the charger and the collector, which increased the particle diffusion charging time. The collection efficiency and the particle charge were systematically investigated according to the occurrence of diffusion charging and electric field charging in the charger as generated by the negative ions. The collection efficiency of the separated two-stage ESP was 39% higher, on average, than the theoretical efficiency at the same power consumption. Through simulation, it was verified that the ions generated in the carbon fiber ionizer penetrated the charger. We proposed a modified charging mechanism assuming that the penetrated ions cause additional particle charge. The optimal separation distance between the charger and the collector, which showed the maximum collection efficiency, was derived through the modified charging model. Therefore, the in-duct two-stage ESP developed in this study is a promising energy-efficient and cost-saving design for indoor air management. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

11 pages, 1081 KiB  
Article
Energetic Compounds in the Trophic Chain—A Pilot Study Examining the Exposure Risk of Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima) to TNT, Its Metabolites, and By-Products
Toxics 2022, 10(11), 685; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10110685 - 12 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1325
Abstract
The Baltic and North Seas still contain large amounts of dumped munitions from both World Wars. The exposure of the munition shells to the seawater causes corrosion, which leads to the disintegration of shells and a leakage of energetic compounds, including the highly [...] Read more.
The Baltic and North Seas still contain large amounts of dumped munitions from both World Wars. The exposure of the munition shells to the seawater causes corrosion, which leads to the disintegration of shells and a leakage of energetic compounds, including the highly toxic 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), and consequently threatening the marine environment. To evaluate the risk of accumulation of energetic compounds from conventional munitions in the marine food chain, we analyzed the presence of TNT and its metabolites 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2-ADNT) and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4-ADNT) as well as their byproducts 1,3-dinitrobenzene (1,3-DNB) and 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) in different tissues (including muscle, liver, kidney, brain, and bile) from 25 Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima) from the Danish Baltic Sea. Tissues were prepared according to approved protocols, followed by GC-MS/MS analysis. None of the aforementioned energetic compounds were detected in any of the samples. This pilot study is one of the first analyzing the presence of explosive chemicals in tissues from a free-ranging predatory species. This study highlights the need for continuous monitoring at different levels of the trophic chain to increase our knowledge on the distribution and possible accumulation of energetic compounds in the marine environment in order to provide reliable data for decision-making tools and risk assessments. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

42 pages, 2669 KiB  
Review
Reduced Birth Weight and Exposure to Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances: A Review of Possible Underlying Mechanisms Using the AOP-HelpFinder
Toxics 2022, 10(11), 684; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10110684 - 12 Nov 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2681
Abstract
Prenatal exposure to per- and polyfluorinated substances (PFAS) may impair fetal growth. Our knowledge of the underlying mechanisms is incomplete. We used the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP)-helpFinder tool to search PubMed for studies published until March 2021 that examined PFAS exposure in relation [...] Read more.
Prenatal exposure to per- and polyfluorinated substances (PFAS) may impair fetal growth. Our knowledge of the underlying mechanisms is incomplete. We used the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP)-helpFinder tool to search PubMed for studies published until March 2021 that examined PFAS exposure in relation to birth weight, oxidative stress, hormones/hormone receptors, or growth signaling pathways. Of these 1880 articles, 106 experimental studies remained after abstract screening. One clear finding is that PFAS are associated with oxidative stress in in vivo animal studies and in vitro studies. It appears that PFAS-induced reactive-oxygen species (ROS) generation triggers increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ expression and activation of growth signaling pathways, leading to hyperdifferentiation of pre-adipocytes. Fewer proliferating pre-adipocytes result in lower adipose tissue weight and in this way may reduce birth weight. PFAS may also impair fetal growth through endocrine effects. Estrogenic effects have been noted in in vivo and in vitro studies. Overall, data suggest thyroid-damaging effects of PFAS affecting thyroid hormones, thyroid hormone gene expression, and histology that are associated in animal studies with decreased body and organ weight. The effects of PFAS on the complex relationships between oxidative stress, endocrine system function, adipogenesis, and fetal growth should be further explored. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1368 KiB  
Article
Pollution and Health Risk Assessments of Potentially Toxic Elements in the Fine-Grained Particles (10–63 µm and <10 µm) in Road Dust from Apia City, Samoa
Toxics 2022, 10(11), 683; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10110683 - 11 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1382
Abstract
Fine road dust is a major source of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) pollution in urban environments, which adversely affects the atmospheric environment and public health. Two different sizes (10–63 and <10 μm) were separated from road dust collected from Apia City, Samoa, and [...] Read more.
Fine road dust is a major source of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) pollution in urban environments, which adversely affects the atmospheric environment and public health. Two different sizes (10–63 and <10 μm) were separated from road dust collected from Apia City, Samoa, and 10 PTEs were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Fine road dust (<10 μm) had 1.2–2.3 times higher levels of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), antimony (Sb), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) than 10–63 μm particles. The enrichment factor (EF) value of Sb was the highest among PTEs, and reflected significant contamination. Cu, Zn, and Pb in road dust were also present at moderate to significant levels. Chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), and nickel (Ni) in road dust were mainly of natural origins, while Cu, Zn, Sb, and Pb were due to traffic activity. The levels of PTEs in road dust in Samoa are lower than in highly urbanized cities, and the exposure of residents in Samoa to PTEs in road dust does not pose a noncarcinogenic health risk. Further studies of the effects of PTEs contamination in road dust on the atmosphere and living organisms are needed. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 309 KiB  
Review
EtG Quantification in Hair and Different Reference Cut-Offs in Relation to Various Pathologies: A Scoping Review
Toxics 2022, 10(11), 682; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10110682 - 11 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2114
Abstract
Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a non-volatile, non-oxidative, hydrophilic, and stable ethanol phase II metabolite. EtG is produced through ethanol glucuronidation by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), a phase II enzyme. EtG can be extracted from different biological matrices, including keratin ones, such as hair or nails. [...] Read more.
Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a non-volatile, non-oxidative, hydrophilic, and stable ethanol phase II metabolite. EtG is produced through ethanol glucuronidation by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), a phase II enzyme. EtG can be extracted from different biological matrices, including keratin ones, such as hair or nails. The purpose of this scoping review is to describe the relationship between EtG levels in hair and some of the most common and frequent pathological conditions and verify whether different reference cut-offs in relation to various pathologies have been identified in the scientific literature. In fact, in-depth knowledge of the influence of pathologies, such as diabetes mellitus, hepatic and renal dysfunction, on EtG production and its storage in keratin matrices would allow a more appropriate interpretation of obtained data and rule out false positives or false negatives. This scoping review is based on bibliographic research carried out on PubMed regarding the quantification of EtG in hair of subjects affected by different pathological conditions. According to the scientific literature, the main and most common pathologies that can affect the concentration of EtG in hair are liver and kidney diseases and diabetes. The EtG quantification analytical data should be interpreted carefully as they may have a great impact in both forensic and clinical contexts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forensic Toxicology: A New Scientific Contribution)
Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop