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Toxics, Volume 10, Issue 12 (December 2022) – 89 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In the environment, fish are exposed to mixtures of various pollutants that may affect their health. Pharmaceuticals such as antidepressants are designed to be bioactive at low concentrations. Due to the phylogenetic conservation of molecular targets, they can also influence non-target organisms. In addition to the pollution by dissolved environmental chemicals, microplastics as a potential environmental stressor have come into the focus of scientific and public interest. In this study, the influence of the antidepressant amitriptyline and polystyrene microplastics on juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario) was assessed from the biochemical to the individual level. View this paper
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7 pages, 262 KiB  
Article
Fatal Methanol Poisoning Caused by Drinking Industrial Alcohol: Silesia Region, Poland, April–June 2022
Toxics 2022, 10(12), 800; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10120800 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2108
Abstract
Methanol poisonings caused by drinking industrial alcohol remain a severe problem worldwide. Education on types of alcohol and their harmfulness and legal regulations limiting the industrial alcohol trade seem to be the keys to reducing the number of poisonings. Methanol distribution in different [...] Read more.
Methanol poisonings caused by drinking industrial alcohol remain a severe problem worldwide. Education on types of alcohol and their harmfulness and legal regulations limiting the industrial alcohol trade seem to be the keys to reducing the number of poisonings. Methanol distribution in different tissues after absorption is not well understood. This research aimed to quantify the methanol and formic acid distribution in body fluids and tissue material in post-mortem samples collected from 19 fatal victims of massive intoxication with industrial alcohol in the Silesia Region (Poland) who died between April and June 2022. The samples were analyzed using a gas chromatography–flame ionization detector (GC-FID), and correlation coefficients for methanol and formic acid were determined. The results show a wide distribution of methanol and formic acid in human post-mortem biological fluids (blood, urine, vitreous humor, bile, and cerebrospinal fluid) and tissues (muscle, kidney, liver, spleen, lung, and brain). The strongest correlation for methanol concentration in blood and body fluids/tissues was obtained in the cerebrospinal fluid (r = 0.997) and for formic acid in muscle tissue (r = 0.931). The obtained results may be a valuable tool in toxicological analysis and improve medical standards of early diagnosis and targeted treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Forensic Toxicology)
10 pages, 266 KiB  
Article
Perfluoroalkyl Substance Serum Concentrations and Cholesterol Absorption-Inhibiting Medication Ezetimibe
Toxics 2022, 10(12), 799; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10120799 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1492
Abstract
Background: Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are human-made compounds with a widespread presence in human blood and other organs. PFAS have been associated with multiple health effects, including higher serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. Objective: Potential population differences in serum PFAS attributable to [...] Read more.
Background: Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are human-made compounds with a widespread presence in human blood and other organs. PFAS have been associated with multiple health effects, including higher serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. Objective: Potential population differences in serum PFAS attributable to ezetimibe, a medication that inhibits cholesterol absorption, are of interest for several reasons. The “C8” Health Project survey data from six contaminated water districts in the mid-Ohio Valley of the United States provide a wide enough range of serum PFAS and a sufficient number of ezetimibe takers to explore this topic. Methods: A total of 44,126 adult participants of the C8 Health Survey were included in the community-based study. The status of taking (1075) or non-taking of ezetimibe, alone or in combination with another lipid-lowering agent, was acquired. The geometric mean serum concentrations of the four most commonly detected serum PFAS were compared based on the status of ezetimibe use. Results: There is no significant difference in serum concentrations of perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) between ezetimibe users and non-users after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), cigarette smoking, education, and average household income. Conclusion: The sterol absorption-inhibiting medication ezetimibe does not appear to affect serum PFAS concentrations. We sought but did not find direct evidence that ezetimibe could inhibit PFAS uptake nor inferential evidence that inter-individual differences in sterol absorption could provide a confounding factor explanation for the association of serum total- and LDL-cholesterol with serum PFAS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Drugs Toxicity)
13 pages, 3828 KiB  
Article
Effect of Low-Molecular Organic Acids on the Migration Characteristics of Nickel in Reclaimed Soil from The Panyi Mine Area in China
Toxics 2022, 10(12), 798; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10120798 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1191
Abstract
This study investigated the effects of low molecular weight organic acids (citric acid and malic acid) on the migration properties of nickel in soil. A reclaimed soil sample was obtained from the Panyi Mine in Huainan City, China. The effects of adding different [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effects of low molecular weight organic acids (citric acid and malic acid) on the migration properties of nickel in soil. A reclaimed soil sample was obtained from the Panyi Mine in Huainan City, China. The effects of adding different concentrations of Ni, citric acid (CA) and malic acid (MA) were assessed on the migration and transformation of soil Ni forms. The results showed: (1) An increase in soil Ni activity with increasing Ni concentrations. (2) An increased proportion of exchangeable forms of Ni in soil with increased malic acid and citric acid concentrations, effectively promoting Ni mobility. In addition, the active Ni fraction in reclaimed soil increased significantly with increasing concentrations of citric and malic acid. The nickel activation effect of citric acid was found to be higher than that of malic acid. (3) The activation effect of organic acids on Ni weakened with aging, exhibiting a gradual transformation from the loosely bound form of Ni, to the strongly bound form. The results of this study provide a theoretical basis for improving the effectiveness and efficiency of the phytoremediation techniques used for the treatment of Ni-polluted soils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicity Reduction and Environmental Remediation)
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16 pages, 6634 KiB  
Article
T Cells Contribute to Pathological Responses in the Non-Targeted Rat Heart following Irradiation of the Kidneys
Toxics 2022, 10(12), 797; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10120797 - 18 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1441 | Correction
Abstract
Heart disease is a significant adverse event caused by radiotherapy for some cancers. Identifying the origins of radiogenic heart disease will allow therapies to be developed. Previous studies showed non-targeted effects manifest as fibrosis in the non-irradiated heart after 120 days following targeted [...] Read more.
Heart disease is a significant adverse event caused by radiotherapy for some cancers. Identifying the origins of radiogenic heart disease will allow therapies to be developed. Previous studies showed non-targeted effects manifest as fibrosis in the non-irradiated heart after 120 days following targeted X-irradiation of the kidneys with 10 Gy in WAG/RijCmcr rats. To demonstrate the involvement of T cells in driving pathophysiological responses in the out-of-field heart, and to characterize the timing of immune cell engagement, we created and validated a T cell knock downrat on the WAG genetic backgrou nd. Irradiation of the kidneys with 10 Gy of X-rays in wild-type rats resulted in infiltration of T cells, natural killer cells, and macrophages after 120 days, and none of these after 40 days, suggesting immune cell engagement is a late response. The radiation nephropathy and cardiac fibrosis that resulted in these animals after 120 days was significantly decreased in irradiated T cell depleted rats. We conclude that T cells function as an effector cell in communicating signals from the irradiated kidneys which cause pathologic remodeling of non-targeted heart. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiation Exposure and Health Effects)
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29 pages, 13423 KiB  
Article
Reducing Virus Transmission from Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems of Urban Subways
Toxics 2022, 10(12), 796; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10120796 - 17 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2665
Abstract
Aerosols carrying the virus inside enclosed spaces is an important mode of transmission for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), as supported by growing evidence. Urban subways are one of the most frequented enclosed spaces. The subway is a utilitarian and low-cost [...] Read more.
Aerosols carrying the virus inside enclosed spaces is an important mode of transmission for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), as supported by growing evidence. Urban subways are one of the most frequented enclosed spaces. The subway is a utilitarian and low-cost transit system in modern society. However, studies are yet to demonstrate patterns of viral transmission in subway heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. To fill this gap, we performed a computational investigation of the airflow (and associated aerosol transmission) in an urban subway cabin equipped with an HVAC system. We employed a transport equation for aerosol concentration, which was added to the basic buoyant solver to resolve the aerosol transmission inside the subway cabin. This was achieved by considering the thermal, turbulent, and induced ventilation flow effects. Using the probability of encountering aerosols on sampling surfaces crossing the passenger breathing zones, we detected the highest infection risk zones inside the urban subway under different settings. We proposed a novel HVAC system that can impede aerosol spread, both vertically and horizontally, inside the cabin. In the conventional model, the maximum probability of encountering aerosols from the breathing of infected individuals near the fresh-air ducts was equal to 51.2%. This decreased to 3.5% in the proposed HVAC model. Overall, using the proposed HVAC system for urban subways led to a decrease in the mean value of the probability of encountering the aerosol by approximately 84% compared with that of the conventional system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Environmental Toxicology and Human Health)
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13 pages, 971 KiB  
Article
Ecotoxicity Study of Additives Composed of Zinc and Boron
Toxics 2022, 10(12), 795; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10120795 - 17 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1031
Abstract
The high use of additives containing zinc borate and their limited solubility in water both lead to its persistence and accumulation in biological systems. On the other hand, soluble forms of boron are easily available to plant roots and are taken up by [...] Read more.
The high use of additives containing zinc borate and their limited solubility in water both lead to its persistence and accumulation in biological systems. On the other hand, soluble forms of boron are easily available to plant roots and are taken up by plants. There are no ecotoxicological data available for zinc borate, the industrial utilization of which is widespread. Therefore, the potential toxicity of zinc borate and its dissociated compounds was evaluated. Based on two different ecotoxicology tests, their effect on plant growth was studied. Firstly, the impact on Lemna minor growth was investigated, including the effect on pigment content. Secondly, the inhibition of the root growth of higher plant species Sinapis alba (mustard), Lactuca sativa (lettuce) and Trifolium pretense (clover) was measured. The growth inhibition test on L. minor was more complex and sensitive compared to the plant seed germination test. Already low concentrations (10 mg/L) of ZnO, B2O3 and Zn3BO6 led to a decrease in frond growth and to an inhibition of the conversion of chlorophyll a to chlorophyll b. These results suggested that the stress caused by these additives caused damage to the photosynthetic apparatus. The highest inhibition of frond growth was detected in fronds treated with B2O3 (92–100%). In ZnO and Zn3BO6, the inhibition of frond growth was between 38 and 77%, with Zn3BO6 being slightly more toxic. In the seed germination test, the most sensitive species was lettuce, the growth of which was inhibited by 57, 83 and 53% in ZnO, B2O3 and Zn3BO6 treatments, respectively. However, the inhibitory effect on each plant was different. In lettuce and clover, the seed germination and root elongation decreased with increasing element concentrations. In contrast, in mustard, low concentrations of ZnO and Zn3BO6 supported the growth of roots. For that reason, more complex tests are essential to evaluate the additive toxicity in the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Emerging Pollutants on Plants)
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24 pages, 7395 KiB  
Review
The Status and Research Progress of Cadmium Pollution in Rice- (Oryza sativa L.) and Wheat- (Triticum aestivum L.) Cropping Systems in China: A Critical Review
Toxics 2022, 10(12), 794; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10120794 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2990
Abstract
The accumulation of cadmium in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a serious threat to the safe use of farmland and to the health of the human diet that has attracted extensive attention from researchers. In this [...] Read more.
The accumulation of cadmium in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a serious threat to the safe use of farmland and to the health of the human diet that has attracted extensive attention from researchers. In this review, a bibliometric analysis was performed using a VOS viewer (1.6.18, Netherlands) to investigate the status of cadmium contamination in rice and wheat growing systems, human health risks, mechanisms of Cd uptake and transport, and the corresponding research hotspots. It has a certain reference value for the prevention and control of cadmium pollution in rice and wheat planting systems in China and abroad. The results showed that the Cd content in rice and wheat planting systems in the Yangtze River Basin was significantly higher than that in other areas of China, and the Cd content in rice and wheat grains and the hazard quotient (HQ) in Hunan Province was the highest. The average Cd concentration exceeded the recommended limit by about 62% for rice and 81% for wheat. The main reasons for the high Cd pollution in rice and wheat growing areas in Hunan are mining activities, phosphate fertilizer application, sewage irrigation, and electronic equipment manufacturing. In this review, we demonstrate that cadmium toxicity reduces the uptake and transport of essential elements in rice and wheat. Cadmium stress seriously affected the growth and morphology of plant roots. In the shoots, Cd toxicity was manifested by a series of physiological injuries, such as decreased photosynthesis, soluble protein, sugar, and antioxidant enzyme activity. Cadmium that accumulates in the shoots is transferred to grains and then passes up the food chain to people and animals. Therefore, methods for reducing cadmium content in grains of rice and wheat are urgently needed, especially in Cd-contaminated soil. Current research on Cd pollution in rice and wheat planting systems focuses on the bioavailability of Cd, soil rhizosphere changes in wheat and rice, and the role of antioxidant enzyme systems in alleviating heavy metal stress in rice and wheat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental and Health Effects of Heavy Metal)
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16 pages, 4704 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Lead (Pb) Toxicity in Juvenile Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus—Growth, Behaviour, Erythrocytes Abnormalities, and Histological Alterations in Vital Organs
Toxics 2022, 10(12), 793; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10120793 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2309
Abstract
Lead (Pb) is one of the toxins responsible for the deterioration of ecological health in aquatic environments. The present study investigated the effects of Pb(NO3)2 toxicity on growth, blood cell morphology, and the histopathology of gills, liver, and intestine of [...] Read more.
Lead (Pb) is one of the toxins responsible for the deterioration of ecological health in aquatic environments. The present study investigated the effects of Pb(NO3)2 toxicity on growth, blood cell morphology, and the histopathology of gills, liver, and intestine of juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. A 30-day long aquarium trial was conducted by assigning three treatment groups T1 5.20 mg L−1, T2 10.40 mg L−1, and T3 20.80 mg L−1, and a control 0 mg L−1 following the 96 h LC50 of 51.96 mg L−1 from acute toxicity test. Overall growth performance significantly declined in all the Pb(NO3)2 treated groups and the highest mortality was recorded in T3. Behavioural abnormalities were intense in all the treatment groups compared to the control. Hepatosomatic index (HSI) values were reported as higher in treatment groups. Reduced nucleus diameter and nuclei size in erythrocytes were reported for T2 and T3 groups. Dose-dependent histological alterations were visible in the gills, liver, and intestine of all the Pb(NO3)2 treated groups. The width of the intestinal villi was highly extended in T3 showing signs of severe histological alterations. In conclusion, Pb toxicity causes a negative effect on growth performance, erythrocyte morphology, and affected the vital organs histomorphology of juvenile O. niloticus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Pollution and Related Aquatic Ecotoxicity)
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12 pages, 2302 KiB  
Article
Polystyrene Microplastics Postpone APAP-Induced Liver Injury through Impeding Macrophage Polarization
Toxics 2022, 10(12), 792; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10120792 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1633
Abstract
Polystyrene microplastics (PS MPs) are micrometer-scale items degraded from plastics and have been detected in various organisms. PS MPs have been identified as causing cognitive, cardiac, intestinal, and hepatic damage. However, their role in liver regeneration under drug-induced liver injury remains unknown. Thus, [...] Read more.
Polystyrene microplastics (PS MPs) are micrometer-scale items degraded from plastics and have been detected in various organisms. PS MPs have been identified as causing cognitive, cardiac, intestinal, and hepatic damage. However, their role in liver regeneration under drug-induced liver injury remains unknown. Thus, the current study aims to evaluate the impact of PS MPs on liver repair during APAP hepatotoxicity. PS MPs pretreatment exacerbates mice mortality and hepatocyte apoptosis, suppresses hepatic cell proliferation, and disturbs the inflammatory response in the APAP-induced damage model. Further mechanism exploration uncovers that prior PS MPs administration is sufficient to recruit neutrophils and macrophages, which are necessary for tissue recovery in the acute liver injury model. However, the polarization capacity of macrophages to anti-inflammatory sub-type is significantly delayed in PS MPs plus APAP group compared to the single APAP group, which is the leading cause of tissue repair suppression. Overall, the current study supports a new insight to realize the toxicity of PS MPs in acute liver injury, which should be considered in health risk assessment. Full article
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12 pages, 1484 KiB  
Article
Biofilm and Rivers: The Natural Association to Reduce Metals in Waters
Toxics 2022, 10(12), 791; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10120791 - 15 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1212
Abstract
This article focuses on a very peculiar habitat, the thin biofilm that covers the surface of rocks, cobbles, sediment grains, leaf litter, and vegetation on a riverbed. Species composition changes over time and depends on environmental conditions and perturbation of water quality. It [...] Read more.
This article focuses on a very peculiar habitat, the thin biofilm that covers the surface of rocks, cobbles, sediment grains, leaf litter, and vegetation on a riverbed. Species composition changes over time and depends on environmental conditions and perturbation of water quality. It provides several ecosystem services, contributing to the biogeochemical fluxes and reducing contamination by absorbing the pollutants. Biofilm into the Toce River (Ossola Valley, Piedmont, Italy) was investigated to assess its capacity to accumulate the metals and macroions from the water column. In this preliminary work, we investigated three sample points, in two different seasons. The community composition of biofilm was determined via morphological analysis (diatoms and non-diatoms algal community). We characterize the biofilm, a community of different organisms, from different perspectives. In the biofilm, Hg was analyzed with an automated mercury analyzer, other metals and macroions with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) (Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, and Zn), and the carotenoid and chlorophyll composition of the photosynthetic organism with HPLC analysis for the primary producers. The results evidence a seasonal pattern in metals and macroions levels in the biofilm, and a significant difference in the biofilm community and in carotenoid composition, suggesting the utility of using the biofilm as an additional bioindicator to monitor the water quality of the river. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Oxidative Stress in Polluted Inland Water)
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26 pages, 5979 KiB  
Article
Experiments on Pilot-Scale Constructed Floating Wetlands Efficiency in Removing Agrochemicals
Toxics 2022, 10(12), 790; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10120790 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1412
Abstract
The efficiency of constructed floating wetlands (CFWs) in their ability to remove agrochemicals (nutrients and pesticides) is here investigated in a series of pilot-scale systems. Four experimental CFWs were designed and constructed; three of them were planted with the aquatic plant species Lemna [...] Read more.
The efficiency of constructed floating wetlands (CFWs) in their ability to remove agrochemicals (nutrients and pesticides) is here investigated in a series of pilot-scale systems. Four experimental CFWs were designed and constructed; three of them were planted with the aquatic plant species Lemna minor, Azolla pinnata and Eichhornia crassipes. The fourth did not contain any plants and was used as the control. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficiency of CFW containing aquatic macrophytes in the reduction of pesticides and nutrients, under field conditions. The CFWs operated continuously from May 2021 to September 2021, and their removal efficiencies of nitrogen and phosphorus ions, and five commonly used pesticides were examined. The CFW systems were fed daily with agricultural wastewater which was prepared by mixing a fertilizer and predetermined doses of pesticides. The hydraulic residence time was kept at 14 days. Samples were collected on a weekly basis from both the influent and the effluent of each experimental tank, and were subsequently analyzed in the laboratory. HPLC-DAD and Ion Chromatography were implemented for sample analysis following a very simple sample preparation. Reductions for nutrient ranged from no reduction to 100% removal, whereas for pesticides these varied from no reduction to 98.8% removal, indicating that these systems can be used as efficient and low-cost pollution control technologies for agrochemical wastewater treatment. Significant reduction for certain pesticides was also observed in the algae control tank, thus, proving the efficiency of algae in organic pollution reduction, and recognizing the limitations of aquatic plant use in decontamination. Full article
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37 pages, 410 KiB  
Review
Exposure Levels of Pyrethroids, Chlorpyrifos and Glyphosate in EU—An Overview of Human Biomonitoring Studies Published since 2000
Toxics 2022, 10(12), 789; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10120789 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1385
Abstract
Currently used pesticides are rapidly metabolised and excreted, primarily in urine, and urinary concentrations of pesticides/metabolites are therefore useful biomarkers for the integrated exposure from all sources. Pyrethroid insecticides, the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos, and the herbicide glyphosate, were among the prioritised substances in [...] Read more.
Currently used pesticides are rapidly metabolised and excreted, primarily in urine, and urinary concentrations of pesticides/metabolites are therefore useful biomarkers for the integrated exposure from all sources. Pyrethroid insecticides, the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos, and the herbicide glyphosate, were among the prioritised substances in the HBM4EU project and comparable human biomonitoring (HBM)-data were obtained from the HBM4EU Aligned Studies. The aim of this review was to supplement these data by presenting additional HBM studies of the priority pesticides across the HBM4EU partner countries published since 2000. We identified relevant studies (44 for pyrethroids, 23 for chlorpyrifos, 24 for glyphosate) by literature search using PubMed and Web of Science. Most studies were from the Western and Southern part of the EU and data were lacking from more than half of the HBM4EU-partner countries. Many studies were regional with relatively small sample size and few studies address residential and occupational exposure. Variation in urine sampling, analytical methods, and reporting of the HBM-data hampered the comparability of the results across studies. Despite these shortcomings, a widespread exposure to these substances in the general EU population with marked geographical differences was indicated. The findings emphasise the need for harmonisation of methods and reporting in future studies as initiated during HBM4EU. Full article
16 pages, 1580 KiB  
Review
Applications of In Silico Models to Predict Drug-Induced Liver Injury
Toxics 2022, 10(12), 788; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10120788 - 14 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2037
Abstract
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major cause of the withdrawal of pre-marketed drugs, typically attributed to oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, disrupted bile acid homeostasis, and innate immune-related inflammation. DILI can be divided into intrinsic and idiosyncratic DILI with cholestatic liver injury as [...] Read more.
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major cause of the withdrawal of pre-marketed drugs, typically attributed to oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, disrupted bile acid homeostasis, and innate immune-related inflammation. DILI can be divided into intrinsic and idiosyncratic DILI with cholestatic liver injury as an important manifestation. The diagnosis of DILI remains a challenge today and relies on clinical judgment and knowledge of the insulting agent. Early prediction of hepatotoxicity is an important but still unfulfilled component of drug development. In response, in silico modeling has shown good potential to fill the missing puzzle. Computer algorithms, with machine learning and artificial intelligence as a representative, can be established to initiate a reaction on the given condition to predict DILI. DILIsym is a mechanistic approach that integrates physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling with the mechanisms of hepatoxicity and has gained increasing popularity for DILI prediction. This article reviews existing in silico approaches utilized to predict DILI risks in clinical medication and provides an overview of the underlying principles and related practical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Drugs Toxicity)
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24 pages, 7206 KiB  
Article
Adsorption Characteristics of Modified Bamboo Charcoal on Cu(II) and Cd(II) in Water
Toxics 2022, 10(12), 787; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10120787 - 14 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1255
Abstract
With the development of industry in recent years, heavy metal contamination in water and substrate, which may pose a serious threat to human health if left untreated, has attracted increasing attention. Biochar is commonly used as an adsorbent/immobilizer for heavy metals in water [...] Read more.
With the development of industry in recent years, heavy metal contamination in water and substrate, which may pose a serious threat to human health if left untreated, has attracted increasing attention. Biochar is commonly used as an adsorbent/immobilizer for heavy metals in water and substrates because of its wide range of raw materials, low production cost, and good adsorption performance. In this paper, we selected abundant Moso bamboo as the raw material to make biochar (bamboo charcoal), modified bamboo charcoal using different methods to find the modified product with the best adsorption effect, assessed the adsorption performance of modified bamboo charcoal on Cu(II) and Cd(II) in solution, and investigated the effects of the solution concentration, adsorption time, pH, and temperature on the adsorption effect of KAM500-400-3 on Cu(II) and Cd(II). The effect of the solution concentration, adsorption time, pH, and temperature on the adsorption effect of KAM500-400-3 on Cu(II) and Cd(II) was investigated, and the adsorption mechanism of KAM500-400-3 on heavy metals Cu(II) and Cd(II) was analyzed by fitting the adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherms, and adsorption thermodynamics. The adsorption/fixation characteristics of modified bamboo charcoal on heavy metals Cu(II) and Cd(II) in water and substrate were investigated. This study aimed to identify an effective material for the treatment of heavy metals in water and substrates and provide a reference for their application in practical engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicity Reduction and Environmental Remediation)
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13 pages, 3096 KiB  
Article
Ambient Benzo[a]pyrene’s Effect on Kinetic Modulation of Amyloid Beta Peptide Aggregation: A Tentative Association between Ultrafine Particulate Matter and Alzheimer’s Disease
Toxics 2022, 10(12), 786; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10120786 - 14 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1264
Abstract
Long-time exposure to ambient ultrafine particles is associated with an increased risk of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which is triggered by the aggregation of Aβ peptide monomers into toxic oligomers. Among different ultrafine air pollutants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are [...] Read more.
Long-time exposure to ambient ultrafine particles is associated with an increased risk of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which is triggered by the aggregation of Aβ peptide monomers into toxic oligomers. Among different ultrafine air pollutants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known to have a negative neural impact; however, the impact mechanism remains obscure. We herein examined the effect of Benzo[a]Pyrene (B[a]P), one of the typical PAHs on Aβ42 oligomerization using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. In particular, the simulations were performed using four molecules of Aβ42 in the presence of 5.00 mM, 12.5 mM, and 50.0 mM of B[a]P. The results revealed strong hydrophobic interactions between Aβ42 peptides and B[a]P, which in turn resulted in increased interpeptide electrostatic interactions. Furthermore, 5.00 mM of B[a]P accelerated the kinetics of the formation of peptide tetramer by 30%, and stabilized C-terminus in Aβ42 peptides, suggesting consequent progression of AD in the presence of 5.00 mM B[a]P. In contrast, 12.5 mM and 50.0 mM of B[a]P decreased interpeptide interactions and H-bonding due to the aggregation of numerous B[a]P clusters with the peptides, suppressing oligomerization kinetics of Aβ42 peptides by 13% and 167%, respectively. While the study elucidates the effect of small environmental hydrophobic molecules on the formation of Aβ oligomers, the impact of ambient ultrafine particles on AD in the complex composition of the environmental realm requires further systematic delving into the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano and Ultrafine Particle Toxicology and Exposure Assessment)
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17 pages, 5336 KiB  
Article
Deteriorative Effects of Radiation Injury Combined with Skin Wounding in a Mouse Model
Toxics 2022, 10(12), 785; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10120785 - 14 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2197
Abstract
Radiation-combined injury (RCI) augments the risk of morbidity and mortality when compared to radiation injury (RI) alone. No FDA-approved medical countermeasures (MCMs) are available for treating RCI. Previous studies implied that RI and RCI elicit differential mechanisms leading to their detrimental effects. We [...] Read more.
Radiation-combined injury (RCI) augments the risk of morbidity and mortality when compared to radiation injury (RI) alone. No FDA-approved medical countermeasures (MCMs) are available for treating RCI. Previous studies implied that RI and RCI elicit differential mechanisms leading to their detrimental effects. We hypothesize that accelerating wound healing improves the survival of RCI mice. In the current study, we examined the effects of RCI at different doses on lethality, weight loss, wound closure delay, and proinflammatory status, and assessed the relative contribution of systemic and local elements to their delayed wound closure. Our data demonstrated that RCI increased the lethality and weight loss, delayed skin wound closure, and induced a systemic proinflammatory status in a radiation dose-dependent manner. We also demonstrated that delayed wound closure did not specifically depend on the extent of hematopoietic suppression, but was significantly influenced by the toxicity of the radiation-induced systemic inflammation and local elements, including the altered levels of proinflammatory chemokines and factors, and the dysregulated collagen homeostasis in the wounded area. In conclusion, the results from our study indicate a close association between delayed wound healing and the significantly altered pathways in RCI mice. This insightful information may contribute to the evaluation of the prognosis of RCI and development of MCMs for RCI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiation Exposure and Health Effects)
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10 pages, 1591 KiB  
Brief Report
In Vitro Biological Effects of E-Cigarette on the Cardiovascular System—Pro-Inflammatory Response Enhanced by the Presence of the Cinnamon Flavor
Toxics 2022, 10(12), 784; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10120784 - 14 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1599
Abstract
The potential cardiovascular effects of e-cigarettes remain largely unidentified and poorly understood. E-liquids contain numerous chemical compounds and can induce exposure to potentially toxic ingredients (e.g., nicotine, flavorings, etc.). Moreover, the heating process can also lead to the formation of new thermal decomposition [...] Read more.
The potential cardiovascular effects of e-cigarettes remain largely unidentified and poorly understood. E-liquids contain numerous chemical compounds and can induce exposure to potentially toxic ingredients (e.g., nicotine, flavorings, etc.). Moreover, the heating process can also lead to the formation of new thermal decomposition compounds that may be also hazardous. Clinical as well as in vitro and in vivo studies on e-cigarette toxicity have reported potential cardiovascular damages; however, results remain conflicting. The aim of this study was to assess, in vitro, the toxicity of e-liquids and e-cigarette aerosols on human aortic smooth muscle cells. To that purpose, cells were exposed either to e-liquids or to aerosol condensates obtained using an e-cigarette device at different power levels (8 W or 25 W) to assess the impact of the presence of: (i) nicotine, (ii) cinnamon flavor, and (iii) thermal degradation products. We observed that while no cytotoxicity and no ROS production was induced, a pro-inflammatory response was reported. In particular, the production of IL-8 was significantly enhanced at a high power level of the e-cigarette device and in the presence of the cinnamon flavor (confirming the suspected toxic effect of this additive). Further investigations are required, but this study contributes to shedding light on the biological effects of vaping on the cardiovascular system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Human Toxicology and Epidemiology)
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19 pages, 2439 KiB  
Article
Molecular Design and Mechanism Analysis of Phthalic Acid Ester Substitutes: Improved Biodegradability in Processes of Sewage Treatment and Soil Remediation
Toxics 2022, 10(12), 783; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10120783 - 13 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1071
Abstract
Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) have the characteristics of environmental persistence. Therefore, improving the biodegradability of PAEs is the key to reducing the extent of ecological harm realized. Firstly, the scoring function values of PAEs docking with various degrading enzymes in sewage treatment were [...] Read more.
Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) have the characteristics of environmental persistence. Therefore, improving the biodegradability of PAEs is the key to reducing the extent of ecological harm realized. Firstly, the scoring function values of PAEs docking with various degrading enzymes in sewage treatment were calculated. Based on this, a 3D-quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) model for PAE biodegradability was built, and 38 PAE substitutes were created. By predicting the endocrine-disrupting toxicity and functions of PAE substitutes, two types of PAE substitutes that are easily degraded by microorganisms, have low toxicity, and remain functional were successfully screened. Meanwhile, the differences in the mechanism of molecular degradation difference before and after PAE modification were analyzed based on the distribution characteristics of amino acid residues in the molecular docking complex. Finally, the photodegradability and microbial degradability of the PAE substitutes in the soil environment was evaluated. From the 3D-QSAR model design perspective, the modification mechanism of PAE substitutes suitable for sewage treatment and soil environment degradation was analyzed. We aim to improve the biodegradability of PAEs at the source and provide theoretical support for alleviating the environmental hazards of using PAEs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Strategies to Decompose Pollutants)
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19 pages, 3743 KiB  
Article
Effects of Moss-Dominated Biocrusts on Soil Microbial Community Structure in an Ionic Rare Earth Tailings Area of Southern China
Toxics 2022, 10(12), 782; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10120782 - 13 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1372
Abstract
Moss-dominated biocrusts are widespread in degraded mining ecosystems and play an important role in soil development and ecosystem primary succession. In this work, the soil microbial community structure under moss-dominated biocrusts in ionic rare earth tailings was investigated to reveal the relationship between [...] Read more.
Moss-dominated biocrusts are widespread in degraded mining ecosystems and play an important role in soil development and ecosystem primary succession. In this work, the soil microbial community structure under moss-dominated biocrusts in ionic rare earth tailings was investigated to reveal the relationship between different types of moss and taxonomy/function of microbiomes. The results showed that microbial community structure was significantly influenced by four moss species (Claopodium rugulosifolium, Orthotrichum courtoisii, Polytrichum formosum, and Taxiphyllum giraldii). The microbial assembly was more prominent in Claopodium rugulosifolium soil than in the other moss soils, which covers 482 bacterial genera (including 130 specific genera) and 338 fungal genera (including 72 specific genera), and the specific genus is 40% to 1300% higher than that of the other three mosses. Although only 141 and 140 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) rooted in bacterial and fungal clusters, respectively, were shared by all four mosses grown in ionic rare earth tailings, this core microbiome could represent a large fraction (28.2% and 38.7%, respectively) of all sequence reads. The bacterial population and representation are the most abundant, which mainly includes Sphingomonas, Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1, and unclassified filamentous bacteria and chloroplasts, while the fungi population is relatively singular. The results also show that biocrust dominated by moss has a positive effect on soil microbe activity and soil nutrient conditions. Overall, these findings emphasize the importance of developing moss-dominated biocrusts as hotspots of ecosystem functioning and precious microbial genetic resources in degraded rare-earth mining areas and promoting a better understanding of biocrust ecology in humid climates under global change scenarios. Full article
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18 pages, 2414 KiB  
Article
On the In Vitro and In Vivo Hazard Assessment of a Novel Nanomaterial to Reduce the Use of Zinc Oxide in the Rubber Vulcanization Process
Toxics 2022, 10(12), 781; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10120781 - 13 Dec 2022
Viewed by 2362
Abstract
Zinc oxide (ZnO) is the most efficient curing activator employed in the industrial rubber production. However, ZnO and Zn(II) ions are largely recognized as an environmental hazard being toxic to aquatic organisms, especially considering Zn(II) release during tire lifecycle. In this context, aiming [...] Read more.
Zinc oxide (ZnO) is the most efficient curing activator employed in the industrial rubber production. However, ZnO and Zn(II) ions are largely recognized as an environmental hazard being toxic to aquatic organisms, especially considering Zn(II) release during tire lifecycle. In this context, aiming at reducing the amount of microcrystalline ZnO, a novel activator was recently synthetized, constituted by ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) anchored to silica NPs (ZnO-NP@SiO2-NP). The objective of this work is to define the possible hazards deriving from the use of ZnO-NP@SiO2-NP compared to ZnO and SiO2 NPs traditionally used in the tire industry. The safety of the novel activators was assessed by in vitro testing, using human lung epithelial (A549) and immune (THP-1) cells, and by the in vivo model zebrafish (Danio rerio). The novel manufactured nanomaterial was characterized morphologically and structurally, and its effects evaluated in vitro by the measurement of the cell viability and the release of inflammatory mediators, while in vivo by the Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity (FET) test. Resulting data demonstrated that ZnO-NP@SiO2-NP, despite presenting some subtoxic events, exhibits the lack of acute effects both in vitro and in vivo, supporting the safe-by-design development of this novel material for the rubber industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano and Ultrafine Particle Toxicology and Exposure Assessment)
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21 pages, 4517 KiB  
Article
Ecotoxicological Effects of the Anionic Surfactant Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) in Two Marine Primary Producers: Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Ulva lactuca
Toxics 2022, 10(12), 780; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10120780 - 13 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2398
Abstract
Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) is an anionic surfactant, extensively used in detergents, household and personal care products, as well as in industrial processes. The present study aimed to disclose the potential toxicological effects of SDS exposure under environmentally relevant concentrations (0, 0.1, 1, [...] Read more.
Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) is an anionic surfactant, extensively used in detergents, household and personal care products, as well as in industrial processes. The present study aimed to disclose the potential toxicological effects of SDS exposure under environmentally relevant concentrations (0, 0.1, 1, 3, and 10 mg L−1) on the physiology and biochemistry (photosynthesis, pigment, and lipid composition, antioxidative systems, and energy balance) of two marine autotrophs: the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum and the macroalgae Ulva lactuca. A growth rate (GR) reduction in P. tricornutum was observed with a classic dose-response effect towards the highest applied concentration, while a GR increase occurred in U. lactuca. Regarding photochemistry, the decrease in the fluorescence of the OJIP curves and laser-induced fluorescence allowed a better separation between SDS treatments in U. lactuca compared with P. tricornutum. Although all pigments significantly decreased in U. lactuca at the highest concentrations (except for antheraxanthin), no significant variations occurred in P. tricornutum. On the other hand, changes in fatty acid content were observed in P. tricornutum but not in U. lactuca. In terms of classical biomarker assessment, a dose-effect relationship of individual biomarkers versus SDS dose applied; U. lactuca displayed a higher number of biomarker candidates, including those in distinct metabolic pathways, increasing its usefulness for ecotoxicological applications. By evaluating the potential application of optical and biochemical traits, it was evident that the fatty acid profiles of the different exposure groups are excellent candidates in P. tricornutum, concomitant with the characteristics of this anionic surfactant. On the other hand, the results presented by laser-induced fluorescence and some parameters of PAM fluorometry in U. lactuca may be an advantage in the field, offering non-invasive, fast, easy-to-use, high-throughput screening techniques as excellent tools for ecotoxicology assessment. Full article
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15 pages, 317 KiB  
Review
Adverse Effects of Black Carbon (BC) Exposure during Pregnancy on Maternal and Fetal Health: A Contemporary Review
Toxics 2022, 10(12), 779; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10120779 - 13 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3507
Abstract
Black carbon (BC) is a major component of ambient particulate matter (PM), one of the six Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Criteria air pollutants. The majority of research on the adverse effects of BC exposure so far has been focused on respiratory and cardiovascular [...] Read more.
Black carbon (BC) is a major component of ambient particulate matter (PM), one of the six Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Criteria air pollutants. The majority of research on the adverse effects of BC exposure so far has been focused on respiratory and cardiovascular systems in children. Few studies have also explored whether prenatal BC exposure affects the fetus, the placenta and/or the course of pregnancy itself. Thus, this contemporary review seeks to elucidate state-of-the-art research on this understudied topic. Epidemiological studies have shown a correlation between BC and a variety of adverse effects on fetal health, including low birth weight for gestational age and increased risk of preterm birth, as well as cardiometabolic and respiratory system complications following maternal exposure during pregnancy. There is epidemiological evidence suggesting that BC exposure increases the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus, as well as other maternal health issues, such as pregnancy loss, all of which need to be more thoroughly investigated. Adverse placental effects from BC exposure include inflammatory responses, interference with placental iodine uptake, and expression of DNA repair and tumor suppressor genes. Taking into account the differences in BC exposure around the world, as well as interracial disparities and the need to better understand the underlying mechanisms of the health effects associated with prenatal exposure, toxicological research examining the effects of early life exposure to BC is needed. Full article
17 pages, 1188 KiB  
Review
Bioaccumulation and Biotransformation of Chlorinated Paraffins
Toxics 2022, 10(12), 778; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10120778 - 12 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2493
Abstract
Chlorinated paraffins (CPs), a class of persistent, toxic, and bioaccumulated compounds, have received increasing attention for their environmental occurrence and ecological and human health risks worldwide in the past decades. Understanding the environmental behavior and fate of CPs faces a huge challenge owing [...] Read more.
Chlorinated paraffins (CPs), a class of persistent, toxic, and bioaccumulated compounds, have received increasing attention for their environmental occurrence and ecological and human health risks worldwide in the past decades. Understanding the environmental behavior and fate of CPs faces a huge challenge owing to the extremely complex CP congeners. Consequently, the aims of the present study are to summarize and integrate the bioaccumulation and biotransformation of CPs, including the occurrence of CPs in biota, tissue distribution, biomagnification, and trophic transfer, and biotransformation of CPs in plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates in detail. Biota samples collected in China showed higher CP concentrations than other regions, which is consistent with their huge production and usage. The lipid content is the major factor that determines the physical burden of CPs in tissues or organs. Regarding the bioaccumulation of CPs and their influence factors, inconsistent results were obtained. Biotransformation is an important reason for this variable. Some CP congeners are readily biodegradable in plants, animals, and microorganisms. Hydroxylation, dechlorination, chlorine rearrangement, and carbon chain decomposition are potential biotransformation pathways for the CP congeners. Knowledge of the influence of chain length, chlorination degree, constitution, and stereochemistry on the tissue distribution, bioaccumulation, and biotransformation is still scarce. Full article
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13 pages, 3028 KiB  
Article
Leaching Mechanism and Health Risk Assessment of As and Sb in Tailings of Typical Antimony Mines: A Case Study in Yunnan and Guizhou Province, Southwest China
Toxics 2022, 10(12), 777; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10120777 - 12 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1724
Abstract
The weathering and leaching of mining tailings have released large amounts of antimony (Sb) and arsenic (As), causing serious pollution in the surrounding soil, water, and sediments. To understand the leaching characteristics of Sb and As in mining tailings, Zuoxiguo and Qinglong mining [...] Read more.
The weathering and leaching of mining tailings have released large amounts of antimony (Sb) and arsenic (As), causing serious pollution in the surrounding soil, water, and sediments. To understand the leaching characteristics of Sb and As in mining tailings, Zuoxiguo and Qinglong mining tailings were collected for analysis. The average content of Sb in Zuoxiguo and Qinglong tailings was 5902.77 mg/kg and 1426.43 mg/kg, respectively, while that of As was 412.53 mg/kg and 405.26 mg/kg, respectively, which exceeded the local background value. Furthermore, the concentrations of Sb in the leachate of Zuoxiguo and Qinglong increased with time; the average Sb concentration in the leachate of Zuoxiguo and Qinglong was 1470.48 μg/L and 70.20 μg/L, respectively, while that of the As concentration was 31.20 μg/L and 6.45 μg/L, respectively. This suggests that the concentrations of Sb and As in the leachate of Zuoxiguo are both higher than those in the leachate of Qinglong and that the pH of the leachate of Zuoxiguo and Qinglong significantly changed within the first day under different initial pH conditions, and tended to be between 6 and 8, after one day. The results of the average health risk index showed that As in the leachate from Zuoxiguo and Qinglong for children was 5.67 × 10−4 and 9.13 × 10−5, respectively, and 4.43 × 10−4 and 7.16 × 10−5, respectively, for adults. As in the leachate from Zuoxiguo poses serious carcinogenic risks for residents, and in the study area, As poses a serious threat to human health. Therefore, the local government must manage As in these areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Environmental Toxicology and Human Health)
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16 pages, 3527 KiB  
Article
Perfluorotetradecanoic Acid (PFTeDA) Induces Mitochondrial Damage and Oxidative Stress in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryos/Larvae
Toxics 2022, 10(12), 776; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10120776 - 12 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1990
Abstract
Industrial and consumer products, such as pesticides, lubricants, and cosmetics, can contain perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). Although many short-chain PFCs have been linked to physiological and behavioral changes in fish, there are limited data on longer-chain PFCs. The objective of this study was to [...] Read more.
Industrial and consumer products, such as pesticides, lubricants, and cosmetics, can contain perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). Although many short-chain PFCs have been linked to physiological and behavioral changes in fish, there are limited data on longer-chain PFCs. The objective of this study was to determine the potential impact of perfluorotetradecanoic acid (PFTeDA) exposure on zebrafish (Danio rerio) during early developmental stages. We measured several endpoints including gene expression, mitochondrial bioenergetics, and locomotor activity in zebrafish. Survival, timing of hatching, and deformity frequency were unaffected by PFTeDA at the concentrations tested (0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 µM) over a 7-day exposure period. The expression levels of mitochondrial-related genes (cox1 and mt-nd3) and oxidative stress-related genes (cat, hsp70, and hsp90a) were increased in larval fish with exposure to 10 µM PFTeDA; however, there was no change in oxidative respiration of embryos (i.e., basal respiration and oligomycin-induced ATP-linked respiration). Reactive oxygen species were reduced in larvae treated with 10 µM PFTeDA, coinciding with the increased transcription of antioxidant defense genes. Both the visual motor response test and light–dark preference test were conducted on 7 dpf larvae and yielded no significant findings. This study improves current knowledge regarding toxicity mechanisms for longer-chain PFCs such as PFTeDA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Emerging Contaminants)
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5 pages, 214 KiB  
Editorial
Editorial for the Special Issue “Potentially Toxic Elements Pollution in Urban and Suburban Environments”
Toxics 2022, 10(12), 775; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10120775 - 11 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 998
Abstract
Pollution by potentially toxic elements (PTEs) is becoming a serious and widespread issue in all environmental matrices because of accelerated population growth rate, rapid industrialization and urbanization, and other changes which have occurred in most parts of the world in the last few [...] Read more.
Pollution by potentially toxic elements (PTEs) is becoming a serious and widespread issue in all environmental matrices because of accelerated population growth rate, rapid industrialization and urbanization, and other changes which have occurred in most parts of the world in the last few decades [...] Full article
13 pages, 2304 KiB  
Article
The Distribution Pattern and Leaching Toxicity of Heavy Metals in Glass Ceramics from MSWI Fly Ash and Andesite Tailings
Toxics 2022, 10(12), 774; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10120774 - 10 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 970
Abstract
The leaching of heavy metals (HMs) is the key factor affecting the resource utilization of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash. A novel fly ash and andesite-tailings-based (FAAT) glass ceramic is prepared with the full-component utilization of MSWI fly ash and andesite [...] Read more.
The leaching of heavy metals (HMs) is the key factor affecting the resource utilization of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash. A novel fly ash and andesite-tailings-based (FAAT) glass ceramic is prepared with the full-component utilization of MSWI fly ash and andesite tailings. The effects of the content and distribution state of HMs on their leaching toxicity are studied by performing a sequential extraction procedure and leaching toxicity test. The results show that the MSWI fly ash content greatly impacts the HMs’ leaching toxicity in glass ceramics. Thus, the addition of MSWI fly ash must be maintained at below 20% so as to meet the class III groundwater standard. Furthermore, the different distribution states of Zn and Cr also affect their leaching toxicity. Zn suits the requirements for leaching toxicity only in a 2080c sample, while Cr fulfills the class III groundwater standard for all the glass ceramics. Since this finding is mismatched with the calculated potential ecological risk index of glass ceramics, the latter can only be used as a reference. Therefore, the results of the present study are of great significance in the vitrification application of MSWI fly ash. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Metals and Radioactive Substances)
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15 pages, 2043 KiB  
Article
Accumulation of Metals in the Environment and Grazing Livestock near A Mongolian Mining Area
Toxics 2022, 10(12), 773; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10120773 - 10 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1860
Abstract
The Mongolian economy is supported by rich deposits of natural resources, such as copper, coal, and gold. However, the risk of heavy metal pollution to livestock and human have been recently discussed. This research collected various samples from soil and animal (sheep, goat, [...] Read more.
The Mongolian economy is supported by rich deposits of natural resources, such as copper, coal, and gold. However, the risk of heavy metal pollution to livestock and human have been recently discussed. This research collected various samples from soil and animal (sheep, goat, horse, cow, and camel), blood and organs (kidney and liver) in the Mongolian countryside. These samples were processed, and the concentration of metals was quantified using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP/MS). As previously reported, arsenic was found at high levels of accumulation in soil. Selenium is another concern, as median concentration in one area exceeded the maximum allowable level. Cadmium and selenium were found to be highly accumulated in animal kidney. This research revealed the current pollution level in Mongolia based on evaluation of soil and animals. The concentration in animals could not indicate that animals had severe effects because of heavy metal exposure. However, kidney is eaten in Mongolia, and so there is a direct connection to human health, and this research suggested the possible risks posed by each edible animal. In particular, evaluation of metals in livestock is rare in Mongolia. This result can contribute to animal and human health in Mongolian communities. Full article
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24 pages, 2212 KiB  
Review
Genetic Diversity of Microcystin Producers (Cyanobacteria) and Microcystin Congeners in Aquatic Resources across Africa: A Review Paper
Toxics 2022, 10(12), 772; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10120772 - 10 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1639
Abstract
Microcystins are produced by multifaceted organisms called cyanobacteria, which are integral to Africa’s freshwater environments. The excessive proliferation of cyanobacteria caused by rising temperature and eutrophication leads to the production and release of copious amounts of microcystins, requiring critical management and control approaches [...] Read more.
Microcystins are produced by multifaceted organisms called cyanobacteria, which are integral to Africa’s freshwater environments. The excessive proliferation of cyanobacteria caused by rising temperature and eutrophication leads to the production and release of copious amounts of microcystins, requiring critical management and control approaches to prevent the adverse environmental and public health problems associated with these bioactive metabolites. Despite hypotheses reported to explain the phylogeography and mechanisms responsible for cyanobacterial blooms in aquatic water bodies, many aspects are scarcely understood in Africa due to the paucity of investigations and lack of uniformity of experimental methods. Due to a lack of information and large-scale studies, cyanobacteria occurrence and genetic diversity are seldom reported in African aquatic ecosystems. This review covers the diversity and geographical distribution of potential microcystin-producing and non-microcystin-producing cyanobacterial taxa in Africa. Molecular analyses using housekeeping genes (e.g., 16S rRNA, ITS, rpoC1, etc.) revealed significant sequence divergence across several cyanobacterial strains from East, North, West, and South Africa, but the lack of uniformity in molecular markers employed made continent-wise phylogenetic comparisons impossible. Planktothrix agardhii, Microcystis aeruginosa, and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (presently known as Raphidiopsis raciborskii) were the most commonly reported genera. Potential microcystin (MCs)-producing cyanobacteria were detected using mcy genes, and several microcystin congeners were recorded. Studying cyanobacteria species from the African continent is urgent to effectively safeguard public and environmental health because more than 80% of the continent has no data on these important microorganisms and their bioactive secondary metabolites. Full article
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11 pages, 2462 KiB  
Article
Disposition of Aerosols of Isothiazolinone-Biocides: BIT, MIT and OIT
Toxics 2022, 10(12), 770; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10120770 - 10 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2093
Abstract
Biocides are widely used in everyday life, and accordingly, human exposure to them is inevitable. Especially, the inhalational exposure of humans to biocides and resultant respiratory toxicity are gaining public interest due to the recent catastrophe associated with humidifier disinfectants. Aerosolized chemicals are [...] Read more.
Biocides are widely used in everyday life, and accordingly, human exposure to them is inevitable. Especially, the inhalational exposure of humans to biocides and resultant respiratory toxicity are gaining public interest due to the recent catastrophe associated with humidifier disinfectants. Aerosolized chemicals are subject to gravitational deposition and chemical degradation. Therefore, the characterization of the disposition of aerosols is essential to estimate the inhalational exposure to biocides. Here, we compared the disposition of aerosols of one of the commonly used biocide classes, isothiazolinone-based biocides, BIT, MIT, and OIT. An acrylic chamber (40 cm × 40 cm × 50 cm) was created to simulate the indoor environment, and a vacuum pump was used to create airflow (1 LPM). Biocides were sprayed from a vertical nebulizer placed on the ceiling of the chamber, and the distribution of particle sizes and volume was measured using the Optical Particle Sizer (OPS) 3330 device. During and after the aerosol spraying, airborne biocides and those deposited on the surface of the chamber were sampled to measure the deposition using LC-MS/MS. As a result, the broad particle size distribution was observed ranging from 0.3 to 8 μm during the nebulization. The inhalable particle faction (>2 μm) of the isothiazolinones was 32–67.9% in number but 1.2 to 6.4% in volume. Most of the aerosolized biocides were deposited on the chamber’s surface while only a minimal portion was airborne (<1%) after the nebulization. More importantly, significant amounts of MIT and OIT were degraded during aerosolization, resulting in poor total recovery compared to BIT (31%, 71% vs. 97% BIT). This result suggests that some isothiazolinones may become unstable during nebulization, affecting their disposition and human exposure significantly. Full article
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