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Toxics, Volume 10, Issue 10 (October 2022) – 82 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Climate change (CC) is driving societal and production changes to tackle the increases in CO2 emissions and global warming. Among the different strategies with which to cope with CC, the use of fuels from renewable sources is gaining more and more importance. Aviation is one of the sectors that are facing requests to be more sustainable by introducing increasing amounts of biofuels in flying fleets; however, besides the environmental benefits, stakeholders are also requesting that aviation-related health issues are taken into account. The relevance of biofuels for tackling CC and human health is explored here with a novel experimental approach. View this paper
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13 pages, 6593 KiB  
Article
Highly Selective Adsorption of 99TcO4/ReO4 by a Novel Polyamide-Functionalized Polyacrylamide Polymer Material
Toxics 2022, 10(10), 630; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10100630 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1322
Abstract
The treatment of radioactive wastewater is one of the major problems in the current research. With the development of nuclear energy, the efficient removal of 99TcO4 in radioactive wastewater has attracted the attention of countries all over the world. In [...] Read more.
The treatment of radioactive wastewater is one of the major problems in the current research. With the development of nuclear energy, the efficient removal of 99TcO4 in radioactive wastewater has attracted the attention of countries all over the world. In this study, a novel functional polyamide polymer p-(Amide)-PAM was synthesized by the two-step method. The experimental results show that p-(Amide)-PAM has good adsorptive properties for 99TcO4/ReO4 and has good selectivity in the nitric acid system. The kinetics of the reaction of p-(Amide)-PAM with 99TcO4/ReO4 was studied. The results show that p-(Amide)-PAM has a fast adsorption rate for 99TcO4/ReO4, the saturated adsorption capacity reaches 346.02 mg/g, and the material has good reusability. This new polyamide-functionalized polyacrylamide polymer material has good application prospects in the removal of 99TcO4 from radioactive wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Adsorbents and Adsorption Methods for Pollutants Removal)
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20 pages, 5051 KiB  
Article
Human Exposure to Pesticides in Dust from Two Agricultural Sites in South Africa
Toxics 2022, 10(10), 629; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10100629 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2121
Abstract
Over the last decades, concern has arisen worldwide about the negative impacts of pesticides on the environment and human health. Exposure via dust ingestion is important for many chemicals but poorly characterized for pesticides, particularly in Africa. We investigated the spatial and temporal [...] Read more.
Over the last decades, concern has arisen worldwide about the negative impacts of pesticides on the environment and human health. Exposure via dust ingestion is important for many chemicals but poorly characterized for pesticides, particularly in Africa. We investigated the spatial and temporal variations of 30 pesticides in dust and estimated the human exposure via dust ingestion, which was compared to inhalation and soil ingestion. Indoor dust samples were collected from thirty-eight households and two schools located in two agricultural regions in South Africa and were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. We found 10 pesticides in dust, with chlorpyrifos, terbuthylazine, carbaryl, diazinon, carbendazim, and tebuconazole quantified in >50% of the samples. Over seven days, no significant temporal variations in the dust levels of individual pesticides were found. Significant spatial variations were observed for some pesticides, highlighting the importance of proximity to agricultural fields or of indoor pesticide use. For five out of the nineteen pesticides quantified in dust, air, or soil (i.e., carbendazim, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, diuron and propiconazole), human intake via dust ingestion was important (>10%) compared to inhalation or soil ingestion. Dust ingestion should therefore be considered in future human exposure assessment to pesticides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Exposure to Toxic Chemicals and Human Health)
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29 pages, 1055 KiB  
Review
Comparison of the Medical Uses and Cellular Effects of High and Low Linear Energy Transfer Radiation
Toxics 2022, 10(10), 628; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10100628 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3653
Abstract
Exposure to ionizing radiation can occur during medical treatments, from naturally occurring sources in the environment, or as the result of a nuclear accident or thermonuclear war. The severity of cellular damage from ionizing radiation exposure is dependent upon a number of factors [...] Read more.
Exposure to ionizing radiation can occur during medical treatments, from naturally occurring sources in the environment, or as the result of a nuclear accident or thermonuclear war. The severity of cellular damage from ionizing radiation exposure is dependent upon a number of factors including the absorbed radiation dose of the exposure (energy absorbed per unit mass of the exposure), dose rate, area and volume of tissue exposed, type of radiation (e.g., X-rays, high-energy gamma rays, protons, or neutrons) and linear energy transfer. While the dose, the dose rate, and dose distribution in tissue are aspects of a radiation exposure that can be varied experimentally or in medical treatments, the LET and eV are inherent characteristics of the type of radiation. High-LET radiation deposits a higher concentration of energy in a shorter distance when traversing tissue compared with low-LET radiation. The different biological effects of high and low LET with similar energies have been documented in vivo in animal models and in cultured cells. High-LET results in intense macromolecular damage and more cell death. Findings indicate that while both low- and high-LET radiation activate non-homologous end-joining DNA repair activity, efficient repair of high-LET radiation requires the homologous recombination repair pathway. Low- and high-LET radiation activate p53 transcription factor activity in most cells, but high LET activates NF-kB transcription factor at lower radiation doses than low-LET radiation. Here we review the development, uses, and current understanding of the cellular effects of low- and high-LET radiation exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiation Exposure and Health Effects)
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19 pages, 1513 KiB  
Review
Statins and Male Fertility: Is There a Cause for Concern?
Toxics 2022, 10(10), 627; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10100627 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5709
Abstract
The well-known 3-hydroxyl 3-methyl glutaryl-Coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, called statins, have been the main medication used in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and some cases of cardiovascular diseases. The effectiveness of this drug in controlling cholesterol production is impeccable, however, patients often complain of [...] Read more.
The well-known 3-hydroxyl 3-methyl glutaryl-Coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, called statins, have been the main medication used in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and some cases of cardiovascular diseases. The effectiveness of this drug in controlling cholesterol production is impeccable, however, patients often complain of a variety of side effects, such as myalgia, muscle atrophy, and in some cases, rhabdomyolysis. Not only has the use of statins caused the aforementioned side effects, but they are also shown to cause testicular discomfort, erectile dysfunction, altered semen parameters, and modified steroid hormone production. These reported adverse effects on male fertility are not generally agreed upon, as some have shown the use to be beneficial. Hence, this makes the aftermath effect of statin use on male fertility debatable and controversial. The negative effects have been associated with imbalanced or reduced steroid hormones, which are necessary for proper spermatogenesis and other sexual functions. Meanwhile, the beneficial effects are related to statin’s anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective properties. These contradictory findings are in part due to the different age of users, concentrations of statins, the type and duration of treatment, and the underlying disease and/or comorbidities. Therefore, the current study aims to analyze the literature and gather evidence as to the effects of statin on male sexual health and reproductive parameters, and subsequently give recommendations for the direction of future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity)
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24 pages, 780 KiB  
Review
Post-Occupancy Evaluation’s (POE) Applications for Improving Indoor Environment Quality (IEQ)
Toxics 2022, 10(10), 626; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10100626 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2548
Abstract
To improve buildings and their characteristics, the feedback provided directly by users is generally fundamental in order to be able to adapt the technical and structural functions to the well-being of users. The post-occupancy evaluation (POE) fits perfectly into this context. The POE, [...] Read more.
To improve buildings and their characteristics, the feedback provided directly by users is generally fundamental in order to be able to adapt the technical and structural functions to the well-being of users. The post-occupancy evaluation (POE) fits perfectly into this context. The POE, through qualitative and quantitative information on the interior environment, makes it possible to identify the differences between the performances modeled in the design phase and the real performances experienced by the occupants. This review of 234 articles, published between 2006 and 2022, aims to analyze and compare the recent literature on the application of the POE methodology. The aim was to provide both a qualitative and quantitative assessment of the main factors that comprise the indoor environmental quality (IEQ). The study highlighted the factors that comprise the quality of the indoor environment, as well as the variables that are usually analyzed to describe the well-being of the occupants. The results suggested which are the most common approaches in carrying out POE studies and will identify the factors that most influence the determination of the good quality of an indoor environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Air Pollution and Health)
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0 pages, 297 KiB  
Article
Urinary Arsenic Concentration and Its Relationship with Bronchial Asthma in Children from Arica, Chile
Toxics 2022, 10(10), 625; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10100625 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1151
Abstract
In the city of Arica, northern Chile, the population has been involuntarily exposed to arsenic of natural and anthropogenic origin. This study aims to evaluate the association between urinary arsenic concentration and bronchial asthma diagnosis in the children of Arica. A cross-sectional analysis [...] Read more.
In the city of Arica, northern Chile, the population has been involuntarily exposed to arsenic of natural and anthropogenic origin. This study aims to evaluate the association between urinary arsenic concentration and bronchial asthma diagnosis in the children of Arica. A cross-sectional analysis of a database of 1892 subjects under 18 years of age enrolled in the Environmental Health Centre between 2009 and 2021 was carried out. Arsenic exposure was obtained from a urine sample and bronchial asthma diagnosis from the database of the system for the management of explicit health guarantees. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association between inorganic arsenic and asthma. The median inorganic arsenic was 15 μg/L, and the prevalence of asthma was 7.4%. After adjusting for sex, age, ethnicity, and urinary creatinine, children with the highest tertile of urinary arsenic concentration (≥21.4 μg/L) had a greater chance of developing asthma (odds ratio (OR) 1.90; 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.13–3.18]). When exploring the modifying effect of ethnicity, the association increased among children belonging to any ethnic group (OR 3.51, 95%CI [1.43–8.65]). These findings suggest a relationship between arsenic exposure and bronchial asthma in children. While further studies are needed to assess the impact of arsenic on respiratory health, mitigation efforts to reduce arsenic exposure should be maintained. Full article
15 pages, 19538 KiB  
Review
Plant Resistance to Fungal Pathogens: Bibliometric Analysis and Visualization
Toxics 2022, 10(10), 624; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10100624 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3823
Abstract
Plants are susceptible to fungal pathogen infection, threatening plant growth and development. Researchers worldwide have conducted extensive studies to address this issue and have published numerous articles on the subject, but they lack a scientometric evaluation. This study analyzed international research on the [...] Read more.
Plants are susceptible to fungal pathogen infection, threatening plant growth and development. Researchers worldwide have conducted extensive studies to address this issue and have published numerous articles on the subject, but they lack a scientometric evaluation. This study analyzed international research on the topic “Plant resistance to fungal pathogens” between 2008 and 2021, using the core database of the Web of Science (WoS). By searching the subject words “Plants”, “Disease Resistance”, and “Fungal Pathogens”, we received 6687 articles. Bibliometric visualization software analyzes the most published countries, institutions, journals, authors, the most cited articles, and the most common keywords. The results show that the number of articles in the database has increased year by year, with the United States and China occupying the core positions, accounting for 46.16% of the total published articles worldwide. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) is the main publishing organization. Wang Guoliang is the author with the most published articles, and the Frontiers in Plant Science ranks first in published articles. The research on plant anti-fungal pathogens is booming, and international exchanges and cooperation need to be further strengthened. This paper summarizes five possible research ideas, from fungal pathogens, gene editing technology, extraction of secondary metabolites from plants as anti-fungal agents, identification of related signal pathways, fungal molecular databases, and development of nanomaterials, to provide data for related research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Toxic Effects of Mycotoxins and Underlying Molecular Mechanisms)
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24 pages, 1027 KiB  
Article
The Differences in Risk Perception between Practitioners in the Non-Coal-Mining Industry: Miners, Managers and Experts
Toxics 2022, 10(10), 623; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10100623 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1254
Abstract
Non-coal-mining accidents occur frequently in China, and individual unsafe behaviors are the direct cause. The cognitive diversity of practitioners in the non-coal-mining industry leads to various behaviors in work and hinders communication between groups. The aim of this study is to analyze the [...] Read more.
Non-coal-mining accidents occur frequently in China, and individual unsafe behaviors are the direct cause. The cognitive diversity of practitioners in the non-coal-mining industry leads to various behaviors in work and hinders communication between groups. The aim of this study is to analyze the differences in risk perception (accidents and occupational diseases) between non-coal-mining practitioners (experts, miners, and managers) and to explore the contributing factors. The questionnaire survey method was used to collect the data on risk perception and influencing factors from 402 respondents working in non-coal mines and universities in China. Project analysis and exploratory factor analysis were used for preprocessing. A t-test and linear regression analysis were used to test the significance of the differences and assess the function of the factors, respectively. Regarding risk perception, two risks both have significant differences between the three groups. With the perceptions of accidents and occupational diseases ranked from high to low, the order of the practitioners is as follows: managers (3.88), experts (3.71), miners (3.55) and experts (4.14), miners (3.90), and managers (3.88). Regarding the influencing factors, risk attitude, risk communication, educational level, enterprise trust, and occupational satisfaction have great effects on the three groups. More precisely, three groups have different important predictors. Risk attitude has the greatest impact on miners (0.290) and experts (0.369), but sensibility preference has the greatest impact on managers (0.518). In summary, cognitive discrepancies are common among non-coal-mining practitioners, but the degree of deviation varies with the type and dimension of the risk. There are six factors that have a significant impact on all practitioners, but the effect is limited by specific risks and groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Assessment of Occupational Exposures for Better Health)
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19 pages, 1497 KiB  
Review
Toxic Effects of Cadmium on Fish
Toxics 2022, 10(10), 622; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10100622 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 5399
Abstract
Large amounts of enriched cadmium (Cd) in the environment seriously threatens the healthy and sustainable development of the aquaculture industry and greatly restricts the development of the food processing industry. Studying the distribution and toxic effects of Cd in fish, as well as [...] Read more.
Large amounts of enriched cadmium (Cd) in the environment seriously threatens the healthy and sustainable development of the aquaculture industry and greatly restricts the development of the food processing industry. Studying the distribution and toxic effects of Cd in fish, as well as the possible toxic effects of Cd on the human body, is very significant. A large number of studies have shown that the accumulation and distribution of Cd in fish are biologically specific, cause tissue differences, and seriously damage the integrity of tissue structure and function, the antioxidant defense system, the reproductive regulation system, and the immune system. The physiological, biochemical, enzyme, molecular, and gene expression levels change with different concentrations and times of Cd exposure, and these changes are closely related to the target sites of Cd action and tissues in fish. Therefore, the toxic effects of Cd on fish occur with multiple tissues, systems, and levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ecotoxicology)
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11 pages, 1518 KiB  
Article
Presence of Halogenated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Milk Powder and the Consequence to Human Health
Toxics 2022, 10(10), 621; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10100621 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1854
Abstract
Recent reports of the presence of halogenated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in human foods of animal origin, such as chlorinated (ClPAHs) and brominated (BrPAHs) PAHs, suggest that their contamination in dairy products may also pose a human health risk. This study [...] Read more.
Recent reports of the presence of halogenated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in human foods of animal origin, such as chlorinated (ClPAHs) and brominated (BrPAHs) PAHs, suggest that their contamination in dairy products may also pose a human health risk. This study used GC/Orbitrap-MS to analyze 75 congeners of halogenated PAHs and parent PAHs in milk and creaming powder samples commonly found in grocery stores in Sri Lanka and Japan. Our investigation revealed a total of 31 halogenated PAHs (HPAHs) in the samples. The concentrations of total parent PAHs in the samples from Sri Lanka and Japan ranged from not detected (n.d.)–0.13 and <0.001–16 ng/g dry weight (d.w.). Total ClPAHs and BrPAHs in the samples ranged from 0.01–3.35 and 1.20–5.15 ng/g (d.w.) for Sri Lanka, and 0.04–2.54 and n.d.–2.03 ng/g d.w. for Japan, respectively. The ClPAHs were dominated by chlorinated-pyrene, -fluoranthene, and -benzo[a]pyrene congeners, whereas the BrPAHs were dominated by brominated-naphthalene and -pyrene congeners. The toxic assessment estimated based on the intake of toxic equivalency quotients (TEQs) for target compounds in milk powders revealed that HPAHs might contribute additively to the PAHs-associated health risk to humans, indicating that more research is needed. Full article
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12 pages, 528 KiB  
Review
Bioaccumulation and Biomagnification of Hexabromocyclododecane in Marine Biota from China: A Review
Toxics 2022, 10(10), 620; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10100620 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1852
Abstract
Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) was listed in Annex A of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants for its persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity, and pose significant adverse effects on natural environments and human health. HBCDs are ubiquitously found in marine environments worldwide and can be [...] Read more.
Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) was listed in Annex A of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants for its persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity, and pose significant adverse effects on natural environments and human health. HBCDs are ubiquitously found in marine environments worldwide and can be biomagnified in marine organisms with a high trophic level. In the present study, we reviewed the available data on contamination of HBCDs in the marine biota from China, including mollusks, crustaceans, fish and mammals. Bioaccumulation and biomagnification of HBCDs in the marine food web were summarized as well. This study also prospected the future research of HBCDs, including the transport and fluxes of HBCDs to and within the marine environment, the biomagnification of HBCDs in different ecosystems, and the metabolism of HBCDs in different marine species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occurrence, Fate and Transport of Marine Pollutants)
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13 pages, 2648 KiB  
Article
Rapid Simultaneous Determination of Three Synthetic Cannabinoids in Urine and Plasma of Rats Using Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Toxics 2022, 10(10), 619; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10100619 - 18 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1269
Abstract
Synthetic cannabinoids, a class of psychoactive compounds, are controlled as new psychoactive substances (NPSs) identified by the early warning system (EWS) of the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA). At present, several new synthetic cannabinoids have appeared in the illegal [...] Read more.
Synthetic cannabinoids, a class of psychoactive compounds, are controlled as new psychoactive substances (NPSs) identified by the early warning system (EWS) of the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA). At present, several new synthetic cannabinoids have appeared in the illegal drug market, including 4-methylnaphthalen-1-yl-(1-pentylindol-3-yl) methanone (JWH-122), methyl (1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indazole-3-carbonyl)-L-valinate (5F-AMB), and methyl 2-(1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-1Hindazole-3-carboxamido)-3-methylbutanoate (AMB-FUBINACA). A convenient, rapid, and highly sensitive analytical method was developed to determine three synthetic cannabinoids in rat plasma and urine. The liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was optimized and validated to analyze the three synthetic cannabinoids in rat plasma and urine. The method identified intra-assay precision (1.3–9.0% and 2.8–6.7%), inter-assay precision (3.0–8.6% and 3.9–8.8%), limits of detection (0.003–0.004 ng/mL and 0.00125–0.002 ng/mL) and quantification (0.012–0.016 ng/mL and 0.003–0.005 ng/mL), recovery (95.4–106.8% and 92.0–106.8%) for rat plasma and urine, and the matrix effect (93.4–118.0%) for rat urine, and the correlation coefficients were above 0.99 in the linear range. The established LC-MS/MS method was successfully used to simultaneously detect the JWH-122 and 5F-AMB in rat plasma and JWH-122, 5F-AMB, and AMB-FUBINACA in rat urine. The present study provides methodological support for internal exposure assessment of three synthetic cannabinoids and promotes the quantitative analysis and technical supervision of synthetic cannabinoids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Toxicological Tools for Food and Environmental Safety)
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18 pages, 4253 KiB  
Article
Bacillus subtilis Synthesized Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) Induced Metabolic and Anti-Oxidative Response in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) under Arsenic Stress
Toxics 2022, 10(10), 618; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10100618 - 18 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1331
Abstract
Nanoparticle (NP) application is most effective in decreasing metalloid toxicity. The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of Bacillus subtiles synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) against arsenic (As) stress on rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings. Different concentrations [...] Read more.
Nanoparticle (NP) application is most effective in decreasing metalloid toxicity. The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of Bacillus subtiles synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) against arsenic (As) stress on rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings. Different concentrations of As (5, 10 and 15 ppm) and Bacillus subtilis synthesized Fe3O4 NPs solution (5, 10 and 15 ppm) alone and in combination were applied to rice seedlings. The results showed that As at 15 ppm significantly decreased the growth of rice, which was increased by the low level of As. Results indicated that B. subtilis synthesized Fe3O4 NP-treated plants showed maximum chlorophyll land protein content as compared with arsenic treatment alone. The antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, POD, CAT, MDA and APX and stress modulators (Glycine betain and proline) also showed decreased content in plants as compared with As stress. Subsequently, Bacillus subtilis synthesized Fe3O4 NPs reduced the stress associated parameters due to limited passage of arsenic inside the plant. Furthermore, reduction in H2O2 and MDA content confirmed that the addition of Bacillus subtilis synthesized Fe3O4 NPs under As stress protected rice seedlings against arsenic toxicity, hence enhanced growth was notice and it had beneficial effects on the plant. Results highlighted that Fe3O4 NPs protect rice seedlings against arsenic stress by reducing As accumulation, act as a nano adsorbent and restricting arsenic uptake in rice plants. Hence, our study confirms the significance of Bacillus subtilis synthesized Fe3O4 NPs in alleviating As toxicity in rice plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Emerging Pollutants on Plants)
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21 pages, 2284 KiB  
Article
Emission Factors of CO2 and Airborne Pollutants and Toxicological Potency of Biofuels for Airplane Transport: A Preliminary Assessment
Toxics 2022, 10(10), 617; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10100617 - 18 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2066
Abstract
Aviation is one of the sectors affecting climate change, and concerns have been raised over the increase in the number of flights all over the world. To reduce the climate impact, efforts have been dedicated to introducing biofuel blends as alternatives to fossil [...] Read more.
Aviation is one of the sectors affecting climate change, and concerns have been raised over the increase in the number of flights all over the world. To reduce the climate impact, efforts have been dedicated to introducing biofuel blends as alternatives to fossil fuels. Here, we report environmentally relevant data on the emission factors of biofuel/fossil fuel blends (from 13 to 17% v/v). Moreover, in vitro direct exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells to the emissions was studied to determine their potential intrinsic hazard and to outline relevant lung doses. The results show that the tested biofuel blends do not reduce the emissions of particles and other chemical species compared to the fossil fuel. The blends do reduce the elemental carbon (less than 40%) and total volatile organic compounds (less than 30%) compared to fossil fuel emissions. The toxicological outcomes show an increase in oxidative cellular response after only 40 min of exposure, with biofuels causing a lower response compared to fossil fuels, and lung-deposited doses show differences among the fuels tested. The data reported provide evidence of the possibility to reduce the climate impact of the aviation sector and contribute to the risk assessment of biofuels for aviation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano and Ultrafine Particle Toxicology and Exposure Assessment)
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17 pages, 2677 KiB  
Article
The Actual Efficacy of an Air Purifier at Different Outdoor PM2.5 Concentrations in Residential Houses with Different Airtightness
Toxics 2022, 10(10), 616; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10100616 - 17 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1277
Abstract
It is important to control airborne particles in residential houses for protecting human health. Indoor particulate matter of <2.5 μm (PM2.5) can be effectively monitored and managed using an air purifier. In this study, the actual clean air delivery rates in [...] Read more.
It is important to control airborne particles in residential houses for protecting human health. Indoor particulate matter of <2.5 μm (PM2.5) can be effectively monitored and managed using an air purifier. In this study, the actual clean air delivery rates in residential houses (CADRActual) were acquired by comparing decay rates of fine particles with and without operations of the air purifier under actual conditions, following the standard CADR of an air purifier obtained in a closed test chamber. The measurements of CADRActual at different outdoor PM2.5 concentrations over a month in two residential houses revealed different airtightness levels, compared to the standardized clean air delivery rate of the air purifier (CADRAP). Air changes per hour at 50 Pa (ACH50) was 4.8 h−1 for “house A” (built in 2007) and 2.1 h−1 for “house B” (built in 2018). The CADR of the air purifier used in this study was 10.6 m3/min, while the averaged CADRActual at the “house A” was 7.2 m3/min (approximately 66% of the CADR of the air purifier) and 9.5 m3/min at “house B” (approximately 90% of the CADR of the air purifier). Under the outdoor PM2.5 concentrations of <35 μg/m3, the averaged CADRActual of house A and house B were 7.8 ± 0.3 and 9.7 ± 0.4 m3/min, respectively. However, under the outdoor PM2.5 concentrations of >35 μg/m3, the analogous averaged concentrations were 6.8 ± 0.6 and 9.6 ± 0.3 m3/min for houses A and B, respectively. The measured CADRActual agreed well with the theoretical estimates of CADRActual acquired by the mass balance equation using the infiltration rate of ACH50/20. We also estimated CADRActual/CADRAP for house C built in 2017, where the ACH50 was 1.8 h−1. Overall, this study demonstrated how CADRActual/CADRAP of an air purifier at residential houses can be predicted according to outdoor PM2.5 concentration and airtightness of the house. As shown, it can be closer to 1 at lower ACH50 houses and at lower outdoor PM2.5 concentrations. Full article
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12 pages, 1064 KiB  
Article
Cleaning the Flue in Wood-Burning Stoves Is a Key Factor in Reducing Household Air Pollution
Toxics 2022, 10(10), 615; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10100615 - 17 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1809
Abstract
In experimental settings, replacing old wood stoves with new wood stoves results in reduced personal exposure to household air pollution. We tested this assumption by measuring PM2.5 and levoglucosan concentrations inside homes and correlated them with wood stove age. Methods: Thirty homes [...] Read more.
In experimental settings, replacing old wood stoves with new wood stoves results in reduced personal exposure to household air pollution. We tested this assumption by measuring PM2.5 and levoglucosan concentrations inside homes and correlated them with wood stove age. Methods: Thirty homes in the Albuquerque, NM area were monitored over a seven-day period using in-home particulate monitors placed in a common living area during the winter months. Real-time aerosol monitoring was performed, and filter samples were analyzed gravimetrically to calculate PM2.5 concentrations and chemically to determine concentrations of levoglucosan. A linear regression model with backward stepwise elimination was performed to determine the factors that would predict household air pollution measures. Results: In this sample, 73.3% of the households used wood as their primary source of heating, and 60% burned daily or almost daily. The mean burn time over the test week was 50 ± 38 h, and only one household burned wood 24/day (168 h). The average PM2.5 concentration (standard deviation) for the 30 homes during the seven-day period was 34.6 µg/m3 (41.3 µg/m3), and median (min, max) values were 15.5 µg/m3 (7.3 µg/m3, 193 µg/m3). Average PM2.5 concentrations in 30 homes ranged from 0–15 μg/m3 to >100 μg/m3. Maximum PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 100–200 μg/m3 to >3000 μg/m3. The levoglucosan levels showed a linear correlation with the total PM2.5 collected by the filters (R2 = 0.92). However, neither mean nor peak PM2.5 nor levoglucosan levels were correlated with the age (10.85 ± 8.54 years) of the wood stove (R2 ≤ 0.07, p > 0.23). The final adjusted linear regression model showed that average PM2.5 was associated with reports of cleaning the flue with a beta estimate of 35.56 (3.47–67.65) and R2 = 0.16 (p = 0.04). Discussion: Cleaning the flue and not the wood stove age was associated with household air pollution indices. Education on wood stove maintenance and safe burning practices may be more important in reducing household air pollution than the purchase of new stoves. Full article
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16 pages, 3140 KiB  
Article
The NOAEL Equivalent of Environmental Cadmium Exposure Associated with GFR Reduction and Chronic Kidney Disease
Toxics 2022, 10(10), 614; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10100614 - 15 Oct 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1954
Abstract
Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic metal pollutant present in virtually all food types. Health guidance values were established to safeguard against excessive dietary Cd exposure. The derivation of such health guidance figures has been shifted from the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) to the [...] Read more.
Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic metal pollutant present in virtually all food types. Health guidance values were established to safeguard against excessive dietary Cd exposure. The derivation of such health guidance figures has been shifted from the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) to the lower 95% confidence bound of the benchmark dose (BMD), termed BMDL. Here, we used the PROAST software to calculate the BMDL figures for Cd excretion (ECd) associated with a reduction in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and an increased prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD), defined as eGFR ≤ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Data were from 1189 Thai subjects (493 males and 696 females) mean age of 43.2 years. The overall percentages of smokers, hypertension and CKD were 33.6%, 29.4% and 6.2%, respectively. The overall mean ECd normalized to the excretion of creatinine (Ecr) as ECd/Ecr was 0.64 µg/g creatinine. ECd/Ecr, age and body mass index (BMI) were independently associated with increased prevalence odds ratios (POR) for CKD. BMI figures ≥24 kg/m2 were associated with an increase in POR for CKD by 2.81-fold (p = 0.028). ECd/Ecr values of 0.38–2.49 µg/g creatinine were associated with an increase in POR for CKD risk by 6.2-fold (p = 0.001). The NOAEL equivalent figures of ECd/Ecr based on eGFR reduction in males, females and all subjects were 0.839, 0.849 and 0.828 µg/g creatinine, respectively. The BMDL/BMDU values of ECd/Ecr associated with a 10% increase in CKD prevalence were 2.77/5.06 µg/g creatinine. These data indicate that Cd-induced eGFR reduction occurs at relatively low body burdens and that the population health risk associated with ECd/Ecr of 2.77–5.06 µg/g creatinine was not negligible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Exposure to Toxic Chemicals and Human Health)
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18 pages, 3256 KiB  
Article
Unravelling the Portuguese Coastal and Transitional Waters’ Microbial Resistome as a Biomarker of Differential Anthropogenic Impact
Toxics 2022, 10(10), 613; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10100613 - 15 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1302
Abstract
Portugal mainland and Atlantic archipelagos (Madeira and Azores) provide a wide array of coastal ecosystems with varying typology and degrees of human pressure, which shape the microbial communities thriving in these habitats, leading to the development of microbial resistance traits. The samples collected [...] Read more.
Portugal mainland and Atlantic archipelagos (Madeira and Azores) provide a wide array of coastal ecosystems with varying typology and degrees of human pressure, which shape the microbial communities thriving in these habitats, leading to the development of microbial resistance traits. The samples collected on the Portuguese northeast Atlantic coast waters show an unequivocal prevalence of Bacteria over Archaea with a high prevalence of Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. Several taxa, such as the Vibrio genus, showed significant correlations with anthropogenic pollution. These anthropogenic pressures, along with the differences in species diversity among the surveyed sites, lead to observed differences in the presence and resistance-related sequences’ abundance (set of all metal and antibiotic resistant genes and their precursors in pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria). Gene ontology terms such as antibiotic resistance, redox regulation and oxidative stress response were prevalent. A higher number of significant correlations were found between the abundance of resistance-related sequences and pollution, inorganic pressures and density of nearby population centres when compared to the number of significant correlations between taxa abundance at different phylogenetic levels and the same environmental traits. This points towards predominance of the environmental conditions over the sequence abundance rather than the taxa abundance. Our data suggest that the whole resistome profile can provide more relevant or integrative answers in terms of anthropogenic disturbance of the environment, either as a whole or grouped in gene ontology groups, appearing as a promising tool for impact assessment studies which, due to the ubiquity of the sequences across microbes, can be surveyed independently of the taxa present in the samples. Full article
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15 pages, 3275 KiB  
Article
Embryonic Nicotine Exposure Disrupts Adult Social Behavior and Craniofacial Development in Zebrafish
Toxics 2022, 10(10), 612; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10100612 - 15 Oct 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1884
Abstract
Cigarette smoking remains the leading cause of preventable death and morbidity worldwide. Smoking during pregnancy is associated with numerous adverse birth outcomes, including craniofacial and behavioral abnormalities. Although tobacco smoke contains more than 4000 toxic substances, nicotine is addictive and is likely the [...] Read more.
Cigarette smoking remains the leading cause of preventable death and morbidity worldwide. Smoking during pregnancy is associated with numerous adverse birth outcomes, including craniofacial and behavioral abnormalities. Although tobacco smoke contains more than 4000 toxic substances, nicotine is addictive and is likely the most teratogenic substance in cigarette smoke. However, much remains to be determined about the effects of embryonic nicotine exposure on behavior and craniofacial development. Therefore, this study evaluated adult social behavior in zebrafish, craniofacial defects, and nicotine metabolism in embryos after embryonic nicotine exposure. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to different doses of nicotine beginning at 6 h post fertilization. To evaluate craniofacial defects, the embryos were collected at 4 days post fertilization and stained with Alizarin Red and Alcian Blue. For behavioral testing, embryos were reared to adulthood. To evaluate nicotine metabolism, cotinine levels were analyzed at various time points. Our findings demonstrate that embryonic exposure to nicotine modifies social behavior in adulthood, causes craniofacial defects with reduced size of craniofacial cartilages, and that zebrafish metabolize nicotine to cotinine, as in humans. Together, our data suggest that zebrafish are useful as a model for studying nicotine-related diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Models for Human Toxicology)
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10 pages, 1504 KiB  
Article
Effects of Brush-Type Ionizer Materials on Virus Inactivation
Toxics 2022, 10(10), 611; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10100611 - 14 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1175
Abstract
Many studies have found that bioaerosols are harmful to humans. In particular, infectious viruses, such as the virus that causes COVID-19, are increasing. Therefore, the research on methods for reducing bioaerosols is becoming progressively more important. The purpose of this study was to [...] Read more.
Many studies have found that bioaerosols are harmful to humans. In particular, infectious viruses, such as the virus that causes COVID-19, are increasing. Therefore, the research on methods for reducing bioaerosols is becoming progressively more important. The purpose of this study was to improve the existing electrostatic precipitator, which generates high concentrations of ozone, by reducing bioaerosols effectively without significant ozone production. A brush-type ionizer was studied as a replacement for the existing electrostatic precipitator. The study, which was conducted at the laboratory scale, determined the amounts of ions generated with different ionizer materials (carbon, copper, and stainless steel) and voltages (−1, −2, and −3 kV), as well as it compared the virus inactivation efficiency under the various conditions. As a result, about two million ions were produced when a voltage of −3 kV was applied to all of the materials, and 99.9 ± 0.2% and 98.8 ± 0.6% virus inactivation efficiencies were confirmed in the cases of carbon and copper, respectively. In addition, an assessment of the effect of flow velocity confirmed that the inactivation efficiency decreased as the flow velocity increased. However, the results for the flow velocities of 0.2 and 0.4 m/s had similar trends. Therefore, this system can be used with flow velocities up to 0.4 m/s. Full article
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15 pages, 4043 KiB  
Article
Simulation Experiment of Environmental Impact of Deep-Sea Mining: Response of Phytoplankton Community to Polymetallic Nodules and Sediment Enrichment in Surface Water
Toxics 2022, 10(10), 610; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10100610 - 14 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1468
Abstract
In this paper, simulation experiments were conducted to study the response of phytoplankton biomass and community composition to the influence of polymetallic nodules and sediment at four stations in the western Pacific in 2021. Chlorophyll a, pico-phytoplankton cell abundance, and metal concentration [...] Read more.
In this paper, simulation experiments were conducted to study the response of phytoplankton biomass and community composition to the influence of polymetallic nodules and sediment at four stations in the western Pacific in 2021. Chlorophyll a, pico-phytoplankton cell abundance, and metal concentration were measured before and after 24 h of deck incubation. The results show that there were three different patterns of response, namely, restrained, stimulated, and unaffected patterns. The restrained pattern appeared in the filtered treatments at station Incub.01, and the stimulated pattern appeared in the unfiltered treatments at station Incub.02. The response of the phytoplankton was not detectable at stations Incub.03 and 04. Regardless, positive and negative responses were found in the dominant pico-phytoplankton group—Prochlorococcus—and with slight variation in Synechococcus. The concentration of manganese varied among the treatments compared to that of iron and other metals. The factors affecting the growth of the phytoplankton in this study were metal concentrations and turbidity. The phytoplankton biomass baseline may also have played an important role: the lower the biomass, the higher the growth rate. This study proved that deep-sea polymetallic nodule mining will have a specific impact on surface phytoplankton biomass, but turbidity and particle retention time could be important factors in mitigating the extent of the impact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Pollution and Stress Responses in Marine Organisms)
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19 pages, 2387 KiB  
Article
Efficient Energy Saving Scenarios for Indoor PM2.5 Management in an Apartment of South Korea
Toxics 2022, 10(10), 609; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10100609 - 13 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1264
Abstract
Indoor PM2.5 must be effectively controlled to minimize adverse impacts on public health. Cooking is one of the main sources of PM2.5 in residential areas, and indoor air quality (IAQ) management methods such as natural and mechanical ventilation, range hood, and [...] Read more.
Indoor PM2.5 must be effectively controlled to minimize adverse impacts on public health. Cooking is one of the main sources of PM2.5 in residential areas, and indoor air quality (IAQ) management methods such as natural and mechanical ventilation, range hood, and air purifier are typically used to reduce cooking-generated PM2.5 concentrations. However, studies on the combined effects of various IAQ management methods on indoor PM2.5 reduction and energy consumption are limited. In this study, a theoretical model was established to estimate the performance of various IAQ management methods for controlling indoor PM2.5 concentrations and energy consumption. The model was verified by comparative experiments in which, various IAQ management methods were operated individually or combined. Seasonal energy consumption was calculated through the verified model, and energy consumption saving scenarios were derived for maintaining indoor PM2.5 concentrations less than 10 μg/m3, a World Health Organization annual guideline, under fair and poor outdoor PM2.5 concentrations of 15 and 50 μg/m3, respectively. Based on our results, we found that energy consumption could be reduced significantly by applying natural ventilation in spring, autumn, and summer and mechanical ventilation in winter. Our study identified efficient energy saving PM2.5 management scenarios using various IAQ management methods by predicting indoor PM2.5 concentration and energy consumption according to the annual life patterns of typical residents in South Korea. Full article
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14 pages, 2764 KiB  
Article
Effects of Polystyrene Diet on the Growth and Development of Tenebrio molitor
Toxics 2022, 10(10), 608; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10100608 - 13 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1849
Abstract
In recent years, the role of Tenebrio molitor in degrading polystyrene foam through its gut microbes has become the focus of research. However, little literature has reported the effect of feeding on polystyrene foam on the growth and development of Tenebrio molitor. [...] Read more.
In recent years, the role of Tenebrio molitor in degrading polystyrene foam through its gut microbes has become the focus of research. However, little literature has reported the effect of feeding on polystyrene foam on the growth and development of Tenebrio molitor. In this study, we investigated the impacts of different polystyrene by evaluating the vital signs of Tenebrio molitor fed in the intestines and excrement fluids using RNA-Seq t.echnology and then verifying the transcriptome sequencing findings using qRT-PCR technology. The average weight of Tenebrio molitor larvae in the wheat bran group increased significantly. Tenebrio molitor larvae in the PS group, on the other hand, didn’t grow as much and had a much lower average weight than those in the wheat bran group. Compared to the bran group, the excrement of Tenebrio molitor fed only on polystyrene foam was flaky and coarse, increased nitrogen and phosphorus atomic concentration ratios by about 50%, decreased potassium atomic concentration ratios by 63%, with the enterocytes and circular muscle of Tenebrio molitor falling as well. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment indicated that the differential genes were mainly related to metabolic pathways. There was an agreement between qRT-PCR and RNA-Seq analyses for the growth and development genes chitinase, heat shock protein 70, and cytochrome P450. Only feeding polystyrene foam shall lead to the growth and development retardation of Tenebrio molitor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ecotoxicology)
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16 pages, 10973 KiB  
Article
Contamination and Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soil and Ditch Sediments in Long-Term Mine Wastes Area
Toxics 2022, 10(10), 607; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10100607 - 13 Oct 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1486
Abstract
The ecological and health risks posed by wastes discharged from mining areas to the environment and human health has aroused concern. 114 soil samples were collected from nine areas of long-term mine waste land in northwestern Yunnan to assess the pollution characteristics, ecological [...] Read more.
The ecological and health risks posed by wastes discharged from mining areas to the environment and human health has aroused concern. 114 soil samples were collected from nine areas of long-term mine waste land in northwestern Yunnan to assess the pollution characteristics, ecological and health risks of heavy metals. The result revealed that the geo-accumulation indexes were Cd (4.00) > Pb (3.18) > Zn (1.87) > Cu (0.25). Semi-variance analysis revealed that Cd and Cu showed moderate spatial dependency, whereas Pb and Zn showed strong spatial dependency. Cd posed an extreme potential ecological risk. Slopes and ditches were extreme potential ecological risk areas. Non-carcinogenic risk to children from Pb and Carcinogenic risk to adult and children from Cd was non-negligible and direct ingestion was the major source. This study provided a scientific basis for policymakers in management and exposure reduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety Utilization and Remediation of Heavy Metal Polluted Farmland)
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13 pages, 1652 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Adsorption Characteristics of Cr(VI) in Red-Mud Leachate onto a Red Clay Anti-Seepage Layer
Toxics 2022, 10(10), 606; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10100606 - 12 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1226
Abstract
Red-mud leachate from tailings ponds contains Cr(VI), which can pollute groundwater via infiltration through anti-seepage layers. This paper investigates leachate from a red-mud tailings pond in southwest China and the red clay in the surrounding area to simulate the adsorption of Cr(VI) onto [...] Read more.
Red-mud leachate from tailings ponds contains Cr(VI), which can pollute groundwater via infiltration through anti-seepage layers. This paper investigates leachate from a red-mud tailings pond in southwest China and the red clay in the surrounding area to simulate the adsorption of Cr(VI) onto clay at different pHs, using geochemical equilibrium software (Visual MINTEQ). We also performed dynamic adsorption testing of Cr(VI) on a clay anti-seepage layer. The dynamic adsorption behaviors and patterns in the dynamic column were predicted using the Thomas and Yoon–Nelson models. Visual MINTEQ predicted that Cr(VI) adsorption in red-mud leachate onto clay was 69.91%, increasing gradually with pH, i.e., adsorption increased under alkaline conditions. Cr(VI) concentration in the effluent was measured using the permeability test through a flexible permeameter when the adsorption saturation time reached 146 days. At a low seepage rate, Cr(VI) adsorption onto the clay anti-seepage layer took longer. Saturation adsorption capacity, q0, and adsorption rate constant, Kth, were determined using the Thomas model; the Yoon–Nelson model was used to determine when the effluent Cr(VI) concentration reached 50% of the initial concentration. The results provide parameters for the design and pollution prediction of the clay anti-seepage layer of red-mud tailings ponds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metal Contamination in Soil and Health Risks)
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11 pages, 2013 KiB  
Technical Note
An Improved Multiple Competitive Immuno-SERS Sensing Platform and Its Application in Rapid Field Chemical Toxin Screening
Toxics 2022, 10(10), 605; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10100605 - 12 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1221
Abstract
Improving the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by amplifying the outputting signal or reducing nonspecific binding (NSB) are the key techniques in multiple immunoassay. Aiming at these issues, this paper presents an improved multiple indirect competitive immune surface-enhanced Raman scattering (ci-SERS) assay for the rapid [...] Read more.
Improving the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by amplifying the outputting signal or reducing nonspecific binding (NSB) are the key techniques in multiple immunoassay. Aiming at these issues, this paper presents an improved multiple indirect competitive immune surface-enhanced Raman scattering (ci-SERS) assay for the rapid screening of highly toxic rodenticides in food and biological samples, which ensured remarkable accuracy, ultra-sensitivity and reproducibility. The non-fouling polymer brush grafted magnetic beads (the MB@P-CyM) were prepared as multiple competitive recognition substrates after conjugating triplex haptens (the MB@P-CyM-hap). It was demonstrated that the particular 3D hair-like structures of P-CyM not only facilitate conjugate high-density hapten but reduce the steric hindrance from SERS probes recognition, thus enhancing SNB. On the other hand, Au nanoflowers (AuNFs) of high SERS activity were synthesized using a simple one-pot hydrazine reduction. For simultaneously detecting three highly toxic rodenticides, i.e., diphacinone (DPN), bromadiolone (BRD) and tetramine (TET), the obtained AuNFs were fabricated as a SERS-encoded nanoprobe cocktail after successively labeling mono-antibodies/Raman probes. By integrating the MB@P-CyM-hap with the SERS-encoded cocktail, a highly sensitive multiple SERS assay was achieved in less than 2 h with a limit of detection of 0.62 ng mL−1 for BRD, 0.42 ng mL−1 for TET and 1.37 ng mL−1 for DPN, respectively. The recoveries of these rodenticides in spiked food and biological samples were determined and ranged from 72 to 123%. Above all, the proposed modifications show remarkable improvements for high efficient multiple chemical toxin immunoassay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicology)
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14 pages, 2058 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Single and Combined Stressors on Daphnids—Enzyme Markers of Physiology and Metabolomics Validate the Impact of Pollution
Toxics 2022, 10(10), 604; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10100604 - 12 Oct 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1706
Abstract
The continuous global increase in population and consumption of resources due to human activities has had a significant impact on the environment. Therefore, assessment of environmental exposure to toxic chemicals as well as their impact on biological systems is of significant importance. Freshwater [...] Read more.
The continuous global increase in population and consumption of resources due to human activities has had a significant impact on the environment. Therefore, assessment of environmental exposure to toxic chemicals as well as their impact on biological systems is of significant importance. Freshwater systems are currently under threat and monitored; however, current methods for pollution assessment can neither provide mechanistic insight nor predict adverse effects from complex pollution. Using daphnids as a bioindicator, we assessed the impact in acute exposures of eight individual chemicals and specifically two metals, four pharmaceuticals, a pesticide and a stimulant, and their composite mixture combining phenotypic, biochemical and metabolic markers of physiology. Toxicity levels were in the same order of magnitude and significantly enhanced in the composite mixture. Results from individual chemicals showed distinct biochemical responses for key enzyme activities such as phosphatases, lipase, peptidase, β-galactosidase and glutathione-S-transferase. Following this, a more realistic mixture scenario was assessed with the aforementioned enzyme markers and a metabolomic approach. A clear dose-dependent effect for the composite mixture was validated with enzyme markers of physiology, and the metabolomic analysis verified the effects observed, thus providing a sensitive metrics in metabolite perturbations. Our study highlights that sensitive enzyme markers can be used in advance on the design of metabolic and holistic assays to guide the selection of chemicals and the trajectory of the study, while providing mechanistic insight. In the future this could prove to become a useful tool for understanding and predicting freshwater pollution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicity of Contaminants on Aquatic Organisms)
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12 pages, 1588 KiB  
Article
The Migration Pattern of Atrazine during the Processes of Water Freezing and Thawing
Toxics 2022, 10(10), 603; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10100603 - 12 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2284
Abstract
Atrazine, one of the most commonly used herbicides in the world, is of concern because of its frequent occurrence in various water bodies and the potential threat it constitutes to ecosystems. The transport of contaminants in seasonally ice-covered lakes is an important factor [...] Read more.
Atrazine, one of the most commonly used herbicides in the world, is of concern because of its frequent occurrence in various water bodies and the potential threat it constitutes to ecosystems. The transport of contaminants in seasonally ice-covered lakes is an important factor affecting the under-ice water environment, and changes in phase during ice growth and melting cause redistribution of atrazine between ice and water phases. To explore the migration pattern of atrazine during freezing and thawing, laboratory simulation experiments involving freezing and thawing were carried out. The effects of ice thickness, freezing temperature, and initial concentration on the migration ability of atrazine during freezing were investigated. The results showed that the relationship between the concentration of atrazine in ice and water during freezing was ice layer < water before freezing < water layer under the ice. Atrazine tended to migrate to under-ice water during the freezing process, and the intensity of migration was positively correlated with the ice thickness, freezing temperature, and initial concentration. During the thawing phase, atrazine trapped in the ice was released into the water in large quantities in the early stages. The first 20% of meltwater concentration was significantly higher than the average concentration in ice, with the highest case being 2.75 times the average concentration in ice. The results reported in this study are a useful reference for planning possible pollution control measures on such lakes during their freeze-thaw process. Full article
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17 pages, 2404 KiB  
Article
Biokinetics and Internal Dosimetry of Tritiated Steel Particles
Toxics 2022, 10(10), 602; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10100602 - 12 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1191
Abstract
Decommissioning fission and fusion facilities can result in the production of airborne particles containing tritium that could inadvertently be inhaled by workers directly involved in the operations, and potentially others, resulting in internal exposures to tritium. Of particular interest in this context, given [...] Read more.
Decommissioning fission and fusion facilities can result in the production of airborne particles containing tritium that could inadvertently be inhaled by workers directly involved in the operations, and potentially others, resulting in internal exposures to tritium. Of particular interest in this context, given the potentially large masses of material involved, is tritiated steel. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recommended committed effective dose coefficients for inhalation of some tritiated materials, but not specifically for tritiated steel. The lack of a dose coefficient for tritiated steel is a concern given the potential importance of the material. To address this knowledge gap, a “dissolution” study, in vivo biokinetic study in a rodent model (1 MBq intratracheal instillation, 3-month follow-up) and associated state-of-the-art modelling were undertaken to derive dose coefficients for model tritiated steel particles. A committed effective dose coefficient for the inhalation of 3.3 × 10−12 Sv Bq−1 was evaluated for the particles, reflecting an activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of 13.3 µm, with the value for a reference AMAD for workers (5 µm) of 5.6 × 10−12 Sv Bq−1 that may be applied to occupational inhalation exposure to tritiated steel particles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiation Exposure and Health Effects)
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11 pages, 3734 KiB  
Article
Development of On-Demand Antiviral Electrostatic Precipitators with Electrothermal-Based Antiviral Surfaces against Airborne Virus Particles
Toxics 2022, 10(10), 601; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10100601 - 11 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1271
Abstract
Particulate matter, including airborne pathogens, is of particular concern because it can cause the spread of diseases through aerosol transmission. In this study, a new concept is proposed: on-demand antiviral electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) with electrothermal-based antiviral surfaces. We applied electrothermal-based antiviral surfaces to [...] Read more.
Particulate matter, including airborne pathogens, is of particular concern because it can cause the spread of diseases through aerosol transmission. In this study, a new concept is proposed: on-demand antiviral electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) with electrothermal-based antiviral surfaces. We applied electrothermal-based antiviral surfaces to air-purifying applications and demonstrated that the proposed method is effective with regard to collecting airborne virus particles on collection plates in a two-stage ESP. With alternating current power, MS2 bacteriophage and H1N1 viruses were completely deactivated after exposure to 50 °C for 30 min. This remarkable antiviral performance via electrothermal effects indicates that on-demand platforms for self-antiviral surfaces can perform sterilization immediately without generating secondary pollutants, thus effectively preventing the spread of infectious microorganisms in public places. We believe that the results of this study can provide useful guidelines for the design and realization of practical and wearable devices for antiviral air-purifying applications. Full article
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